DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 1

A Short Chapter on Horses.

            We are very glad to be able to record the fact, that farmers are paying increased attention to the improvement of their horse stock.  The stimulus of "Agricultural reading," and of minds of many persons, in regard to what is the proper stock for farmers to breed.
The wise breeder keeps control over the laws of reproduction, by a judicious selection of breeding animals; and crossing with an intelligent understanding of what the cross will produce in "outline," and in anatomical and physiological peculiarities.  He is a poor machinist, indeed, who does not be come familiar with the requirements of an engine, an economical expenditure of power in a given direction, and a poorer still, who does not familiarize himself with the tone, and elastic properties of metals, that he may select with reference to the requirements of the several parts, and the combined power to be expected by the whole.  The machine aims to produce the greatest possible power in the smallest space, and with the least friction and fuel, in all of which he is consistent.
The art of breeding, being of equal if not of greater importance, should be as carefully studied, and practiced upon by the farmer.  There are several prominent ends which should be sought in the rearing of horses; his reputation will be on par with that of the well informed machinist.  An outline pleasing to the eye, a fine quality of muscle, bone and tendon, a large development of muscles these combinations giving the greatest power in the smallest space.  Speed and elasticity of movement, energy, intelligence and docility, large lungs and belly with vigorous digestion, thus furnishing the means of engendering the greatest amount of physical force from the given quantity of feed, and a long life, with continued health and energy.
These combinations are found but rarely, and we assert without fear of contradiction, that the course heretofore generally pursued in breeding has well nigh obliterated many of these leading characteristics of the genuine horses.
We occasionally find an animal in every neighborhood, possessing these qualities in the largest degree, and although of advanced age they are always relied upon with confidence, for the plow or the road.  Of these noble specimens of an almost by-gone race, all are ready to bear testimony that "Old Charley's" end of the double tree has never been known to slacken, nor he to limp, complain of the colic, or refuse a feed; while many a scrub has sickened at his side, or been turned out to grass with spring knees, spavin, ringbone, sweney, windgalls, and cholic, "Old Charley" has kept the even action of his way, has seen generations of badly bred nags come and go, from want of capacity to digest a hearty feed, or to endure the labor of the field and road.
Farmers should select these rare specimens, and study their formation and peculiarities with care, and practice upon the lessons thus obtained.
The very worst recommendation that a breeding horse can possibly have, is that he possesses great height.  If the horse had been made like the crane for wading in search of food, or could be made useful to man for hunting ducks, or as a fruit ladder, then it might be well to breed a few for these objects.  But inasmuch as, for all the uses to which we put the animal, long legs are a serious disadvantage, rendering him liable to cripple up at an early age, (who ever say a "leggy" horse fit for the road at 15 or 20,) and being invariably coupled with other serious imperfections, it is of the utmost importance, that we steer clear of all such animals for breeding purposes that show too much "daylight."  Or, if under the apparent necessity of breeding from a mare with this form a sire should be selected of the opposite extreme, and thus will the defect "breed off" in the progeny.
The proper horse for the farmer, (and a horse suitable for the farmer's use, is just the horse for all purposes,) is one of enduring constitution, round in the body, thick set, quick but not fiery, good sized joints, but not large boned, broad in the hips, deep in the quarter, strong in the loins, capacious in the chest, low upon the legs, and having a good hoof.  Such a horse will be hardy, strong, and a good traveller, and always up to the collar and the feed box.  Let us ask the farmers what proportion of the horses that are kept through the country for breeders are of this description.
The horse that we have described as a model will always be found, if his genealogy be traced back, to have sprung from high bred stock.  He may not be great of size, but a trial of 15 or 20 years has proved to his owner that he is possessed of quality, unknown to the scrub.  His muscles and joints are firm and powerful, and he moves with east a load that staggers a scrub with flabby muscle and loosely set joints, though he be of greater size.—Ohio Farmer. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 2

Dairy Cows.

            The shapes most approved in a dairy cow are as follows:--Head small, but rather long and narrow at the muzzle; the eye small but quick and lively; the horns small, clear, bended and points at considerable distance from each other; neck long and slender, tapering towards the head, with little loose skin hanging below; shoulders thin, fore quarters light and thin, hind quarters large and capacious, back straight, broad behind, and joints of the chine rather loose and open; carcass deep and the pelvis capacious, and wide over the hips, with fleshy buttocks; tail long and small, legs small and short with firm joints; udder capacious, broad and square, stretching forward, and neither fleshy, low hung, nor loose; the milk veins large and prominent, teats short, pointing outwards, and at considerable distance from each other; skin thin and loose; hair soft and wooly; the head, horns, and all parts of least value, small, and the general figure compact and well proportioned.—Farmer's Mag. and Mr. Aiton. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 2-3
The Flower Garden.—The fall flower garden is frequently more beautiful than the summer, and especially will it be so this season.  The perpetual roses will now be showing their gayest bloom; stir the soil frequently around their roots; permit no long suckers to take the nourishment from the blooms; only allow such shoots to grow as are wanted to form new wood for next season's blooming.  Gather the seeds from the rose apple and plant them; new varieties of roses will be produced, per chance some very beautiful.  The dahlias will now be in full perfection; keep them tied to stakes, or the brittle stalks will break down; observe the blossom buds after the petals have fallen and long brown scale-like seeds will be found, which if saved and planted next April, may produce some new and beautiful variety.  The dahlia is very easy of culture and propagation, and one of the most brilliant and showy flowers in Flora's catalogue.  It should find a place in every flower garden.  The verbenas too, have withstood all the drought and heat of spring an summer, and are now in fullest bloom; they are propagated by seeds and offsets.  Keep the ground clear of weeds and grass to give the runners a chance to root; a single sprig will sometimes fill a square.  Many of the little annuals will still be showing bloom; keep the soil light and mellow around them, and they may bloom until frost.  Flowering trees and shrubs that need invigorating, should be attended to this and the next month.  Lime, with vegetable matter, or ashes may be used with advantage around the roots; work it well under to keep it from the sun light, and air, and next spring when the buds open, they will grow with astonishing vigor and beauty.  Look well to seeding grass and weeds in the flower garden; cut them up and exterminate them before the seeds are formed.—Soil of the South. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 3
The Strawberry Bed.—Those who contemplate making new beds, should begin now to prepare the grounds.—Plow or spade it deep, and as soon after a frost as possible, set out the plants for a new bed.  Old beds should now be thinned and trimmed for spring bearing, leave all the plants to decay where cut up, and fill up the vacant spaces between the plants with leaves or straw, it will be in fine condition to feed the plants for fruit by spring.—Soil of the South. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 3
How to Move a Sullen Ox.—"Did you ever observe," said a plain man, a friend of ours, a few days since, as we were driving a dog out of the cow pen, to prevent his taking refuge behind us—as the cows took it by turns to chase him over the lot—"did you never observe that a cow never will make friends with a dog?"  "Often."  "Well, the best way you ever tried to make steers rise when they get sullen and lie down, is just to bring a dog and drop him down on them.  It will make them jump up when nothing else in the world will."  We seized the hint at once for the benefit of our friends who own such pests as obstinate oxen, and give it to them now.  We believe there is no antipathy so universal and inviterate [sic] as that of cattle against dogs, and it strikes us that when all other means fail, that will answer.—Southern Planter. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 4

Dwarf Pears.

