Compiled by Vicki Betts
Updated July 8, 2002 

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Scope:  English language books, articles, CD-ROMS, calendars, theses, and dissertations on the civilian clothing of men, women, and children, 1840-1865, focusing primarily on the United States, Great Britain, and Canada. 

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To purchase individual issues or reprints from Citizens’ Companion, The Watchdog, or Civil War Lady, please contact: 

Citizens’ Companion                The Watchdog                                      Joy Melcher
P.O. Box 707                          P.O. Box 1675                                     Civil War Lady
Marietta, OH 45750                Warren MI  48090-1675                      P.O. Box 531
                                                                            Clarinda IA  51632

For all other materials, please visit your local library, and if it does not have the items, inquire about interlibrary loan.

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Bowling, Elizabeth.  “How to Make a Dressy Gauged Apron.”  Citizens’ Companion 6 no.
        4 (October-November 1999):  26-30.
Miller, Beth.  “Soutache & the Braided Aprons.”  Civil War Lady no. 15 (1995):  4-8. 

 Ballroom Attire
Aldrich, Elizabeth. From the Ballroom to Hell:  Grace and Folly in Nineteenth Century
.  Evanston, Ill.:  Northwestern University Press, 1991.  [Includes dress.]
Grimble, Frances.  “Making Costumes for Victorian Balls.”  Vintage Fashion 2 no.1
        (January/February 1991):  44-49.
Guinca, Mary.  “Fancy That!  Victorian Costume Balls.”  Lady’s Gallery 3 no. 2 (1995):
Guinca, Mary.  “Party Dresses.”  Lady’s Gallery 1 no.3 (1993):  4-9.
Miller, Beth.  “The Ballgown.”  Civil War Lady 2 no.9 (1993):  2-5.
Miller, Beth.  “Ballgown Bodice Construction.”  Civil War Lady 2 no.10 (1994): 4-7.
On, Maola.  “Les Grande Toilets des Balles.”  Civil War Lady no. 23 (1999):  15-18,
Szatkowski, Karen J.  “What Shall I Wear to the Christmas Ball?”  Citizens’ Companion 2
        no. 5 (December 1995/January 1996):  18-20.
Wong, J. M.  “My Museum Find.”  Civil War Lady 1 no.1 (May/June 1991):  23.  [silk ball

Bloomers and Reform Dress
Bennett, Paul W.  “’Who Wore the Pants?’  Dress, Gender and Power, 1850-1914.”
History and Social Science Teacher 25 no. 4 (1990):  221-225.
Coon, Anne C.  “The Bloomer Costume:  Fashion Reform, Folly, and ‘Intellectual Slavery.’”
        Rochester History 57 (3) 1995:  18-24, 28.
Cyr, Paul Albert.  “The Progress of Bloomerism.”  Spinner:  People and Culture in
        Southeastern Massachusetts
5 (1996):  134-141.
Fischer, Gayle V.  “Clothes Make the Woman:  The National Dress Reform Association,
        1856-1865.”  M. A. thesis, Sarah Lawrence College, 1987.
Fischer, Gayle V.  “Dressing to Please God:  Pants-Wearing Women in Mid-Nineteenth
        Century Religious Communities.”  Communal Societies 15 (1995):  55-74.
Fischer, Gayle V.  “’Pantalets’ and “Turkish Trowsers’:  Designing Freedom in the
        Mid-Nineteenth-Century United States.”  Feminist Studies  23 no. 1 (1997):  111-140.
Fischer, Gayle V.  Pantaloons and Power:  A Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform in the
        United States
.  Kent, OH:  Kent State University, 2001.
Fischer, Gayle v.  “’She Ought to be a Female-Man’:  Dress Reform in the Oneida
        Community, 1848-1879.”  Mid-America 77 no. 3 (1995):  237-265.
Foote, Shelly.  “Bloomers.”  Dress 5 (1980):  1-12.
Henshaw, Betty Lou.  “The Bloomer Costume:  The Woman’s Dress Reform Movement of
        the 1850’s.”  M.S. thesis, University of Colorado, 1955.
Kesselman, Amy.  “The ‘Freedom Suit’:  Feminism and Dress Reform in the United States,
        1848-1875.”  Gender & Society 5 no. 4 (1991):  495-510.
Komski, Elizabeth, “Fashion’s Foes:  Dress Reform from 1850-1900.”  M.A. thesis, College
        of William and Mary, 2001.
Kriebl, Karen J.  “From Bloomers to Flappers:  The American Dress Reform Movement,
        1840-1920.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1998.
Merritt, M. Angeline.  “Dress Reform Practically and Physiologically Considered; With Plates,
        Illustrations, Opinions of the Press and the Private Testimony of Various Prominent
        Individuals.”  Buffalo:  Jewett, Thomas, 1852.  2 sheets.
Nelson, Jennifer Ladd.  "Dress Reform and the Bloomer."  Journal of American &
        Comparative Cultures
23 no. 1 (2000):  21-25.
Palmer, Heather.  “Mobility or Tranquility:  Bloomer’s.”  Lady’s Gallery  1 no.5 (1994):
Rice, Carla.  “Fashion, Feminism and Conflict:  The Politics of Dress Reform from 1850 to
        1914.”   M.A. thesis, Harvard University, 1985.
Shaw, Barbara Lorraine.  “Contested Ideologies:  Gender and Social Change in the
        Mid-Nineteenth Century Women’s  Dress Reform Movement.”  M.A. thesis, University
        of Maryland at College Park, 1995.
Smith, Gerrig.  “To the Reform Dress Association:  Peterboro, May 18th 1857.”
[Peterboro?, NY:  s.n., 1957].  one sheet.
Sprinthall, Carolyn.  “Nineteenth Century Dress Reform:  Changing the Shapes of Women’s
        Lives.”  Honors paper, Duke University, 1986.
Tinling, Marion.  “Bloomerism Comes to California.”  California History 61 no. 1 (1982):
Van Bellegham, Patricia.  “Dressing the Part:  Women’s Dress Reform, 1848-1861.”  B.A.
        thesis, California Polytechnic State University, 2001. 

Bonnets, Hats, Sunbonnets, Caps, Hoods, and Nets
Amneus, Cynthia.  “Cynthia Amneus, Costume Technician, Re-Creates a Spoon Bonnet,
        1861-1864.”  Lady’s Gallery 3 no. 4 (1996):  12-14.
Amneus, Cynthia.  “Summertime Spoons:  Bonnets of the Mid-1860’s.”  Civil War Lady 2
        no. 12 (1994):   14-18.
Bowling, Elizabeth.  “Making the Common Slat Bonnet.”  Citizens’ Companion 5 no. 5
        (December 1998-January 1999):  32-37.
Christen, Glenna Jo.  “Slat Bonnets:  Not Just for Work Anymore.”  The Watchdog 8 no. 3
        (Summer 2000):  7-8.
Clark, Fiona.  Hats.  Costume Accessories Series.  New York:  Drama Book Publishers,
Darnell, Paula Jean.  Victorian Millinery:  Ladies’ Hats, 1850-1900.  Reno, Nev.:  Fabric
        Fancies, 1995.
Dreher, Denise.  From the Neck Up:  An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking.  Minneapolis:
Madhatter Press, 1981.
Dublin, Thomas.  “Women’s Work and the Family Economy:  Textiles and Palm Leaf
        Hatmaking in New England, 1830-1850.”  Tocqueville Review 5 no. 2 (1983):
Gamber, Wendy.  The Female Economy:  The Millinery and Dressmaking Trades,
.  Urbana:  University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Gray, Linda.  “The Case of the Hidden Bonnet Pins.”  Citizens’ Companion 8 no. 3
        (August-September 2001):  21-23.
The Ladies’ Self-Instructor in Millinery and Mantua Making, Embroidery and Applique
        1853.  Reprint.  Mendocino, CA:  R. L. Shep, 1988.
Langley, Susan and John Dowling.  Vintage Hats and Bonnets, 1770-1970:  Identification
        and Values
.  Paducah, KY:  Collector Books, 1998.
Leisch, Juanita.  “Implementing Historic Accuracy:  A ‘Sharp’ Approach.” Civil War Lady 1
        no. 2 (1991):  5-7.  [head coverings for females according to age]
Leisch, Juanita.  “Topping Off Your Impression.”  Civil War Lady 1, no. 6: 9-11.  [hats]
Liechty, Mindy.  "An Infant's Slat Bonnet from Mrs. Christen's Miscellanea."  The Watchdog 10 
        no. 3 (Summer 2002):  15.
Marsh, Heidi, comp.  Hair, Hat, Hood, and Bonnet, Too, of the Era of the Hoop.
Livermore, CA:  by the author, 1993.
Mellish, Susan.  “Romancing the Past with Hats.” Lady’s Gallery 1 no. 5 (1994): 4-13.
Miller, Lynnette.  “Fashionable Bonnets--1860 to 1865.”  Civil War Lady  2 no.9 (1993):
Miller, Lynnette.  “A Hood by Any Other Name...”  Civil War Lady 2 no.10 (1994):  13-15.
Miller, Lynnette.  “Popular Trims for Fashionable Bonnets, 1855-1865,” Citizens’
2 no. 2 (June/July 1995):  13-15.
Miller, Lynnette.  “Popular Trims for Fashionable Bonnets, 1855-1865.”  Citizens’
2 no.3 (August/September 1995):  14-16.
Miller, Lynette.  “Searching for the Every Day Bonnet.”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no. 5
        (December 1996/January 1997):  24-27.  [sunbonnets]
Miller, Lynnette.  “To Drive the Cold Winter Away.”  Citizens’ Companion 1 no.5
        (December-January, 1995):  13-15.  [hoods, soft bonnets, etc.]
Murphy, Vivian.  “Netting for the Hair:  Simple or Elaborate Headdresses from the Needle
        Arts of the 19th Century.”  Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 3 (August-September 1997):
Musselman, Anne and Beth Crabb.  “More Slat Bonnet Observations.”  The Watchdog 9 no.
        4 (Fall 2001):  12-14.
Sneathen, Brenda.  “Vive La Belle Chapeaux, or Long Live the Beautiful Hat.” Vintage
2 no.4 (July/August 1991):  32-38.
Wilson, Kax.  “Nineteenth-Century Embroidery on Net” Piecework 2 no.2 (March/April
        1994): 28-30. 