            Dwarf and standard pears are each excellent in their places.  The standard pear, as a general rule, grows to be a much larger tree, requires more time, needs more room, ultimately bears more per tree, will endure more neglect, and in most cases live to a greater age.  The dwarf will come sooner into bearing will occupy less space and will not bear neglect, but requires good cultivation.  We are not sure but the last quality is a positive recommendation; for planters certainly need the stimulus of necessity to induce them to take better care of their trees.  A standard will indeed grow and bear under ordinary circumstances; but give it the best chance, and the fruit will be so much improved, as sometimes to be scarcely recognized.  The dwarf is emphatically the tree for the garden, where two hundred may be planted on a quarter acre, instead of but twenty-five standard, and where no difficulty exists in giving them the best soil and treatment.  Those who are about occupying new places, may secure for themselves a supply of fruit in two or three years by planting three year dwarfs; and pomologists may get the fruit of new kinds the first or second year.
One leading reason why some have pronounced dwarfs a failure, is the attempt to raise too many kinds on the quince.  There are a few sorts that are entirely at home on this stock, and are always seen in a flourishing state, under anything like favorable influences, among which sorts may be mentioned Louise Bonne of Jersey, Duchess of Angouleme, Glout Morceau and Vicar of Wakefield, trees of which, twenty or thirty years old, are now productive and vigorous, and will probably live to a hundred.  Some of these, especially the Jersey and Wakfield [sic], seem to grow well on almost any kind of quince.  But all do best on the French stock, and this only should be used.  The Angouleme, appears to be the hardest dwarf under neglect.  We have just examined an orchard of these, about nine years planted, which until the present year, had been almost totally neglected for five or six seasons, and enveloped in weeds and grass, growing on a hard, stony soil.
The present season they have been cultivated but not manured, and they all show a thrifty appearance, and are bending under their loads of magnificent fruit.  The trees are about two and a half to three inches in diameter, and stand erect, although allowed to run up as standards, with no pruning.  They bore very little while neglected.  As a proof of their superior hardiness, all or nearly all of those originally planted are nourishing, while dwarfs, interspersed, have nearly all died out from neglect.
There are several sorts of the pear, that usually do well and live long on the quince, if enriched and cultivated annually, but not otherwise.
Partial experiments often lead to erroneous opinions.  One acquaintance has denounced dwarfs, because having an admirable soil (a strong clay) for standards and a very poor one for dwarfs, he has been eminently successful with the former, and failed with many of the latter.  Some others have soils on which dwarfs only will succeed well, and they consider them as far preferable to standards.—Seasons, also, sometimes have an important influence.  Many years ago a hard winter destroyed many young standards, while the dwarfs escaped.  At a later period, another winter spoiled a portion of the dwarfs while the standards were uninjured.  All these and many other considerations are to be observed in drawing general conclusions.—Country Gentlemen, August 23. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 4-5
Summer Pruning.—We copy a part of an article from the Gardener's Chronicle, as quoted in the December number of Hovey's Magazine of Horticulture, under the head of "summer Pruning of Apple Trees."  The writer had reference to the small dwarf trees in gardens, but his directions will apply equally well to the big trees of the orchard.  All that is necessary, says the writer, to insure abundant fruit, is to practice diligently on the August toppings. This consists in breaking or cutting off at that season from three to four inches of every summer shoot and then, in midwinter cutting back two thirds or one half more of such shoots, so as to reduce them to the length of four to six inches.
The effect of this system is to prevent the sap of the trees from expending itself in the every-lengthening of branches.  The end of the summer shoots being broken off, the sap is arrested in its onward course, and forced into lateral channels.  Those lateral channels are buds in the axils of the lower leaves.  There it collects, is occupied in the organization of short lateral branches, which finally become short fruit-bearing spurs.  In this way we have seen dwarf trees covered with bearing wood down to the very graft.
If observed from the beginning, this practice renders a dwarf tree a most prolific object.  If neglected at first, it may at any time afterwards be put in force, with this difference in the result, that it makes a much longer time to bring into bearing a tree rendered barren by long mismanagement, than to secure abundance from a tree well headed from its earliest youth.
The reason why August is chosen for the operation is this:  If the summer shoots are shortened earlier, the side buds will all break from the excessive influx of sap; if performed later there will not be sufficient propulsion of sap into them to effect the desired object.  It will frequently happen that, with the best management, some of the side buds will break; but they will be near the end of the branches, and be removed with the winter pruning.
We have said that in winter pruning, the shoots are to be cut back to the extent of half or two-thirds of their length.  It is hardly necessary to explain that it is only the weaker shoots that require to be shortened by two-thirds, and that the strongest are to be left with half their length.—American Farmer. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 5
Mob Law.—We still hear threats of a resort to mob law in certain parts of the interior.  During the last year, the burning of two houses and at least three assassinations, were attributed to retaliation on the part of persons who have, either in their persons or friends, suffered from the infliction of Lynch Law.  There are probably now fifty men in Texas, who have been engaged in these lynching operations, whose property and lives would not be safe in the hands of the victims or their friends.  No man is safe from an enemy who, however cowardly, has been rendered desperate by oppression.
For time at last sets all things even—
            And if we do but watch the hour
            There never yet was human power
Which could evade, if unforgiven,
            The patient search and vigil long
            Or him who treasures up a wrong.
We remember a curious letter, written some years since by a fugitive from justice who had committed a murder in Brazoria county, and barely escaped being lynched by flight.  He avowed his willingness to be hung after a regular trial, but said that he would "not stand a voluntary thing done by a mob."
We never heard of a judge, juror, or sheriff being murdered for their part in inflicting punishment upon an offender; but the man who has inflicted injury upon others in a mob is never afterwards safe.  He has no right to expect "a fair chance" from those he has wronged.  It is as cowardly for a mob of a hundred persons to murder a single helpless individual as it is for a single individual to lie in wait and assassinate in detail the members of such a mob.  In a country of laws, the laws ought alone to be consulted in the punishment of offenders.  If the laws are defective, the people should see that they are amended.  If they are inoperative, those in authority ought to be sustained in the line of their duty and held to a strict discharge of the same.—Civilian. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 1, c. 8
Pears in a Warm Climate.—Each succeeding year but confirms the opinion we advanced, some years ago, that the pear was better adapted to Southern culture than to colder regions of the North.  The tree is not as subject to disease as the apple, and by grafting on the common pears of the country, they come into bearing quite as soon as the apple.  We have this season raised large crops of the finest pears we have ever seen, from trees of our own grafting, and why may not our readers do the same!  The variety known as the  Doyenne, or Virgaliau, as ripening here, is the finest fruit we ever tasted, compared to which the most luscious peach is tasteless.  We give our trees an annual dressing of ashes, soap suds, &c., and mulch around them with some vegetable substance in the heat of summer.  Our trees are standard trees.  We have but little faith in pears on the quince stock.  Will some of our readers that have given the quince stock a faithful trail, give the results of their experience through our columns?  One or two years trial is not enough.  We have a pear tree that we grew from a cutting, planted fourteen years ago; it bore fine fruit in nine years, and this year, has produced ten bushels of the most delicious pears we ever saw in any country.  Each pear would readily bring five cents in any market.  What can be the reason that so few good pears are found in the markets of the South!  Was the principle of planting for posterity more generally adopted by our planters and gardeners, not only good pears, but much other fruit which is now deemed exotic, and rare, would be a plenty in our markets as our native blackberries.—Soil of the South. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 2, c.1
We understand that on the Retrieve plantation, in this county, they have begun to take off the sugar crop, with a fair prospect of having as much cane as they can grind til New Years.  The crop on the place is estimated at 700 bhds. at least. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 2, c. 1
Cotton Picking.—Mr. James Chambers of Fort Bend county, gives an account of good picking on his place opposite Richmond.  Thirty-eight hands picked in one day, nineteen thousand three hundred and fifty-four pounds, an average of five hundred and nine pounds to the hand.  The largest amount picked by any one hand was 393 pounds.  This is pretty tall picking, and will be a hard story to swallow, to the majority of cotton planters.  It is generally understood that five hundred pounds to the hand, clear of sticks, &c., is about the maximum of good cotton pickers.  Still we wouldn't undertake to say that under favorable circumstances a hand might not bring up a thousand pounds to be weighed at night, especially if he does not come up until after dark. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 2, c. 1
Winter is Coming.—We had a decidedly cold snap last week, so cold that a fire was very comfortable.—Wild geese are beginning to appear in our market, and teal ducks are coming to be abundant.  Northers have begun their weekly visits fresh from the mountains.—Woolen clothing is taking the place of linen.—Negroes are beginning to look shriveled, and white folks wear a fresh and sprightly look.  Winter is coming indeed, and welcome to its cheering breath. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 2, c. 1
Everbearing Strawberries.—Orders for these plants from the gardens of Chas. A. Peabody, Columbus, Ga., solicited by the editors of this paper at two dollars a hundred, cash to accompany the order.—The plants will be here some time in December, or as soon after frost as will be safe to transport them so great distance.  These plants will, if the directions be followed, not fail to bear six months in a year, and have been known to bear luxuriantly ten months in succession. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 2, c. 3
Garden Seeds.—One great difficulty which gardeners have to contend with in the South is the inferior seeds which they get.  It is found a very difficult matter indeed to secure seeds here of most of the ordinary produce of a kitchen garden, and unless they are fresh when procured, but very few will vegetate.  Scarcely any seeds left in ordinary papers through the summer will be fit to plant in the fall.  It becomes a desideratum then to discover something which will preserve the vitality of seeds through the summer months.  We observe a suggestion in a book on gardening which may be found to be applicable.  It is simply that the seeds be covered with some gum—gum arabic would probably be preferable—which is soluble in water.  This would keep both air and insects away.  When the time for planting comes they should be soaked a few hours n water which would remove the gum and at the same time forward the germination of the seeds. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 2, c. 7
Okra for Coffee.—We have noticed paragraphs in the papers commending the seed of the Okra plant as a substitute for Coffee.  At the recommendation of a friend we have tried it and are prepared to declare it, when rightly prepared, not only to be a good substitute, but to be even better than coffee itself.  The seeds, fully ripe, are prepared by being roasted carefully over a slow fire.  They should not be burned, and the color should be changed only very slightly.  After being roasted, it is prepared in the usual way of making coffee.—When served, it commands attention at once as being an extra nice article.  It has all the peculiar aroma of first rate coffee, and that nutty flavor which lovers of this beverage so well appreciate.  We commend it to the attention of our readers, not only on the score of excellence, but on that of economy, it being very easily raised and saved in any quantity. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 2, c. 7


            At the residence of Maj. Abner Jackson in this County on the 4th inst., by Rev. M. C. Conoly, J. Fulton Groce of Austin County to Miss Asenath M. Jackson of this County.
Thus has one of the fairest flowers of old Brazoria been plucked, but yet to bloom no doubt still fairer in her new home and sphere.  May the lot of the newly married pair be one of life long happiness. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 3, c. 4


            We have "decidedly" the largest variety of Ladies' Misses' Gents' and Boys' Saddles ever offered in Columbia, and there is no longer any excuse for riding a mean saddle that is uncomfortable to yourself and horse.
Our stock consists in part as follows:
Ladies' Stitched Seat Saddles, sofa style with housing.
"     Quilted               "           "              "          "
      "      Hog Skin          "         with third horn,
      "      Plush Seat, and Velvet do.
Misses' Pat. Leather Enameled Saddles.
Gents' Hope California, Enameled co., Bexar,
Hope Comanche, Santa Fe, Planters' Russet and
Black, Boys Santa Fe and Columbia Saddles.
Cart and dray Harness, Martingales, Whips, Bridles, Reins, Surcingles, Girths, Buckles, Hames and Collars, &c.
                                                Brooks & Hanson. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 3, c. 6

Portable Horse Mills.

            The subscribers have commenced the manufacture of Portable Horse Mills at their place, 12 miles west of Columbia.  From their long experience in this business they are able to warrant their mills to perform equal to any made in the United States.  All they ask is a fair trial, and if their mills fail to give satisfaction, they will take them back at their own expense.


For 18 to 20 inch stones                                $125.00
"      20 "  22   "        "                                      130.00
"      22  "  24   "        "                                     135.00
A deduction of 25 per cent. will be made from these terms for cash.
                                                J. H. & G. P. Dance.
Columbia, Brazoria Co., Nov. [blank]th '54. 


            We the undersigned planters of Brazoria, Wharton, Matagorda and Fort Bend Counties, have one of J. H. & G. P. Dance's mills in operation, and we believe them to be the most simple, most durable, easiest kept in order, and will do more work with the same power, than any mills we have ever seen.
John L. Stevens, Matagorda County.
G. A. Bertrand,            "            "
Peter D. Pledger,          "            "
John Sweeney, Jr., Brazoria       "
Samuel P. Sweeney      "            "
P. R. Pierce, Matagorda            "
Geo. Armstrong, Brazoria          "
A. T. Morris, Columbia              "
R. J. Calder, Fort Bend              "
            J. S. Anderson, Wharton            "
H. Tinker.             "                    "
Jan. 30th, '55. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 3, c. 6

Oil and Window Glass.

Linseed            Oil            30 Boxes 8x10 Glass.
Lard                 "               30    "       10x12    "
Elephant            "              15     "      10x14    "
Sperm              "               20     "      12x14   "
Olive                "               10     "      16x20    "
Castor              "                 4      "     18x24   "
Turpentine &c., &c.                              B. & H. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 4, c. 1

Cigars & Tobacco.

10 M, Norma               20 boxes Gilliame, sup.
8    "    Lucres,              20     "     Brown,
8     "   Regalia,             15     "      Robinson,
6     "   Los Marias,       10     "      Placide,
10   "   Neptune,           12     "      Marion,
4     "   Emeraldo,                     Amulet, put up
in tin foil, 6 do do Heimane, Fine Cut. 
Anderson's smoking Tobacco, Macaboy,
Scotch and Honey-Dew Snuff, by
June 3d 1854                B. & H. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 9, 1855, p. 4, c. 1

For Sale.

            A complete set of Regalia together with the fixtures for the degrees, for a Union Lodge of Good Samaritans and Daughters of Samaria.  This regalia is as good as new and will be sold very cheap.  Enquire of the Editors of this paper.
Columbia July 31st.  tf 1855. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 23, 1855, p. 1, c. 2
Sweet Potatoes.—The best Mode of Banking for Winter use.—A correspondent of the South Carolina Advocate furnishes the following:
Will you oblige me by publishing, under your agricultural head, the following statement for the best mode of banking and preserving sweet potatoes for winter use.  I have tried various modes for the last seven years, but have never succeeded in preserving my potatoes until the last season, when I adapted the following method:
I made banks of from ten to fifteen bushels each, using nothing but corn stalks, the banks about six inches from the surface of the ground.  Before putting the potatoes in, I inserted a stick about four inches in circumference, immediately in the center of the banks, then deposited the potatoes, heaping them up in a conical form around the stick, and covering them regularly about four inches deep with corn stalks.  When the earth is thrown on and the bank nearly finished, the stick is drawn out, thus leaving a vacancy through the whole centre of the bank, allowing free ventilation to the potatoes; the orifince [sic] at the top of the bank may be closed by placing a little moss in it, and covering with a board.  I bank immediately after digging, carting them from the field to the bank, which prevents them from being much bruised.
I had all my potatoes put up in this way the last season, and have been using them constantly until the month of June last.  Out of 12 or 15 bushels of potatoes in bank, I never lost more than 1-2 a peck of them from rotting.
The advantage of using corn stalks, is I think they do not decompose so quickly as pine trash, or straw of any kind, from being covered with earth.
These remarks are offered, with the hope that others may be induced to give us the result of their experiments on this important subject to planters generally.  The potato is a very valuable crop to us, and well worthy of our endeavors to obtain the best mode for its preservation. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 23, 1855, p. 1, c. 2
Hay.—A bale of hay is 300 pounds; 100 feet in a solid mow of hay, will weigh a ton. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 23, 1855, p. 1, c. 4
The following lines are extracted from a new tragedy, published in Blackwood, entitled "The Two Loafers of Arkansas:"
Tarnation seize me, if I bear that taunt
Of this young locofoco!—skin a coon?
'Twere easy!  Ay! and ask me to do more—
To whip my weight in wild cats or to dive
For Aligators [sic] in the turbid stream,
And having ta'en them by the rugged throats,
To wrench their entrails from their jagged jaws—
And fling upon the bank—why, that were but
A summer evening's play!  There's not a boy
Within Arkansas but might do the same,
And after, clamber to the squirrel's nest,
And rob it of its nuts.  Shall the base loafer
Than whom, the June-bug which the night-haws crack,
Is in creation greater of account,
Chaw me so catawampously?  Away—
'Tis night—be red, my bowie-knife, ere day! 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 23, 1855, p. 1, c. 5

                        The Editor's Song.

The editor sits at his table,
Writing as well as he's able;
Paragraph, leader and puff.
His scizzors [sic] beside him are lying,
Whilst he is in agony trying
Of copy to furnish enough.

            Toil, toil, toil!
What a weary life is mine,
Wasting the precious midnight oil,
In leader column and line;
Working from morn till night,
Working from night till morn.
Oh, why was the steam press ever made?
Or why was the editor born? 

                                    Toil, toil, toil!
And whose is the gain when won?
Whose are the trophies we achieve?
And for whom are the laurels won?
To stand in the foremost rank,
Of each hard fought party fray,
To share the toil and only get
Abuse and neglect for pay. 

                                    Toil, toil, toil!
What a thankless task is ours,
To bake the bread and press the cheese,
That Senator Jones devours.
To sit on a three legged stool,
While others have their stuffed seats,
To prepare the hash and cook the steak,
But never taste the meats. 

                                    Toil, toil, toil!
As the constant drop on the stone,
So this ceaseless, endless work
Wears away body and bone.
Though the poet splutter and write,
Though the orator bully and brawl,
If it were not for the editor's pen,
What were the use of it all? 

                                    Toil, toil, toil!
Christians, Mormons, Jews,
Is there a man on this weary earth,
But what grows richer by reading the news?
Richer, richer, richer,
As they read it by sunlight and taper,
And there isn't a soul of them all
But what grudges to pay for his paper. 

                                    Toil, toil, toil!
There's a row in the very next street,
Somebody's going to murder his wife,
And I must be off toute suite.
Yesterday just as this time,
Two policeman got chocked in a riot;
And so it goes on from morning till night,
And an editor never knows quiet.
[Gets up knocks his hat over his eyes and rushes out in a state of distraction to "pick up an item."] 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 23, 1855, p. 2, c. 1
Weather is now fine for completing the cotton picking.  There is but little left now in the fields.  Sugar making has very generally commenced, with fine cane.—The juice weighs on an average, so far as we can learn,  7½ to 8 by the sacchrometer. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], January 29, 1856, p. 1, c. 1

Ground Peas and Hogs.

            It may be darting straws against the wind, to talk to planters, now that their cribs are all full, about saving corn, or any other or cheaper method of raising or fattening hogs, than the old plan of feeding.  For some years past, our attention has been called to the Ground Pea, as an article of food, especially in fattening hogs.  Our enquiries and experiments have but served to convince us, that we have nothing so economical or so good for this purpose.  The large amount of oil in the pea, causes the hog to take on fat much more rapidly, than when fed, either upon corn, or any of the field peas.  Land which will produce twenty bushels of corn to the acre, will ordinarily produce one hundred bushels or more of the ground pea in the hull, and we suppose that not half so much fat would be imparted from the corn as from the pea.  But observation is, that one acre of ground peas will make fat eight or ten hogs; especially if access at the same time can be had to potatoes, and plenty of water.  The great beauty of the crop is, that there is no gathering or putting up.  It is just where you want it and may be used just as it is needed.  The only trouble is the cultivation, and this, when the crop is properly planted in hills, is not so very great.  Plowing with the sweep and a little culture with the hoe, when the grass is small, is all which is needed.  Your hands may then keep picking cotton, without stopping to open pea fields, and the hogs will be getting fat at the same time.  A desideratum worth attaining.
The hogs ought to be fed upon corn a short time before slaughtering, to prevent flavor imparted to the fat by the feeding upon peas, without corn. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], January 29, 1856, p. 1, c. 1

Work in the Flower Yard.

            With the year, begin to improve.  It is a true maxim, that where there is will, there is way.  It is now time to transplant all the vegetable kingdom—tree, shrub, plant and flower.  Lose no time in putting out shade and ornamental trees.  Plant hedges.  Transplant roses, and all the smaller shrubbery.  Bed the bulbous lower roots.  Separate peonies, and plant them out again.  A flowering shrub that has begun to show signs of decay, may now be resuscitated, by removing the old earth around it, and filling in with mold from the woods, as it begins to bud in the spring, water with a liquid guano.  Plant in the open ground, camellias, our native azelias [sic], rhododendron, kalmias, and jasmines.  Sow blue grass for lawns.  No flower yard is perfect without its plots of grass.  Wherever a soil abounds in lime the blue grass will flourish.  Cuttings of choice shrubbery may be wrapped in damp moss, and enveloped in oil silk with a paper cover for the direction, and sent by mail all over the country.  There are few living trees or shrubs, that will not throw out roots from cuttings if they are carefully planted, and tended.  The base of the cutting should not be too deep in the ground, and but one but left over the ground.  That false and barbarous taste for trimming ornamental shrubbery into grotesque and fancy figures, is giving away to common sense.  Trimming was introduced to take out diseased limbs, and check the over exuberance of growth.  But he who attempts to improve God's most beauteous handiwork, must either be a fool or a mad man.  Were this false taste to become the prevailing taste, genuine trees might be discarded entirely, and their places frilled by the curious worker in iron and paint.  This no doubt would suit some, for they would stand a drought remarkably well, nor would they be subjects to the deprecations of insects.  If the reader has a yard to lay out in flowers and shrubbery, do not be too anxious to make a fully developed flower yard of it in one season, and crowd plants indiscriminately together.  Make a full and deliberate calculation how large this tree is to grow; how large this shrub; how much this trellis is to impede the view when covered as you design it.  Make no more walks than are absolutely necessary to view and cultivate the flowers.  No curves that are not called for to avoid some disagreeable object, or to display some pleasing view, such as a spouting fountain, or a sheet of water.  Leave clam shells on their native shores, and if you must have an edging, let it be of living plants, or of slate, or brick.  Plan your yard, as you would plan your house, for comfort, convenience and beauty.—Soil of the South. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], January 29, 1856, p. 1, c. 6
Grace in Female Dress.—Somebody has said that a Parisian grisette, with a little tule and ribbon, will conquer the world, while an English woman, with all her shawls, damasks and diamonds, looks only like an animated clothes horse.  There is some exaggeration in this statement, but more wit and still more truth.  The women of France unquestionably have a better taste in dress than those of Great Britain or America.  In both our mother country and this, there is too much of what we may call "snobism," in female attire.  The ladies of Anglo Saxendom seem to fancy that the more they spend on dress, the prettier they look.  Accordingly, one sees little women covered all over with lace, or buried in the middle of stiff brocade, or almost lost to sight under a puffing velvet cloak, with capes that extend on either side like gigantic wings.  Or one beholds a tall woman, if such be the fashion, tricked out in tight sleeves and striped silks, the costliness of the material being regarded by the wearer as sufficient compensation for the incongruity of the styles.  A French servant girl has better taste.  She knows it is not so much the richness of the material as the way it is made up, and the manner it is worn, that gives it the desired elegance.  A neat fit, a graceful bearing, and a proper harmony between the complexion and the colors, have more to do in brightening female attraction than even American ladies seem particularly to comprehend.  Many a wife looks prettier if she would but know it, in her neat morning frock of calico, than in the incongruous pile of finery that dignifies the name of full dress.  Many an unmarried female first wins the heart of her future husband in some simple unpretending attire, which, if consulted about, she would pronounce too cheap except for ordinary wear, but which, by its accidental suitability to her figure, face and carriage, idolized her youth wonderfully.  If the sex would study taste in dress more, and care less for expense, they would have no reason to regret it.  At present the extravagance of American females is proverbial.  We wish we could say as much of their elegance in the same line. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 1, c. 6
To Extract Perfume of Flowers.—Procure a quantity of the petals of any flower which has an agreeable flavor; card thin layers of cotton wool, which dip into the Florence oil; sprinkle a small quantity of fine salt on the flowers, and piece layers of cotton and flowers alternately, until an earthern or wide-mouthed glass vessel is quite full.  Tie the top close with a bladder, and lay the vessel in a south aspect, exposed to the heat of the sun, and in fifteen days, when opened, a fragrant oil may be squeezed away from the whole mass, little inferior (if roses are made use of) to the dear and highly-valued attar, or odor of roses. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 2, c. 5
We learn by the Seguin Mercury that a Military company was organized in that place on the 14th ult., and a full set of officers selected.  The company numbers sixty-three.  Their uniform is black glazed cap, blue hunting shirt and belt, and white pants.  Cannot the boys start a company in Brazoria county?  Why just think of it, suppose the "inimy" should attack us?  Suppose the British should land with a seventy-four at Velasco.  How in the name of sense shall we defend Brazoria county, and repel invasions without a drilled soldiery.  We repeat it.  We must have an independent company.   