British Clothing
Arnold, Janet.  Patterns of Fashion:  English Women’s Dresses and Their Construction,
.  London:  Wace, 1964.
Bentley, Nicolas.  The Victorian Scene:  A Picture Book of the Period, 1937-1901.
London:  George Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, 1968.
Cunnington, Cecil Willett.  English Women’s Clothing in the Nineteenth Century.  New
        York:  Dover, 1990.
Cunnington, Cecil Willett, and Phyllis Cunnington.  Handbook of English Costume in the
Century.  London:  Faber and Faber, 1970.
Tozer, Jane and Sarah Levitt.  Fabric of Society:  A Century of People and Their Clothes,
.  Carno, Piwys, Wales:  Laura Ashley, 1983.

Dubner, Lindy.  "About Calico Buttons."  Civil War Lady no. 20 (1997):  6.
Fink, Nancy and Maryalice Ditzler.  Buttons:  The Collector’s Guide to Selecting,
        Restoring, and Enjoying
New and Vintage Buttons.  Philadelphia:  Courage Books,
Luscomb, Sally C.  The Collector’s Encyclopedia of Buttons. Altglen, PA:  Schiffer, 1999.
Meredith, Alan and Gillian Meredith.  Buttons.  Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire:  Shire
        Publications, 2000.
Nehring, Nancy.  “Crocheted Buttons.”  Piecework  2 no.2 (March/April 1994):  65-67.
        also “Crocheted and Buttons to Make” pp.  68-69.
Nehring, Nancy.  50 Heirloom Buttons to Make.  Newtown, CT:  Taunton Press, 1996.
Osborne, Peggy Ann.  Button, Button:  Identification and Price Guide.  Altglen, PA:
        Schiffer, 1997.
Wisniewski, Debra J.  Antique & Collectible Buttons:  Identification & Values.  Paducah,
        KY:  Collector Books, 1997.
Zaharias, John A.  “Button, Button, Who’s Got the Button?”  The Watchdog 7 no. 2 (Spring
        1999):  15. 

Canadian Clothing
Brett, Katharine B.  Clothing Worn in Canada:  Changing Fashions in the Nineteenth
.  [Ottawa]:  National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada, 1979.
McBride, Sheri.  “Dress Codes: The Etiquette of Dress in 19th Century Charlottetown.”
Island Magazine 48 (2000):  31-38.  [Prince Edward Island]

 “In Detail.”  Threads no.100 (April/May 2002):  back cover.