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 2, c. 6
A correspondent of the Bayou City gives us some interesting items concerning the town of Huntsville.  Between $46,000 and $50,000 have been subscribed and paid by the citizens of Walker County towards the erection of public buildings there.  They have two institutions of learning ranking as first in the State, four church edifices, a Masonic Hall, an Odd Fellows Hall, a Court House and a Penitentiary.  As a return for this public spirit, town property there is now at a high figure, and many persons are looking to that place for a residence, affording as it does such excellent advantages for the education of children.  And all this, let the people of Brazoria county remember, in a section of the county remarkable, if any part of Texas can be remarkable, for barrenness of the soil. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 3, c. 2

Hope Saddles.

            We have just rec'd from Jo Ralston of Brenham, 1 case of real Texas Hope saddles which are A. No. 1 call and look at them.
                                                            Nash & Barstow.           

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 15, 1856, p. 1, c. 3
Parental Duty.—The father who plunges into business so deeply that he has no leisure for domestic duties and pleasures, and whose only intercourse with his children consists in a brief word of authority, or a surly lamentation over their expensiveness is equally to be pitied and to be blamed.  What right has he to devote to other pursuits the time which god has allotted to his children?  Nor is it an excuse to say that he cannot support his family in their present style of living without this effort.  I ask by what right can his family demand to live in a manner which requires him to neglect his most solemn and important duties?  Nor is it an excuse to say that he wishes to leave them a competence.—Is he under obligation to leave them that competence which he desires?  Is it an advantage to be relieved from the necessity of labor?  Besides, is money the only desirable bequest which a father can leave his children?  Surely, well cultivated intellects, hearts sensible to domestic affection; the love of parents and brethren and sisters; a taste for home pleasures; habits of order, regularity and industry; hatred of vice and vicious men; and a lively sensibility to the excellence of virtue, are as valuable a legacy as an inheritance of property—simple property, purchased by the loss of every habit which would render that property a blessing.—Wayland's Moral Science. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 2, c. 4
Maj. DeMorse of the Clarksville Standard, attended the District Court at Paris, Lamar County and gives a flattering notice of the town.  He says:
"Paris has improved during the past eighteen months, faster than any other town in Northern Texas, and is a pretty and in every way thriving town.  It has excellent schools, and plenty of them, and these have induced the settlement of river planters, for the education of their children.  It has also a full supply of artisans, who, in the various branches of wood, iron, tin, silver work, and saddlery, add to the productive wealth of the place, and in turn give occupations to the School teacher, the Merchant and the Professional man.  The place has excellent hotels, one of which will be found advertised in our columns.—Major Francis keeps a good house, is an attentive host, and gave satisfaction to the large throng who overcrowded his house during the sitting of the convention.
Paris has a handsome brick Church, used, we believe by all denominations, a respectable Academy building, and a substantial Odd Fellow's hall, now just finishing.
Paris has a substantial brick court house, the first of that sort, built in Northern Texas.
All in all, we know of no village in Northern Texas, which gives more evidences of continued improvement, and has a better prospect in the future, than Paris, Lamar County." 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 2, c. 4
The Bayou City complains of the want of public spirit exhibited in Houston in the matter of the cemetry [sic].  This want is not felt alone in Houston.  Everywhere that we know of in Texas the people seem to act on the motto of "let the dead bury the dead."  Not even a violet or a rose bush is planted over the graves of departed friends.  No fence protects the grounds from the trampling of cattle.  Wee seem to have paid the dead all the respect they require when we have put them six feet into the ground.  We never think of even visiting the graves afterward.  If we did, we would have a place sacred to the purposes for which cemetries [sic] are made. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 2, c. 5  
The Victoria Advocate exults on the prospective erection of a Liberty pole in that town. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 2, c. 5           
The Woodville Messenger, a new and interesting paper gives a favorable account of Woodville.  There are in the public square in that town forty-four delightful evergreen shade trees, most of which are Magnolias.  We envy the citizens of that place.  Those Magnolias are a great institution.  A man who would injure one of them is not fit to associate with civilized people.  There is an unusual opening in Woodville for a merchant. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 8, 1856, p. 2, c. 5
The Liberty Gazette confirms the account given in our paper a week or two since of the Orange County difficulties.  We believe the white folks have triumphed at last, and the lawless renegades have been forced to leave.  No less than twelve persons have been killed in the difficulty. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 19, 1856, p. 1, c. 2

Camp Meeting on the Navidad.

            The Camp meeting in Jackson county is over, and we have been basking in the sunshine of its sanctifying influences.  Although our bump of veneration is constitutionally rather obtuse, yet that of benevolence is protuberant and active, so that our good will and love for the brethren and sis-tren too, is generally fully up to the requirements of the most exacting theological creeds.  With a profound respect for religion generally—with a proper regard for the Methodist denomination in particular, and loving our neighbor as well as our selfishness would let us, we repaired to the camp ground, determined to be edified and pleased, for we had never seen a camp meeting before.
Several of the citizens of Jackson county, with their accustomed liberality, had prepared comfortable tents for the temporary residence of the worshippers, and had provided tables, abundantly supplied with both the necessaries and the luxuries of life; and it appeared that nothing was necessary but to "eat, drink and be merry."
There was a great number of preachers in attendance, some of whom are quite distinguished, and we heard several able sermons especially one preached by Mr. Shipman, of Victoria, and one by Mr. Gillespie, of Galveston.  Other persons may have admired other discourses more than these, but there is something in the philosophy and the mode of thinking of these two gentlemen that we can not help admiring; and they are free from the defects of pronunciation, of manner and of syntax, that, although quite common, are singularly out of place in the pulpit.
Religion is certainly of sufficient importance to be worth presenting to an audience in good grammar, and with ordinary decency and refinement of manner.
Mr. Gillespie is the editor of the Texas Christian Advocate, published at Galveston, and he is a skilful electioneerer for a newspaper.  We learnt a lesson from him, by which we expect to make a fortune.  On Sunday, when the people were the most numerous, he had them duly seated, and informed them that he was about to address them upon a subject of great importance.  He then proceeded to deliver a lecture upon the beauties, the worth and the advantage of the Texian Christian Advocate—and the innumerable reasons why everybody should take it.  It was a literary, religious, family and agricultural newspaper, but not religious enough to do any harm.
He then started several brethren, with full authority to call upon all present and receive the names and money.  In the excitement of the moment, our first impression was to subscribe, and thus perform at once, a religious, a domestic and a patriotic duty—but just as we recollected that we had left our purse at home, because it had nothing in it, the thought occurred to us also, that we had been taking and reading Mr. Gillespie's excellent paper for several months, and that, next to the "Victoria Advocate," it was one of the best papers in the country.
A portion of our business on the ground, as well as that of our  Galveston neighbor, was to increase the circulation of our journal—but he was evidently getting the advantage of us.  We applied to one of the best preachers in the pulpit, whom we knew to be a friend, and asked him with tears in our eyes, and in the lugubrious accents of despair, to make a speech in favor of the Victoria Advocate.  He replied that it was altogether improper to electioneer for secular papers on the Sabbath!  What a blunder we had made in the name of our paper!  Although it advocates morality and religion, yet it was not a Christian sheet!
We left the camp ground Monday, the day before the meeting broke up; and although much good seed had been sown, probably, yet very little of it had germinated up to that time—especially amongst the white portion of the audience.  The Africans were experiencing a great and noisy revival.  One darkey, with stentorian voice, advised his brethren who had been sinning, to tell God they were joking, and didn't mean nothing, whilst others made prayers that were truly original and exceedingly rich.
The crops in Jackson county, as elsewhere, are suffering from drought.  Not more than half a crop will be harvested.
Cotton is doing very well.  Capt. Devenport, who has opened a plantation on the Lavaca river, and has about four hundred acres under fence, has an excellent stand of the bolls of which are beginning to open.  Although his ground is new, yet the present appearances are in favor of his realizing a good crop.  The Captain is not only a scientific planter, but he is an accomplished gentleman of the old Virginia school.
Having partaken of an excellent dinner at Dr. Wells', a portion of the Victoria delegation, on their way home, availed themselves of Capt. Davenport, where they were very agreeably entertained, and spent a happy season.  The next day, to the number of about twenty, we dined at Squire Stewarts's, on the Garcitas, in pursuance of a kind invitation, and experienced the kindness and hospitalities of one of the largest hearted men that ever delighted in dispensing and sunshine throughout the entire circle of his acquaintances.—Victoria Advocate. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 19, 1856, p. 1, c. 3

Tarrant County.

            We spent the last ten days in this county, and find it everywhere exhibiting marks of rapid progress and improvement.  We entered the county at Col. Johnson's, and there with a large company of gentlemen partook of that genuine old-fashioned hospitality which he and his estimable family know so well how to dispense with princely hands.  The latch is on the outside of the door at M. T. Johnson's which seems to be well understood by the public, from the crowds we always find availing themselves of his hospitality.  Passing through the Cross Timbers and crossing the West Fork, we passed up one of those delightful valleys for which the West Fork is celebrated, in which is situated the residence of the Hon. Isaac Parker, and then over a rising ridge to Birdville, pleasantly situated between Fossil creek and the West Fork.  From Birdville we passed to Fort Worth, over a high level country, and a natural road not inferior to a McAdamized one, from which picturesque view of the whole surrounding country, with the level valleys of the Trinity, the high and rolling prairies to the North and West, and the sinuous course of the Clear and West Fork marked by the Summer verdure of its timber, all spreading out as a panorama of beauty and picturesqueness seldom surpassed.  Before reaching Fort Worth the thirsty traveller or visitor shops as a matter of course at "the Cold Springs," which issue from the banks of the river, one mile East of the town.—The temperature of the water of these springs is cooler than that of the springs in the neighborhood, and the water itself exceedingly palatable.  It is daily resorted to by parties on horseback, in baggies, &c., who come to enjoy an hour or two in its hospitable shade and partake of its cooling and invigorating waters.
At Fort Worth we remained several days, and were there at the 4th of July celebration and barbecue, an account of which appears in another place.
In portions of Tarrant the corn crop looks exceedingly well, notwithstanding the season has been very dry.  Especially in the valleys bordering on the river and creeks, we found the corn crop promising a good yield.  The wheat crops suffered considerably in places from the rest.  A great deal of Col. Johnson's was wholly destroyed.  Still enough has been grown, we presume, to keep the mills busy.  An immense surplus of corn will be raised in Tarrant.
Birdville the county seat of Tarrant county, shows some marks of improvement since we were there some two years ago.  Some two or three business houses have gone up since that time.  We noticed also a concrete building, a private residence, the only building of the kind in this region.  We can see no good reason why more of these buildings are [missing word?] section, especially where lumber is so difficult to obtain, and where clay for brick is impossible to be had, as in the case in many places.  The buildings are durable, comfortable, sightly and withal cheaper than any others that can be constructed.
A contract has been let out for the construction of a brick Court House at Birdville, 50 feet square and two stories high.  The contract was taken by gentlemen in Birdville.  Strong opposition, as our readers are aware, exists to this measure in the county, as an effort is being made to remove the county seat to Fort Worth.  We hope, for the sake of all parties concerned, that the question may be definitely settled soon.  The improvement of the county seat is retarded by the doubt that now hangs over the subject.—Dallas Herald. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 19, 1856, p. 2, c. 1
The "diascoria batata," or Chinese potato still receives its due share of attention from the agricultural papers.  That this thing so far as realizing the expectations of the credulous is concerned is a humbug we have never had a doubt.  The speculation of selling the tubers was a successful one in the North, last Spring, they being readily disposed of at five dollars per inch of root.  Of course, however, but few persons have been able to enrich themselves by it.  The reports of those who are cultivating it begin to appear.  Most in the North meet with no success at all.  In the South there is a more promising showing.  We received a tuber from the Patent Office late in the season and planted it with some care.  We can only say of it that it is doing passably well for the season.  It is growing, and that is about all we can say of it. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 19, 1856, p. 2, c. 1
Snooks says the prettiest sewing machine he ever saw was about seventeen years old with short sleeves, low neck dress, and gaiter boots. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 19, 1856, p. 2, c. 7
A correspondence of the Woodville Messenger gives the following account of Sour Lake.  This place under good management is destined to become an attractive watering place.
"Sour Lake is one of the phenomena of Nature.  It is in a level country consisting of alternate mots of timber and small prairies.  It takes its name from a lake some two or three feet deep, of at least the area of one acre.  The bottom where the bath houses are, has a natural pavement of the petroleum or tar in a hardened state.  The water is so acid that it readily dissolves the insensible perspiration that has settled on the surface of the body, and gives to the skin beneath a harsh feel.  To bath for a considerable length of time in this water would evidently be good for the cure of diseases of the skin.
There is, also, a hundred yards distance from the Lake a Sour Spring perpetually boiling from the escape of carbonic acid gas, and sulphurated hydrogen gas.  The water is cold and about as sour as good lemonade, with a styptic farewell after turning off a glass of it.  It receives this acid taste from a large admixture of sulphuric acid.  It also contains considerable portions of gaubers [sic?] and epson salts, which imparts with the acid the styptic [illegible].  This water, drank persistantly [sic], must, evidently, with proper diet, and exercise to aid it, be very beneficial in chronic Diarrhea, liver complaint and dyspepsia.—Drank freely for some time, it acts strongly on the kidneys of most persons, producing a copious diuresis; and it certainly must act powerfully in dropsical affections.
There is yet another spring some fifty yards off, strongly impregnated with sulphur and mineral tar.  This water possessing the strong principles of the sulphur that it does, and also the balsamic principle of the tar thoroughly recommends it as a comedy in long diseases.  There is ample proof that by the free use of this water internally, and by applying the tar to the most ill conditioned ulcers have been healed by the treatment." 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 14, 1856, p. 1, c. 5