Children’s Clothing
Bassett, Lynne Zacek.  "'The Great Leap":  Youths' Clothing in the Early Nineteenth
        Century."  Annual Proceedings of the Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife.
        22 (1997):  184-202.  [1820's-1850's]
Carpenter, Virginia.  “American Children as Seen in Fashion Publications: 1850-1890.”
        Master’s thesis, Cornell University, 1948.
“Civilian Life Featured in Siege of Charleston Exhibit.”  Citizens’ Companion 7 no. 3
        (August-September 2000):  9.  [Includes photo of child’s dress]
Clark, Elizabeth.  "Dressing Young boys:  Options for Living History."  The Watchdog 10
        no. 2 (Spring 2002):  18-19.
Crocker, Karen N.  “Coming of Age in Victorian America.”  Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 2
        (June-July 1997):  12-16.  [younger girls]
Crocker, Karen N.  “Coming of Age in Victorian America:  A Guide for Dressing the Young
        Lady Reenactor.”  Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 3 (August-September 1997):  12-15.
Crocker, Karen N.  “Dressing the Young Reenactor.”  The Lady Reenactor v.1, pp.
        32-35, 58-59.
Crocker, Karen N.  “Infant Dress--1845-1865.”  Citizens’ Companion 2 no. 4
        (October/November 1995):  10-12.
“Exhibit of Children’s Clothing Explores ABCs of Gender Identity.”  Citizens’ Companion 6
        no. 3 (August-September 1999):  9. [includes photo of boy’s wool plaid skirt suit,
Harris, Kristina.  The Child in Fashion, 1750 to 1920.  Atglen, PA:  Schiffer Pub. Ltd.,
Haug, Joanne.  “Dressing Up:  Boy’s Early Childhood Costume” Lady’s Gallery 1 no.3
        (1993):  44-49.
Helvenston, Sally I.  “American Children’s Costume in the Period 1841-1885 and Its Relation
        to the Child’s Role in Society.” M.S. thesis, Florida State University, 1975.
Kartchner, Grace Joan.  “Dresses of Mormon Girls, Ages One to Twelve, in the Great Salt
        Lake and Utah Valleys from 1847 to 1896.”  M.S. thesis, Oregon State University,
Kevill-Davies, Sally.  Yesterday’s Children:  The Antiques and History of Childcare.
Woodbridge, Suffolk, England:  Antique Collectors’ Club, 1991.
Leisch, Juanita.  “Advice for Young Mothers.”  Civil War Lady 1 no. 1 (May/June 1991):
        20-22; 1 no. 5: 17; 2 no.8: 19-20.
Leisch, Juanita.  “Advice for Young Mothers:  Sound Advice for Dressing Youngsters.”  Civil
        War Lady
  1 no. 2 (1991): 14-16; 1 no.3 (1992): 19-21; 1 no.4 (1992): 17.
Leisch, Juanita.  “Children’s Corner.”  Civil War Lady 1 no.6: 17; 2 no. 7: 17-18.
MacPhail, Anna.  The Well-Dressed Child.  Atglen, PN: Schiffer, 1999. [British]
Miller, Beth.  “Advice to Young Mothers.”  Civil War Lady 2 no.10 (1994): 18.
Miller, Beth.  “Dressing Baby.”  Civil War Lady 2 no.9 (1993): 10-11.
Miller, Lynnette.  “Infant Caps—A Small Controversy.”  Civil War Lady  2, no. 11 (1994):
Olian, JoAnne.  Children’s Fashions, 1860-1912:  1,065 Costume Designs from "La
        Mode Illustre.”
  New York:  Dover Publications, 1994.
Richards, M. Lynn.  “Memories of a Girlhood Apparel From the United States Indian
        Territory, 1850-1907.”  Costume 29 (1995):  68-81.
Rose, Clare.  Children’s Clothes Since 1750.  London:  Batsford, 1989.

Church of the Brethren
Rupel, Esther Fern.  Brethren Dress:  A Testimony to Faith.  Philadelphia, PA:  Brethren
        Encyclopedia, 1994.

Collars, Cuffs, Neckties, and Wristlets
 Campbell-Shoaf, Heidi.  “Details, Details, Details:  Women’s Neckties & Wristlets.”
Citizens’ Companion 7 no. 1 (April-May 2000):  12-18.
“CDVs:  Take a Look at These Collars.”  Costume & Dressmaker no. 3 (1997):  9.
Scalessa, Nicole H.  “Nineteenth-Century American Women’s Collars and Cuffs:  Beautiful
        and Necessary.”  Piecework 10 no. 3 (May/June 2002):  59-62.
Scalessa, Nicole H.  “Point D’Eglantier Collar to Crochet.”  Piecework 10 no. 3 (May/June
        2002:  63-64.  [from June, 1854] 

Melcher, Joy and Jen Peterman.  “Corselets.”  Civil War Lady no.21 (1999):  6-9. 

Corsets and Stays
Ambrose, Bonnie Holt.  The Little Corset Book:  A Workbook on Period Underwear.
New York:  Costume & Fashion Press, 1997.
Doyle, Robert.  Waisted Efforts:  An Illustrated Guide to Corset Making.  Halifax, N.S.:
Sartorial Press Publications, 1997.
Faeth-Greketis, Maryanne. “The Corset Question.”  Citizens’ Companion  1 no.1
        (April/May 1994):  13.
Fontanel, Beatrice.  Support and Seduction:  The History of Corsets and Bras.  New
        York:  Abrams, 1997.
Gray, Linda.  “Stays—An Alternative to Corsets.”  Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 1
        (April-May 1997):  16-17.
Hawthorne, Rosemary.  Chinstraps, Nose-Moulds & Corsets:  A Shopper’s Guide to
        Feminine Beauty, 1800s-1930s
.  London:  Michael O’Mara, 1999.
Kolbe, Val.  “Urban, Middle-Class Women and the Fashion of Corsetry in Nineteenth
        Century.”  M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1984.
Smith, Bernard.  “Market Development, Industrial Development:  The Case of the American
        Corset Trade, 1860-1920.”  Business History Review 65 no. 1 (1991):  l91-129.
Steele, Valerie.  The Corset:  A Cultural History.  New Haven:  Yale University Press,
Summers, Leigh.  Bound to Please:  A History of the Victorian Corset.  New York:  Berg,
Waugh, Norah.  Corsets and Crinolines.  New York:  Theatre Arts Books/Methuen, 1954. 

Corson, Richard.  Fashions in Eyeglasses.  London:  Peter Owen, 1980.
Hughes, Nicky.  “A Closer Look.”  The Watchdog 3 no. 4 (Autumn 1995):  6-7.
McEvoy, Thomas.  “Civil War Glasses—Or, How Not to Make a Spectacle of Yourself.”
The Lady Reenactor v.1, pp.48-49.   
Merta, Matt.  "The Eyes Have It:  A Close Look at Civil War Period Eye Wear."  Camp
        Chase Gazette
20 no. 4 (March 1993):  38-40.

Fancy Dress
Chartrand, Karen.  “Fancy Dress:  A Kaleidoscope of Costume.”  Civil War Lady no. 23
        (1999):  2-7.
Schmitt, Carolann.  “Fancy Dress: Costumes for These Special Occasions Require Originality
        and Creativity.”  Citizens’ Companion 6 no. 3 (August-September 1999):   12-18. 

Alexander, Helene.  Fans.  Costume Accessories Series.  New York:  Drama Book
        Publishers, 1984.
Alexander, Helene.  Fans.  Princes Risborough:  Shire, 2002.
Blue, Wendy Hamilton.  “Cupid’s Weapon.”  Lady’s Gallery 2 no.4: 4-9.  (fans, including
        two 1850, one mid-19th century, one 1840)
Hart, Avril.  Fans.  London:  V & A Publications, 1998.
Mackay, James.  Fans.  Edison, NJ:  Chartwell Books, 2000.
Rhead, G. Woolliscroft.  History of the Fan.  London:  Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner, and
        Co., 1910. 

Hughes, Susan Lyons.  “Fishing for a Correct Fichu.”  The Watchdog 2 no. 2 (Summer
1994): 5.
Logan, Anisa P.  “The Lacy Fichu.”  Civil War Lady no. 22 (1999):  2-7. 

Frontier Clothing
Campbell, Julie A. and Brenda Brandt.  “’No Seamstresses, No Ready-Made Clothing’:
Clothing Consumption on the American Frontier, 1850-1890.”  Clothing and Textiles
        Research Journal
v.12 no. 3 (1994):  16-21.
Carlson, Laurie Winn.  “On Sidesaddle to the Columbia: Pioneer Travel in Feminine
        Fashion.”  Columbia 13 no. 1 (1999):  9-14.
Evenson, Sandra Lee and David J. Trayte.  "Dress and the Negotiations of Relationships
        Between the Dakota and Euroamericans in Nineteenth Century Minnesota" in Religion,
        Dress and the Body
.  Edited by Linda Arthur.  Oxford:  Berg, 1999.  pp. 95-116.
Helvenston, Sally I.  “Fashion on the Frontier.”  Dress 17 (1990): 141-155.
Helvenston, Sally I.  “Feminine Response to a Frontier Environment as Reflected in the
        Clothing of Kansas Women:  1854-1895.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Kansas State University,
Helvenston, Sally I.  “Ornament or Instrument?  Proper Roles for Women on the Kansas
Frontier.”  Kansas Quarterly 18 no. 3 (1986):  35-49.  [related to dress]
Holman, David and Billie Persons.  Buckskin and Homespun:  Frontier Texas Clothing,
.  Austin:  Wind River Press, 1979.
Larson, Joyce Marie.  “Clothing of Pioneer Women of Dakota Territory, 1861-1889.” M.S.
        thesis, South Dakota State University, 1978.
Love, Deanna.  “Dress of American Women Pioneer in the Westward Movement from
        1836-1889.”  Master’s thesis, University of Maryland, 1969.
McMartin, Maria Barbara.  “Dress of the Oregon Trail Emigrants: 1843-1855.” Master’s
        thesis, Iowa State University, 1977.
Richard, K. Keith.  “Of ‘Gingham,’ ‘Barn Doors,’ and ‘Exquisites’:  George H. Himes on
        Pioneer Fashion.”  Oregon Historical Quarterly 90 no. 4 (1990):  385-393.
Walker, Margaret.  “’All the Fantastic Costumes’:  Rags on the Way to Riches (And No
        Skirting Around the Issue of Who Really Wore the Pants).”  Overland Journal 15 no. 4
        (1997-1998):  12-18.  [clothing of women on overland trail to California in the 1850s] 

Ewing, Elisabeth.  Fur in Dress.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1981. 