Fall Garden.

            There will be no difficulty in having a good fall garden, if the seasons in this month will admit the planting of the seeds.  Many plants after they are up, require watching.  Early spring turnip and rutabaga, in all this and next month.  Unless the land is entirely fresh and new, plant in drills.  For rutabaga, the drills should be three feet apart.  Spring turnips eighteen inches; sow very thin in the drill.  There are more turnip crops lost by too thick seeding, than any other.  English peas may be planted, and should the season prove dry, mulched with decomposing leaves or straw, as the weather begins to grow cool in the fall, they will yield finely.  Plant snap beans.  Continue to plant okra and tomatoes.  All the varieties of cabbage may yet be planted.  The early varieties will head in the fall, and the late ones in the winter.  Peppers may yet be planted for green eating.  Replant Irish potatoes; spade the ground deeply, that they may stand the dry weather of August and September, and as the cool weather of November and December comes on, they will be in fine eating order.  Frost may cut the tops down, yet unless the ground is frozen, the tubers will be mealy and good.
Cucumbers and squashes may now be planted, and if protected from the miller that lays the egg which produces the worm so destructive to the tender fruit, which yield a rich return.  All garden vegetables will now require constant culture.  Stir the soil frequently,--but not deep enough to disturb the roots.  The hand cultivator between the narrow rows, and the horse hoe in the wide rows, will perform the work well, and save labor.  We have often said that our fall and winter gardens might rival those of spring and summer.  Let us compare notes.  In the fall, we may have beans.—both snap and pole, beets, cabbages of all kinds, celery, carrots, parsnips, cucumbers, squashes, pumpkins, roasting ears, onions, leeks, lettuce, melons, eggplants, okra, English peas, turnips of all kinds, salsify, Irish potatoes, peppers, &c.  And in the winter, if we have managed well in the spring and summer, we may take from the open grounds, cabbage, kale, cauliflower, celery, carrots, parsnips, salsify, leeks, shallots, turnips and rutabagas.  No family should be without vegetables the year round.—Soil of the South. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 14, 1856, p. 2, c. 3
Dr. Kellum of Kellum's Springs, Grimes Co., says the Huntsville Item, was shot while asleep in his house a few nights since.  The Dr. will recover. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], November 18, 1856, p. 2, c. 3
Old Buck Cooked.—The Henderson Democrat says that a barbecue, which the editor attended at Jefferson, there was a big eight point buck cooked whole, horns and all, and served standing up on the table with an apple in his mouth.  Slices were cut out, we suppose, to feed the multitude just as he stood.—The device was a pretty one, and gives food for reflection as well as for the stomach.  Ugly Americans might say it was illustrative of slices of fat offices to hungry office seekers from old Buch when he is elected. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], November 18, 1856, p. 2, c. 3
The Victoria Advocate says:--
"Pecans are coming into town, and are likely to be quite plenty.  One merchant, Mr. Stern, has already shipped 100 bushels to New Orleans.  Merchants at the bay are paying $3,00 a bushel for pecans, which is the highest price that they have ever brought in this vicinity. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], November 18, 1856, p. 2, c. 7
Summary:  Full column of book titles available at the book store at Columbia. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], January 20, 1857, p. 2, c. 4
In Navaro [sic] county, pork sells at 3 1-2 cents per lb., beef 2 to 3 cts., corn 50 to 75 cts. per bushel.
A Mr. Davidson of Gonzales recently sold one portion of his Sea Island cotton, at 45cts per pound and another at 26 cts. in the New Orleans market. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], April 28, 1857, p. 1, c. 7
The Pensacola Gazette says that most of the free collored [sic] people of that city, during last week, were disposing of their furniture, house and lots, preparatory to embarking for Mexico. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], April 28, 1857, p. 2, c. 1
The following question has been selected for discussion before the lyceum on Friday Evening next:  "Is the aggressive spirit of the American people justifiable?" 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], April 28, 1857, p. 2, c. 3

That Fish Fry.

            On Thursday last I attended a fish-fry on Mound Creek, which surpassed any thing of the kind I ever attended.  And why should it not?  The day was fine, the ladies fair, and fish abundant.  We were all on the ground about ten o'clock with the exception of two young bloods, coming in at the "eleventh hour," who appeared to be about three sheets in the wind as they sailed up, but after coming to anchor they were all right.  After dinner several games and plays were engaged in with much spirit and good feeling.  One game especially was played with much apparent interest.  I was told it was the game of checkers, I had never heard it called by that name before.  I am satisfied, however, that it is a fine game, and every one should learn to play it, who expects to figure much amid the checkered scenes of this checkered life, and finally be check-mated.  We left the fishing ground about three o'clock, and reached town in a few hours by a very circuitous route.
I learn that another party of this kind is to come off in a few days at Blue Lake.  All lovers of fun and pleasure should attend.

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], April 28, 1857, p. 2, c. 4
We see by the Civilian that the citizens of Gilmer have held a meeting for the purpose of passing suitable resolutions expressive of their indignation at the course of the editor of the "Texas Free Press," in giving publicity to certain incendiary and offensive articles in his paper, in their resolutions they say that they disapprove the premises, and denounce him as unworthy the confidence and patronage of the South; that said editor has forfeited all claims to an honorable position among Southern Journalists, and as such, he merits its just condemnation of the enlightened public; and recommend all good citizens who have hitherto patronized the "Free Press" to withdraw from it their support. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], May 5, 1857, p. 2, c. 1
The following question has been selected for discussion by the Lyceum on Friday Evening next:--"To which is America the most indebted, Columbus or Washington?
The members of the Lyceum will bear in mind that according to a late amendment in the Constitution, the names of members who have been absent three successive weeks without excuse, will be struck from the roll. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], May 5, 1857, p. 2, c. 1
A female spiritual medium was hung in effigy recently in Montgomery, Texas.  The people there are not spiritually minded. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], May 5, 1857, p. 2, c. 3
            Banks, the editor of the Texas Free Press, Gilmer, goes as a delegate to the Waco Convention.  It will be recollected that it was this same Banks who published in his paper the abolition articles.  Will the Convention allow him to take a seat in that body?  It seems to us, they should invite him to take a trip to a more northerly clime—to visit his friend and sympathizer, Banks of Massachusetts. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], May 5, 1857, p. 2, c. 3
The LaGrange True Issue speaks highly of the temperance lectures of Rev. Dr. Ross, in that town, and says they resulted in an accession of over fifty members to the "Order of Good Samaritans Daughters of Samaria." 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], May 5, 1857, p. 2, c. 4
The Marshall Republican speaks of concert to be given in that town for the purpose of raising the means for the Protestant Episcopal church.  The editor says with six churches, Marshall will be in advance of any town in Eastern Texas. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], May 26, 1857, p. 2, c. 1

The Fish Fry.

            We had the pleasure of attending a fish fry an [sic] Saturday last at Blue Lake.  For an occasion of that kind it was the most general turn out we have ever witnessed.  It is estimated that there were about one hundred and fifty persons on the ground.  The grove around Blue Lake, as every one knows who has been there, is one of the loveliest imaginable.  Every thing that could render those in attendance comfortable, had been provided.  The affair was gotten up by Judge J. H. Jones, and it certainly did credit to his taste and liberality.  After partaking of a sumptuous dinner, partners were called out for a cotillon, and dancing was kept up during the afternoon.  It seemed that all went there with a determination to enjoy themselves, and we do not believe any came away disappointed.  The day was fine, the company large, the ladies beautiful, gentlemen gallant, fish abundant, refreshments plenty, and of course the Pic-Nic was just what it should be, a glorious affair.
At night we were entertained in town by the Apollo Minstrels—the Messrs. Cheeseman & Co.  Their performance was listened to by a large and delighted audience.  "It was a good thing," says every one who attended it.  They will perform in Brazoria to-night and return here again on Wednesday night, with a change of Programme. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], May 26, 1857, p. 2, c. 3
Mr. Editor:--
Can you inform me what has become of our patrols, or if there are any appointed?  Every one within our town must have noticed for some time back the crowds of negroes, both from the country and in town, that weekly congregate on our streets and not only render it disagreeable for the ladies to pass the streets to church; but actually render it unpleasant to stay at home by their loud swearing and obscene language.  Surely something is wrong somewhere.  If we have patrols, pray use your influence, Mr. Editor, with them and if there are none, surely the good citizens of Columbia should take some steps to have some appointed.  I hope, Mr. Editor, no one will accuse me of personalities, but a sincere desire to rid our town of these disgraceful "Sabbath scenes" now nearly of weekly occurrence, and to sustain the good name that Columbia has so justly merited as a peaceable, quite and orderly town is my object.  Perhaps it would not be amiss to state here that our neighboring town, Richmond, has, but a very few days since, detected a well laid plot for an insurrection among the negroes of that town and county, in which some of the negroes of Judge Buckley, Col. Ryan, Capt. Conner and Doct. Varney, are implicated, and others strongly suspected in the town of Richmond.  Certainly with this conspiracy at our door we cannot be too particular; ever remembering that "to be forewarned is to be forearmed."
                                                An Observer. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], May 26, 1857, p. 2, c. 3

Texas Newspapers.