Garibaldi Shirts
Gilbert, Pat.  “The Great Cover-Up.”  Civil War Lady 2 no. 12 (1994):  20-21.  [Garibaldi
Schmitt, Carolann.  “Politics and Fashion:  The Garibaldi Shirt.”  Citizens’ Companion 1
        no.3 (August/September 1994): 10-13. 

The American Lady and the Lady of London Paper Dolls, Museum of the City of New
.  New York:  Dover Publications, 1994.  [“American Lady” is reproduction of
        1870; “Lady of London” is reproduction of 1850]
Arnold, Janet.  A Handbook of Costume.  New York:  Macmillan, 1974.
Baclawski, Karen.  The Guide to Historic Costume.  New York:  Drama Book Publishers,
Bailey, Adrian.  The Passion for Fashion.  Limpsfield:  Dragon’s World, 1988.
Baruma, Anna.  Fashions of the Past.  London:  Collins & Brown, 2000.
Bickford-Swarthout, Doris.  “Victorian Style.”  Lady’s Gallery 4 no. 1 (Dec. 1996):  33-37.
[includes fashion plates 1841-1868
Bigelow, Marybelle S.  Fashion in History:  Western Dress, Prehistoric to Present.  2nd
        ed.  Minneapolis, MN:  Burgess Publishing Co., 1979.
Blum, Stella.  Fashions and Costumes from Godey’s Lady’s Book Including Eight Plates
        in Full Color
.  New York:  Dover Publications, 1985.
Bohrer, Norma.  "A Victorian Lady's Accoutrements."  Camp Chase Gazette 20 no. 8
        (July 1993):  38-40.
Bradfield, Nancy.  Costume in Detail, 1730-1930.  Boston:  Plays, Inc., 1968, 1983.
Buck, Anne.  Costume and Costume Accessories.  New York:  Thomas Nelson and Sons,
Buck, Anne.  Victorian Costume and Costume Accessories.  London:  Herbert Jenkins,
        1961. Rev. 2nd ed. New York:  Costume & Fashion Press, 1997.
Burch, Janis G.  “The Fashionable Silhouette of American Women Using the Crinoline During
        the Victorian Period of 1850 Through 1870.”  M.S. thesis, University of
        Wisconsin-Stout, 1987.
Burgess, Janet.  Clothing Guidelines for the Civil War Era.  new ed.  Davenport, Iowa:
Amazon Drygoods, 1985.
Byrde, Penelope.  Nineteenth Century Fashion.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1992.
Capretz, Marilyn.  “Women’s Dresses (1850-1879):  From Selected South Louisiana
        Costume Collections.”  M.S. thesis, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1994.
Cashen, Marilynn A.  A Moment in Time:  Images of Victorian Fashions from the
.  South Plainfield, NJ:  MAC Publications, 1992.
Cavanaugh, Cheryl Lynn.  “Fashion, Class and Labor:  Clothing in American Women’s
        Fiction, 1840-1913.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign,
Civil War Ladies:  Fashions and Needle-Arts of the Early 1860’s.  Mendocino, CA:  R. L.
        Shep, 1989.
Clark, Elizabeth Stewart.  “Assembling a ‘Best Bet’ Wardrobe:  Good Advice for New
        Reenactors.”  Citizens’ Companion 8 no. 5 (December 2001-January 2002):  12-19.
Colburn, Carol Ann.  “The Dress of the James J. Hill Family, 1863-1916.”  Ph.D.
        dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1989.
Coleman, Elizabeth Ann.  Changing Fashions 1800-1970.  New York:  Brooklyn Museum,
Collard, Eileen.  The Cut of Women’s 19th Century Dress, Part 3:  Victorian Gothic.
        Burlington, Ontario:  Costume Society of Ontario, 1978.
Connolly, Marguerite Alexandra.  “Dressing for the Occasion:  The Differentiation of
        Women’s Costume in America, 1770-1910.”  Master’s thesis, University of Delaware,
Costume Society.  Early Victorian Costume, 1830-1860:  Proceedings of the Third
        Annual Conference of
the Costume Society, 1969.  London:  Published for the
        Society by Victoria and Albert Museum, 1969.
Costume Society.  High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890:  Proceedings of the Second
        Annual Conference of
the Costume Society, 1968.  London:  Published for the
        Society by Victoria and Albert Museum, 1968.
Covais, Joseph S.  “Women’s Fashion 1830-1870:  A Simplified Perspective.”  Mid West
Museums Magazine 7 no. 2 (April-June 1986):  14-21.
Crane, Diana.  Fashion and its Social Agendas:  Class, Gender, and Identity in Clothing.
        Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 2000.  [1850s-1990s]
Crocker, Karen N.  “Coming of Age in Victorian America:  A Guide for Dressing the Young
        Lady Reenactor.”  Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 3 (August-September 1997):  12-15.
Crocker, Karen N.  “Creating the Proper Impression:  How Did They Make That?”
Citizens’ Companion 1 no.1 (April/May 1994):  14-17, 20-22.
Cumming, Valerie.  Costume History, 1500-1900.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1981.
Cumming, Valerie.  The Visual History of Costume Accessories.  New York:  Costume &
        Fashion Press, 1998.
Cunningham, Patricia, ed.  Dress in American Culture.  Bowling Green:  Bowling Green
        State University, 1993.
Cunnington, Cecil Willett.  Feminine Attitudes in the Nineteenth Century.  New York:
Haskell House Publishers, 1973.
Davenport, Millia.  The Book of Costume.  Vol. I.  New York:  Crown Publishers, 1948.
DeMarly, Diana.  The History of Haute Couture, 1850-1950.  New York:  Holmes and
        Meier, 1980.
Draper, Allison Stark.  What People Wore During the Civil War.  New York:  PowerKids
        Press, 2001.
During War Times, 1775-1945
[2001 Historic Fashions calendar].  Arlington, VA:  Q
        Graphics Production Company, 2000. 
Evans, Mary.  How to Make Historic American Costumes.  Detroit:  Gale Research Co.,
        1976.  reprint of 1942 ed.
Ewing, Elisabeth.  Everyday Dress, 1650-1900.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1984.
“Fashion Notes from 1864:  Arthur’s Magazine.”  Civil War Lady no. 21 (1999):  14-15.
A Fashion Survey:  Nineteenth Century American Women
.  Published as a Guide for the
        Cincinnati Art Museum.  Cincinnati, OH:  Fashion Group, n.d.
Fertig, Judith M.  “Fashions from the Gilded Age:  The Shelburne Museum Collection”
     Vintage Fashion 2 no. 1 (January/February 1991): 28-34. [photo excellent 1860
Foster, Vanda.  A Visual History of Costume in the Nineteenth Century.  London:  B. T.
        Batsford, 1984.
Frost, S. Annie.  The Art of Dressing Well:  A Complete Guide to Economy, Style and
        Propriety of
Costume.  New York:  Dick and Fitzgerald, 1870.
Gernsheim, Alison.  Fashion and Reality.  London:  Faber & Faber, 1963.
Gibbs-Smith, Charles H.  The Fashionable Lady in the 19th Century.  London:  Her
        Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1960.
Ginsburg, Madeleine, et al.  Four Hundred Years of Fashion.  London:  Victoria and Albert
        Museum, 1992.
“The Girl I Left Behind Me.”  Military Images 6 no. 4 (January-February, 1985):  3-24.
Godey’s Lady’s Book
.  all years.  often available on microfilm at university libraries.
Goldthorpe, Caroline.  From Queen to Empress:  Victorian Dress, 1837-1877.  New
        York:  Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988.
Grafton, Carol Belanger.  Shoes, Hats and Fashion Accessories:  A Pictorial Archive
        1850-1940:  2,020
Illustrations.  Mineola, NY:  Dover Publications, 1998.
Grafton, Carol Belanger.  Victorian Fashions:  Over 1,200 Illustrations of Women’s
        Fashions from 1855-1903
.  New York:  Dover, 1999.
Grimble, Frances.  After a Fashion:  How to Reproduce, Restore, and Wear Vintage
.  San Francisco:  Lavolta Press, 1993.
Guinca, Mary.  “Something in the Water:  19th-Century Watering Place Customs and
        Costumes.”  Lady’s Gallery 2, no. 1 (1994): 33-38.
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine
.  available on microfilm in many university libraries.
Harper’s Weekly Magazine
.  available on microfilm in many university libraries.
Harris, Kristina.  Collector’s Guide to Vintage Fashions:  Identification and Value.
Paducah, KY:  Collector Books, 1999.
Harris, Kristina.  Victorian & Edwardian Fashions for Women, 1840 to 1919.  Atglen,
        PA:  Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1995.
Hartley, Florence.  The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness.  Boston:  J.