            There are more newspapers in Texas in proportion, than any other State in the Union, and consequently than any State in the World of the same population.  A goodly number of these papers are established on a permanent basis, and a majority of them are conducted with decided ability.  But many of them are short lived, and are changing proprietors, editors, name and sometimes locality, once and twice, and even oftener a year.  Notwithstanding the great number of newspapers in the State, there seems to be a sad scarcity of names to call them by.  In other States we seldom hear of two newspapers with the same name.  It creates confusion in a great many ways.  One paper frequently receiving mails due the other, &c.—This evil prevails to a great extent in this State.  Thus we have three Gazettes—the State Gazette, at Austin; Liberty Gazette, at Liberty and Eastern Texas Gazette, at Jefferson.  Two TimesState Times, at Austin and Corsicana Times, at Corsicana.  Three Heralds—Jefferson Herald, at Jefferson; San Antonio Herald, San Antonio, and last but by no means least, Dallas Herald, Dallas, besides the Lavacca Herald, just demised, and the Daily Herald, just projected at Galveston.  We have three Democrats—the Democrat & Planter, at Columbia; Upshur Democrat, Gilmer, and Henderson Democrat, Henderson, with perhaps another Democrat in Washington county, if it has not recently died out.  There are two Messengers, one at Clarksville, the other at Woodville.  Two Zeitungs (German), one at San Antonio, the other at New Brownsfels [sic], and possibly a third at Castorville [sic].  Two Enquirer's—the Lamar Enquirer, at Paris, and Texas Enquirer, at Rusk, and a third with "a slight variation"—the Gonzales Inquirer.  Two Flags—American Flag, at Brownsville, and Harrison Flag, at Marshall.  Three Advocates—Trinity Advocate, at Palestine; Christian Advocate, at Galveston, and Victoria Advocate, at Victoria.  Until recently we had two Texians, or rather one Texian Texan—the Central Tex(i)an, at Anderson, and the Western Texan, at San Antonio.  The former has "gin eout."  During the palmy day of "Sam's glory," and before the "great American party" became defunct we had any number of "Americans"—The Palestine American, at Anderson; True American, Goliad, and other Americans too numerous to mention.  We believe they have all gone the way of "Sam" and "of all the earth."  Among the few Texas papers that glory in the monopoly of a patronymic to themselves, we may mention the News and Civilian, at Galveston; the Telegraph, at Houston; Item, Huntsville; Ranger, Brenham; Intelligencer, Austin; Ledger, San  Antonio; Valley, Corpus Christi; Southerner, Waco; Mercury, Seguin; True Issue, La Grange; Advertiser, Bastrop; Watchman, Lockhart; our neighbor of the Express, Birdville; Patriot, at Paris; Standard, Clarksville; Republican, Marshall; Free Press, at Quitman; Sentinel, at Rusk; Star Spangled Banner, at Henderson; Reporter, at Tyler; Pioneer, at Fairfield and Printer, at Crockett, and a few others that do not now occur to us.
The newspaper business is over done in Texas.  At least half the country papers are starving.  The subscription list of most of them does not reach 500, and unless they are so situated as to command heavy legal advertisements, or job-work, they go down in six or twelve months.—Dallas Herald. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], November 10, 1857, p. 1, c. 1
A Caravan for Texas.—At the close of last week Samuel M. Scott Esq., one of the most prominent of our citizens, (says the Lynchburg Courier,) and his whole family, consisting of children, grand-children and children-in-law, together with fifty or sixty slaves, started in the good old-fashioned wagon-moving manner for the great States of Texas.  The procession being nearly a quarter of a mile in length, must have been an imposing one, and being patriarchal in character, must have brought to mind the migrations of Abraham and other ancient gentlemen who moved about from place to place with a long retinue of men, women and children, tents, herds, camels, horses, and dogs. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], November 10, 1857, p. 2, c. 2
Thanksgiving.—Governor Pease has issued the following proclamation appointing Thursday the 26th of November as a day of Thanksgiving and prayer.

By the Governor of Texas.

            It is no less a duty of communities, than individuals, to acknowledge their accountability to God, and to receive with gratitude the dispensations of his favor while they bow with resignation to the chastenings of his Providence.
Now, therefore, that the people of this State may unite in rendering devout acknowledgment to Almighty God for his numerous blessings vouchsafed to them during the past season, I do hereby recommend that Thursday, the 26th day of November next, be observed as a day of Public Thanksgiving and Prayer.
In testimony whereof I have here unto signed my name and caused the Great Seal of the State to be affixed, at the city of Austin, this the 23rd day of October, A. D. 1857, and in the year of the Independence of Texas the twenty-second year.
By the Governor,                                                                                 E. M. Pease.
Bird Holland, Secretary of State. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], November 10, 1857, p. 2, c. 4

Marbles as a Pastime.

            Marbles is an exciting game.  It is a game half way between tenpins and billiards.  By a peculiar fascination it has beguiled the biggest as well as the least boys at school, and occasioned many a stripling to become acquainted with the virtues contained in apple switches.  Marbles prove a healthy exercise of the body as well as the brain, and therefore should not only be tolerated but encouraged.—"A mere novice cannot understand its beauties."  He must study what "knuckle down," "dubs," "vence your roundings" mean.  Schoolmasters and schoolmistresses think that this game is a waste of time "for no good," but I will rebut this idea by a few authorities.
"The Boy's own Book" teaches how the game should be played, and says it is "peculiarly fascinating for boys or men."
Barton Thomas, who used to be melancholy when he could not get a game of "sweepstakes," said 'it was the only game he cared for."
Casstigate, the Italian fruit seller's son, who used to larrup me every day, regarded the game of marbles as an "honest way of winning" all we had.
Catham, our teacher with a crooked leg, when complimented on being in so good a humor, replied that he had just beaten Tom Taw at a game of "Knucks."
Tom Enius, who was head of the grammar class, was the most ingenius [sic] marble player at the institution.
The great Condor used to say if a man aspired to a military character, he must learn marbles, for he would then know how to place his men.
Fooley writes thus:--
            "The greatest game I ever saw,
            Was when they plumped the men from taw."
Deadhead, the poet's son, styled it the "expensive but pleasant game."
Hans Van Snort, the Dutch butcher's son, said he learned to cipher by counting his marbles.
I might go on to enumerate many other authors, such as Brown, Smith and Jones, but I have said enough to show the reader how this pastime has been looked upon by the good and great for many ages.
It would please me much if the girls took some interest in this game, they might by that means keep the boys from fighting and many other things, such as tying tinpans to dogs' tails, or throwing brick bats at the poor cats about town.  I am not one of those boys who think girls cannot learn to play marbles well.  Some of the most pleasant hours I ever spent was playing with the girls.
I hope this notice will enable us to get up a game.
                                                                        D. G. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], November 10, 1857, p. 3, c. 2

That Jockey Club.

            Those of the citizens of Brazoria County who are interested in the organization of a "Jockey Club" will meet in the town of Columbia on the last Saturday in this month and take such steps as to secure its organization at an early day.
Columbia, Nov. 3d '57. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], November 10, 1857, p. 3, c. 2


            The undersigned would respectfully inform the citizens of Columbia and vicinity, that they have fitted up an Ambrotype and Photograph Gallery at the Columbia Hotel, where they will be happy to receive orders.
                                                Holmes & Fordtran.
N. B.  They have, for sale, at the rooms a great variety of late music of every description, and are prepared to order for those who wish, at any time. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], December 21, 1858, p. 2, c. 1
The question to be debated in the Lyceum on Friday night the 24th inst., reads, "Is the credit system beneficial."  On the affirmative Messrs. Howard, West and J. H. Dance.  Negative, Messrs. Scarborough, A. R. Park and Harris. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], December 21, 1858, p. 2, c. 1
The sound of the hammer is heard in every direction, in our town, and a pleasant sound it is.—There is more building now going on than we have ever known here before.  Almost every day our eyes are greeted with the appearance of some new structure going up.  We are pleased to see those owning lots on the avenue, improving them.  Some three or four new buildings are about to be erected there.  Some three or four new buildings are about to be erected there.  We believe the time is not far distant when the avenue from here to West Columbia will be lined with beautiful residences, and we hope soon to see the work of improvement going on at West Columbia.  There is certainly no more eligible or pleasant locality for building, in the State. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], December 21, 1858, p. 2, c. 2

Among the Plantations.

            On Friday and Saturday last, we took a short tramp around among the sugar planters, on the east side of the Brazos.  Not having visited one this season and the Christmas holidays being nearly at hand, we concluded that it was high time to strike out, or the fun would all be over.  Our friend "Bob" kindly invited us to take a seat with him—outside of a vehicle wearing a Spanish brand.  By keeping up a merry chat we succeeded in counteracting the influence of the mud and water, and beguiling the time for an hour or two when we called a halt at Mill's sugar house—the Bynum place.  Not finding our friend Cash present we plaid our compliments to the black spirits which there do congregate, and learned from them that there will be made on the place about 300 hhds of sugar.—Leaving the Bynum place we crossed Bailey's prairie and visited the Retrieve.  Here we found our young friend Andrew Jackson in charge.  He was just in the midst of a break down—not one of those fancy "break downs" so common at this season of the year, on Oyster Creek, but some unfortunate accident to the mill.  But we learned that it was not a very serious one, however, and that they would be able to fire up again in a few hours.  After partaking of an excellent dinner, at the sugar house, we took a peep into the purgery, where we found some 250 hhds of good sugar.  We were informed that the crop on the place would amount to about 400.  Passing down towards Lack Jackson, we met our old friend the Major.  He informed us that on his three places, the Darrington, Retrieve and home place, he would make about 900 hhds—a right smart chance of sweetening for one man to put up.  Passing Lake Jackson, we came to Mrs. Wharton's plantation, over which our friend Maxey is the presiding genius.  Visiting the sugar house, we found Mac, who is one of the oldest and best sugar boilers in the county.  He is making an excellent article of sugar, and, as he has a right, feels proud of it.  They finished grinding on Saturday, making about 270,000 lbs.  Spending the night with friend Wharton, we started for home next morning, making it in our way to pass thro' the plantation of Messrs. Staten & Cloman, whom we found in full blast.  Their crop is turning out much better than they had anticipated.  They have already about 90 hhds out, also have made about 50 bales of cotton.
We learned that the cane had soured but very little on the plantations in that neighborhood, even where they had not taken the precaution to windrow.  This can only be accounted for from the fact that the frosts in that section were much less severe than here.
We notice that there is quite a difference of opinion among the sugar planters in regard to the propriety and utility of using the Bi Sulphate of lime, and while on this subject we deem it not improper to refer to the opinions of persons in the older states.  The Baton Rouge Gazette, published in the midst of a rich sugar region, says upon the evidence of old sugar planters, who have tried it, that it is injurious to health, and that although some may still use it in sugars they intend to sell, they will not put it upon their own tables, or suffer their negroes to use it.  The Gazette says:
"It is a notorious fact, that nearly every planter in this and the neighboring parish, will make this year as they did last, the sugar for their own use on the old plan, without the poison of bi-sulphate.  We referred the other day to the fact, that the refuse from the kettles, after making sugar with this article, will kill hogs.
The hogs upon which the experiment was made had to be penned up, cribbed and confined, and it killed them all in short order.—Left alone, they turned up their noses at this poison and will not touch it.
In a Christian point of view, we should like to know how planters use an article to make their produce bring a half cent more in the pound, that they know full well is injurious to the animal economy?  We dare say that the great mortality this season among children can be traced directly to the syrup and molasses of the bi-sulphate.
Per contra the New Orleans Delta says—
Bi-Sulphate is utterly innocuous and that whether it is or not, the planters and sugar makers so regard it, and use it in their families constantly.  We are not sufficiently acquainted with its chemical composition to give an authoritative opinion on the subject, but from all we can learn, the bi sulphate is used simply as a defecator or cleanser, by which the foreign substances in the cane-juice are brought to the surface and thus the sugar is made whiter and the crystallization promoted.  Neither sulphur nor lime, the components of this solution, are poisonous substances. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 16, 1859, p. 2, c. 5

Ladies' Swimming School in Paris.

            Quarnier's Swimming School for Ladies opened in the month of May and it is difficult to imagine a more novel or prettier scene than it presents on a warm afternoon.  Neither at concert, race, nor ball, in Paris have I beheld so many beautiful faces as at this school; one reason, perhaps, being that many girls from ten to fifteen are visitors to the bath who are excluded, by their age, from sharing in public amusements.
The young ladies are of the aristocratic Faubourg, St. Germain, the daughters of the wealthy "financier," the families attached to the Emperor, all meet here with the same intention—namely, to swim; and all who are able, gambol, race and laugh in the water, forgetful of party and social distinctions.  The costume is generally of some dark material, gaily trimmed with red and blue worsted binding, which does not lose its color.  The upper part of the dress resembles a boy's blouse; the lower, a pair of trousers.  It is all in one, and a tunic is sewn to the waist, and falls to the knee.  Some of the girls go in without any kind of head dress beyond their own fine hair, neatly plaited; others wear nets of gay colors, or a slight netted scarlet or blue scarf, gracefully arranged.
A basin of about 150 or 160 feet long, and about 25 or 30 feet broad, surrounded by a broad platform, enclosed by the dressing-rooms and screened alike from the sun and from public observation by an awning stretched over all.  The machine is so arranged that the powerful current of the Seine rushes through it; is, in fact, a large cage sunk to the required depth.
That part of the basin which is from four to five feet deep, is crossed by a bridge; and the smaller portion thus indicated is used by those who wish to bathe only, or who are not sufficiently good swimmers to exercise, as yet, in the larger one.—But the large basin is the center of attraction.  At the end where the water is deepest, flights of steps lead down for those who like to swim smoothly and quietly off; but far the greater number prefer leaping in either from the platform, or from the little fanciful construction, half temple, raised at the end of it, and which gives a descent any height you please—between ten and thirty feet—to the surface of the water.
Fearless, gay, and graceful, they plunge beneath the flood to reappear almost instantly gliding down the stream without any apparent effort; floating, swimming on the &c., vary the amusements, which more than hundred ladies may sometimes be seen sharing together their evolutions being watched and stimulated by as many lookers on—their mothers and female friends who are seated around.  Little did I think, when I inscribed myself on M. Quarnier's list, that I should be hung on a hook at the end of a line, and then thrown into the water with directions to imitate a frog to the best of my ability; it was even so.
O dear, how helpless you feel!  how you wish you had never thought of learning to swim!  But you are ashamed to say so; you know you cannot be drowned; the man adjusts his line so nicely to the level of the water, you feel quite sure of that.—So he counts, "one, two, three," and you perform froggy awkwardly enough; putting out your hands when you ought to keep them in, stretching your arms forward when they ought to be close to your body kicking in anything but measured cadence, and getting a good mouthful, notwithstanding you, silly creature, stiffen your neck, and try to keep your head up by that means.  Thus ends the first lesson.
After two or three lessons more, you swim off from the steps at the end, where the water is deepest, the man on the platform preceding you with a pole, as you attempt to make your way down the large basin.—This large basin is constantly watched, either by Quarnier himself or by the swimming master.  These are the only individuals of the male sex ever present.  Madame Quarnier is, as may be expected, a perfect swimmer, and takes an active interest in all the proceedings. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 3, 1860, p. 1, c. 2

Military Institute,

            The Sixth Session opens on Monday, the 23d of January, 1860, under the superintendence of Col. R. T. P. Allen, the founder, and for many years Superintendent of the Kentucky Military Institute, a distinguished graduate of West Point, and a practical Engineer; assisted by an able faculty.  The course of study will be that usually taught in the best colleges, with an extended course in mathematics, mechanics, natural sciences, and civil engineering, with field practice and use of instruments.
The discipline is strict, the moral and spiritual interests of the pupils being had in special regard.  The Institute has an excellent and well selected library; an extensive apparatus, fully adequate to the wants of the lecture room.
The success of the Institute has been most gratifying, indeed almost unprecedented, and the Board of Trustees do not hesitate to recommend it as unrivaled in the State for thoroughness of instruction and perfection of government.
The Institute charge for tuition and boarding, lights, fuel and washing, included, $115 per session of twenty weeks payable invariably in advance, with a deduction of $20 for those pursuing Elementary English studies only.  No extra charge whatever.
For further information address the Superintendent.
                                                            S. W. Sims,
Bastrop, Dec. 12, '59.                                                                          President. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 3, 1860, p. 2, c. 3

Our Trip to the Beach.

            We last week took a trip to that part of the county lying on Cedar Lake and the lower Bernard.  We found that section suffering equally with others from the excessive drouth.  The crops are looking quite as well there as elsewhere.—There will be some fine crops of cotton raised in that neighborhood, and some inform us that they will make corn to sell.      
         At the beach we found several planters with their families, who have gone there to spend a few weeks.  The fishing, the cool and refreshing sea breeze, and the delightful bathing, is a pleasant relief from the dust, drouth, and in some instances, dull prospects, of the plantation.  It seems strange that more of our wealthy planters do not avail themselves of the benefits of that healthy location; it may perhaps be accounted for from the fact that a few weeks residence at the beach costs so little, its advantages are not fully appreciated.—Few of our citizens who, at great expense, visit celebrated watering places, realize how pleasant a summer resort they have at their very door, as it were.
In taking the census of those people who live on our Gulf coast, we can but notice how rare are the occurrences of death among them.  The fact that two places like Quintana and Velasco do not support a physician is worthy of note and very good evidence of the health of that locality. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], July 24, 1860, p. 2, c. 7

Military Institute.
A College Charter with University
The Governor is ex-officio Inspector of
the Institute.
The usual degrees conferred by a joint
Board, composed of the Board of
Trustees, a Board of Visitors on
the part of the State, and the
Visiting   Committee  on
the part of the Texas
Annual Conference

            Course of Study unusually Full, Instruction Thorough and Discipline Strict.
The Annual Sessions commence on the first Monday in September, and continue forty weeks without intermission.  Vacation during July and August.
The charge for Tuition and Board, including lights, fuel, and washing, will be $95 per Term of twenty weeks, for those pursuing the elementary English branches only; for all others, $115 per term.  The charge for tuition, alone, being $50 for the latter and $30 for the former.
The Institute charge for Board and Tuition must be paid, or satisfactorily arranged, at the time of entering.
For further information, address the Superintendent, Bastrop, Texas.
                                    R. T. P. Allen, Superintendent. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 13, 1861, p. 1, c. 3

Ink Sketches
By Pioneer.

            Tuesday, 23.—This morning, we had quite a time fixing up tents and drying our clothes, after last night's rain.  Our tents are now all up and very comfortable.  The previous flooded grounds have given us an insight into matters; we have made judicious selections in pitching our camp; we have all selected knolls and high ground.
The flag or Captain's tent, in which your humble servant is pleasantly located, is a very good one, having shade the most of the day.  We are living fine, too, and have a good mess; every man trying to make the time pass agreeably both to himself and fellow messmates, harmony prevails throughout.
We spent this day quietly, after the fatigues of arranging and getting up our encampment.  The other companies, five in number, turned out both morning and evening, drilling very handsomely.  The Houston "Confederate Guards" go through the exercises well.  The "Archer Grays" have improved wonderfully, even in the little time they have been here.
Wednesday, 24.—Today, many Houstonians are expected out, both ladies and gentlemen; and a grand parade is the order of the day.  In the morning there was much drilling but no picnicers [sic] until the afternoon.
This evening the visitors made their appearance in many carriages.  Our company, the "Blues," among the rest, turned out in full uniform, and the military display was beautiful.  The prairie in front of the encampment had been clipped smooth and even by a mowing machine, giving us a splendid turf to maneuver on.  Over this six companies paraded, with flags flying, and drums beating time to fifes and French horn.   After going through many beautiful evolutions.  Col. Allen of Bastrop, ordered all the companied into line, two ranks deep, and put us through the battalion drill in fine style.
There were many beautiful ladies present to witness the charming spectacle, which wanted but the realities of the battle field to make it complete.  The grounds prepared for our drill exercise, are quite extensive, and a picture was presented this evening that is not easily sketched.  I know of but few things so exciting as well drilled companies, fully caparisoned for war, performing our tactics.
Thursday, 25.—We are having a pleasant time; fine weather, fine fellows, fine drilling, fine exercise.  We are becoming perfect rapidly, in the arts of war.  Today we have been drilling in squads, as well as in the company, on the field.  A week here is worth two months at home.  We have learned more in the few days here than in the whole time at home, since the formation of the Blues.  There is a competition and pride existing, which, of course, makes us more attentive and anxious to learn.  Adieu, for the present.
Camp Kyle, July 26th, 1861. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 13, 1861, p. 1, c. 6

The Star Spangled Banner.

            We see very much in the Northern prints, says the Montgomery Advertiser, about the flag of the Union.  The speeches of northern orators are full of allusions to the starry banner, and the people are appealed to by all the sacred memories that cluster about that banner, to stand by and defend it to the last.  Ignorant people are deluded with the idea that the flag is the same as that which floated over the battle fields of the Revolution, and their remembrance of the many glorious victories achieved under its folds is called upon to arouse their patriotism.  This uproar about the sacredness of the flag is all gammon.  There is no peculiar interest attaching to the Star-Spangled Banner.  It is not the flag under which our fathers fought the battles of the Revolution; neither is it the same as the one that floated over the field of battle in the war of 1812.  The present flag of the United States was adopted in 1818—less than fifty years ago—from a design by Capt. Samuel C. Reid.
There was nothing in its adoption to render it sacred in the eyes of any one, and there has been nothing in its history since to make it so.  This professed devotion to the flag of the Union is pure bunkum.
There is another fact also worth knowing in regard to the old song known as "The Star-Spangled Banner."  Every male descendant and relative of the author of this beautiful song, liable to do military duty are now in the Confederate army.  At least fifteen members of that patriotic family are at this time doing service against the unconstitutional and tyrannical Government at Washington; and rightfully claim to be fighting for the principles to which that song was originally dedicated. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 13, 1861, p. 1, c. 7

Attention Dragoons!!

            The members of the "Columbia Light Dragoons," just organized, are hereby commanded to meet in Columbia on Saturday next at 10 o'clock, A. M., and to bring such arms as you may have.  Done by order of the Captain.
                                                            A. McCloy, O. S. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 13, 1861, p. 1, c. 7

Attention Militia!

            The Militia of the Columbia Beat are hereby ordered to attend drill in Columbia, on Saturday next.  It is expected that all who belong to the Militia will be in attendance, armed and equipped, as the law directs.  All those not members of the volunteer companies, are included in the Militia.
                                                            O. C. Phelps, Captain. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 13, 1861, p. 2, c. 2

A. C. Crawford.
Importer and Dealer in
Crockery, China & Glassware,
Willow and Wooden Ware, etc.
Iron Building, Strand, Galveston, Tex.

            Would invite the attention of Housekeepers, Planters, and purchasers generally, to his large stock of Goods, mostly of his own importation, consisting in part, of
            White Granite—China Ware, A full and complete assortment, new styles.
            French China White and richly decorated Dinner, Tea and Toilet Ware, in sets and separate; Ornaments, Vases, Motto Mugs, Card Trays.
            Glass Ware.—Crystal and Flint, Cut and Pressed ware for Table, Bar and general use; Lamps, Globes, Shades and Chimneys, Lanterns, Hall and Side Lamps, Confectioners' Jars, Bar Tumblers, Beer Mugs, Decanters, &c.
            Kerosene Oil Lamps.—Unrivaled in Beauty, Simplicity, and Economy.  A full supply of Refined Kerosene Oil always on hand.
            Assorted Crates of Crocker, direct from the Staffordshire Potteries, England; packed with a special view to the requirements of the Country Trade, which will be sold at Northern Jobbing prices by the original packages.
            Common Stone Ware.—Butter Jars, Milk Pans, Churns, Pitchers, Jugs, Jars, Stove Flues, &c.
            Willow Ware.—Children's Wagons, Cabs, Gigs, and Chairs; Clothes, Market and Traveling Baskets; Brooms, and Brushes, all descriptions; Feather Dusters, Looking Glasses, etc.
            Wooden Ware—Brass and Iron bound Cedar Tubs, Churns, Pails, Piggins, Painted Tubs and Buckets, Oak Well Buckets, covered Pails, Clothes Dryers.
            Silver Plated Ware.—A large assortment—Tea and Coffee setts, Casters, Urns, Ice Pitchers, Goblets, Cups, Molasses Cans, Egg Boilers, Waiters, Cake Baskets, Candlesticks, Ladles, Spoons, Forks, Knives—Communion Sets.
            Planished [sic?] and Japanned Ware.—Chafing Dishes, Urns, Coffee and Tea Pots, Jelly Moulds, Toilet Ware, Water Coolers, Cash, Deed, Cake and Spice Boxes, Lanterns, Ice Cream Freezers, Waiters, &c.
            Table and Pocket Cutlery.—A fine assortment of Ivory, Buck, Ebony, Bone and Coco handle Knives and Forks, Carvers and Forks—Pocket and Pen Knives.
            Frech [sic] and Ornamental Clocks—Great variety.  Silver Call Bells, etc.
            Mechanical Toys propelled by machinery.  Dolls, a large assortment.
            Fire Works.—Fire Crackers, Sky Rockets, Wheels, Serpents, etc., in season.
            Superior Green and Black Teas, put up in small metalic packages, warranted to give satisfaction in price and quality.
            House Keeping Articles of every day use in every family, usually kept by similar establishments.
            Orders from the country promptly attended to, and goods carefully packed.

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 13, 1861, p. 2, c. 2

Painting, Gilding,
Wall-Cleaning, Papering, &c.

            The subscriber would respectfully inform the citizens of Columbia and surrounding country that he is prepared to do all work in his line with neatness and dispatch, on reasonable terms.
Orders addressed to the subscriber at Columbia, promptly attended to.
                                                            W. L. Simpson.
Columbia, Jan. 29, 1861.                                                               1y. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 13, 1861, p. 2, c. 3 [note:  Galveston advertisement]

Fall & Winter Clothing
D. Neil's
Fashionable Clothing
Corner Tremont and Old Post Office Sts.

            I have just opened the finest and best assortment of Clothing ever offered in this city, made expressly for the Texas Custom; such as—
Black Blue and Fancy col'd Frock Coats, Business suits, Raglans, and Over Sacks; Black Silk, Velvet, and Fancy col'd vests; Satin, Granadine [sic], and Barothea [sic?] Vests; Superfine Black, Fancy and col'd pants; Silk and merino shirts; Merino and Cotton Drawers; Linen and Cotton Shirts; Satinet Pants and Coats; Gloves, Suspenders, and Neck Ties, of all kinds;
Trunks, Valises, Carpet Bags, Ladies' Hat Boxes.
Fashionable Suits, of the latest style, made expressly to order—A fine lot of boys' clothing, wholesale and retail.  Low for Cash.
Jan. 25'59-1y                                                                                  D. Neil. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], August 13, 1861, p. 2, c. 7; October 22, 1861, p. 2, c. 7 (clearer)

Piedmont Springs.
Grimes County, Texas.

            9 miles from Holandale, where daily coaches connect with the Central Railroad, and 6 miles from Millican, where daily hacks connect with the Central Railroad, will be open for Visitors on the First of July.
This celebrated and most delightful summer resort has received such improvements as render it the most agreeable retreat the whole Confederacy offers to the invalid or pleasure seeker.
The new buildings are planned on the most liberal scale.  Their construction, convenience, comfort and beauty, are admirably combined.
The dining saloon, 126 feet long, ball room 90 feet long, parlors and billiard saloon, are large and elegant.  The bed chambers, single and double, are well arranged and neatly furnished.  The roomy and elegant galleries surrounding each of the four stories of the entire building, render its comfort complete.
The acknowledged merit of the waters—their astonishing curative properties are familiar to all who have tested their relief.
Nature in locating these Springs, sought to charm, the grounds gracefully sloping in every direction from the buildings, are beautifully wooded with the shady oak.  The entire face of the place is pleasure ease and contentment.
We congratulate our visitors upon having secured the services of Mr. Wm. J. Reynolds as Steward.  His long experience in many of the first hotels in various large cities, places him at the head of his profession.  He has engaged, from New Orleans, experienced aid in the way of a Housekeeper, Chamber-maids, Cooks, Waiter's &c.  A most successful hunter and fisherman is engaged for the season.  Our table shall be bountifully supplied with the best of everything the country affords.—Good music will be in constant attendance.
Our ten pin alleys, billiard tables, shooting gallery—the lake for fishing, and forest game will afford a diversity of amusement and recreation.  New bath houses are now being constructed.  Every arrangement will be thoroughly prepared for the comfort and enjoyment of our visitors.


            Board and Lodging per day, payable weekly, $2.50.
Board and lodging by the month, payable weekly, $2.00 per day.
Children and servants half price.
On no account will we do any credit business. We shall endeavor to give entire satisfaction, but without prompt payment we cannot defray our heavy expenses.
                                    Leander Cannon, Proprietor.
June 23 4m. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 22, 1861, p. 1, c. 1

Southern Literary Messenger.

            The Messenger comes out with the following flaming prospectus:
"Arrangements have been made to combine in the Messenger all of the most trashy, contemptible and popular features of Harper, Godey, Frank Leslie, the Herald, Home Journal, Ledger, Yankee Notion, Nick Nax, Budget of Fun, and the Phunny Phellow.  We shall have nothing but pictures.  We shall have nothing but the latest news and the fashions.  Diagrams of baby clothes, worked slippers, edgings, frills, cuffs, capes, furbelows, furaboves, and indeed all the most interior and intricate feminine fixings, shall be supplied in much profusion.  We shall pay particular attention to wood cuts, representing bonnets, cloaks, basquines, robes de all sorts, &c.  We shall furnish every month not less than 1800 different photographic views of the proper way to do up the back hair.  We shall devote eleven-ninths of each number to crochet work and fancy pin-cushions.  Meantime we shall devote our entire space to riddles, charades, acrostics and questions in arithmetic.  But the greater part of the magazine shall be given to little dabs of light literature a la Fanny Fern.  Our exclusive exertions, however, shall be strained for the procurement of tales, stories, narratives, novels, novellette, serials, serialietts, including Edward Everialettes and the like.  We shall buy Sylvanus Cobb.  We shall purchase Emerson Bennett.  We shall offer any sum for Mrs. Emma E. D. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. S. Southworth.  Any lady having more initials than Mrs. Southworth, shall be ours at all hazards and to the last extremity.  No expense shall be spared.  We shall rent N. P. Willis by the year.  We shall lease the remainder of the natural lives of all novelists in all parts of the world.  We shall, in a word satisfy, and if possible satiate the depraved taste of Southern patriotism."
Now who will refuse to subscribe to the Messenger after such promises?  Seriously, the Messenger is a valuable Journal, as we have often said.  It is published at Richmond, Va., at $3,00 a year, in advance. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 22, 1861, p. 1, c. 3
Summary:  Muster roll of the Columbia Blues, 1st Company Cavalry, Col. Bates' Regiment, now stationed at Quintana on the coast 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 22, 1861, p. 1, c. 6

Recruits Wanted.

            Recruits are wanted for immediate service in the Confederate Army, to serve in a company of Flying Artillery, at Velasco.  Each man will provide his own horse, and such arms as he has, at least two suits of winter clothing, and a pair of blankets.  Apply at Columbia, Brazoria county, to Capt. W. G. Mosely, or to Lieuts. H. P. Gayce and J. H. Dance. 

DEMOCRAT AND PLANTER [Columbia, TX], October 22, 1861, p. 2, c. 1

Military Institute.

            The Ninth Semi-Annual Session of this Institution will open on the first Monday of September next, with a full corps of teachers.  Special attention given to the Military Department, to prepare our young men for command.  Institute charge $115—no extras.  Instructions in Military Science to officers of volunteers, free of charge.  No deduction except for casualties or prolonged sickness, or where actual service in defence of the State shall call the student to the field.
                                                R. T. P. Allen, Supt.
June 18, 1861.