S. Locke and Co., 1860.  Reprint ed.  Davenport, IA:  Amazon Drygoods, 1993.  [See
        chapters “Dress,” “Traveling,” “Receipts for the Complexion, &c,” and suggestions in
        other chapters on proper dress.]
Haug, Joanne.  “The Fashionable Lady.”  Lady’s Gallery 1 no.1 (1993): 29-31.
Hawley, David.  The Treasures of the Steamboat Arabia.  Kansas City:  the author, 1995.
[photos of some clothing and related articles.]
Helvenston, Sally I.  “Popular Advice for the Well-Dressed Woman in the 19th Century.”
Dress 5 (1980):  31-47.
Holland, Vyvyan.  Hand Coloured Fashion Plates, 1770 to 1899.  London:  B. T.
        Batsford, 1955.
Hoobler, Dorothy.  Vanity Rules:  A History of American Fashion and Beauty.
Brookfield, CT:  Milbrook Press, 1999.
Hughes, Susan Lyons.  First Impressions:  Getting Started in Civilian Reenacting.
Marietta, OH:  Camp Chase Publishing Co., 1994.
Hunnisett, Jean.  Period Costume for Stage and Screen:  Patterns for Women’s Dress,
.  Studio City, NY:  Players Press, 1991.
Illustrated London News
Introligator, Meredith Rachel.  “Clothing Storage in Nineteenth Century U.S. Households.”
M.S. thesis, Iowa State University, 1989.
Jonston, Susan.  Fashion Paper Dolls from Godey’s Lady’s Book 1840-1854.  New
        York:  Dover Publications, 1977.
Joselit, Jenna Weissman.  A Perfect Fit:  Clothes, Character, and the Promise of
.  New York:  Metropolitan Books, 2001.
Kalman, Bobbie.  19th Century Clothing.  New York:  Crabtree Publishing Co., 1993.
Kidwell, Claudia and Valerie Steele.  Men and Women:  Dressing the Part.  Washington,
DC:  Smithsonian Institute Press, 1989.
Kunciov, Robert.  Mr.Godey’s Ladies.  New York:  Bonanza Books, 1971.
Laver, James.  Fashions and Fashion Plates, 1800-1900.  London:  King Penguin Books,
Leisch, Juanita.  Civil War Civilians.  Gettysburg:  Thomas Publications, 1994.
Leisch, Juanita.  “An Epistle on Individuality.”  Civil War Lady 1 no.5:  5-8.
Leisch, Juanita.  The Family Album:  Ladies’ Wear Daily.  Berryville, Va:  The Author,
Leisch, Juanita.  “A Photographic Survey Made Easy:  How We Know ‘Who Wore What.’”
Citizens’ Companion 2 no. 5 (December 1995/January 1996):  21-24.
Leisch, Juanita.  “Studying Original Civil War Bodices.”  Civil War Lady 2 no. 7 (1993):
Leisch, Juanita.  Who Wore What?  Women’s Wear, 1861-1865.  Gettysburg, PA:  Thomas,
Leisch, Juanita.  “Who Wore What?  Examining the Methodology.”  Citizens’ Companion 2
        no. 4 (1995):  13-17.
Levitt, Sarah.  Victorians Unbuttoned:  Registered Designs for Clothing, Their Makers
        and Wearers, 1838
-1900.  London:  George Allen and Unwin, 1986.
Look of the Ladies:  Clothing During the Civil War
.  Philadelphia, PA:  Civil War Library
        and Museum, 1995. [exhibit catalog]
Lord, William Barry.  The Corset and the Crinoline:  A Book of Modes and Costumes
        from Remote Periods
to the Present Time.  London:  Ward, Lock, and Tyler, 1868.
Lowe, Elizabeth D.  “Museum Collections vs. Fashion Magazines:  Aesthetic Rules.”  Home
Research Journal 19 no. 3 (March 1991):  233-eoa.
MacDonald, Anne L.  No Idle Hands:  The Social History of American Knitting.  New
        York:  Ballantine Books, 1988.
McClellan, Elisabeth.  History of American Costume, 1607-1870.  New York:  London:  B.
        T. Batsford, 1986.
McKeown, Deborah.  “Crinoline Triumphant!  Women’s Fashions 1860-1865.”  Citizens’
1 no.4 (September/October 1994): 21-25; 1 no.5 (December-January
        1995): 21-25.
McMurry, Elsie F.  American Dresses, 1780-1900:  Identification and Significance of
        148 Extant Dresses
.  Ithaca, NY:  Cornell University, 2001.  CD-ROM.
McMurry, Elsie F.  “Reflections of Cultural Change in American Dress from 1850-1890.”
        M.S. thesis, Cornell University, 1966.
Marsh, Heidi, comp.  Knit, Net, Crochet, and More of the Era of the Hoop. Livermore,
        CA:  by the author, 1993.
Marsh, Heidi, comp.  Sew and So Forth of the Era of the Hoop.  Livermore, CA:  by the
        author, 1994.
Marsh, Heidi, comp.  Styles and So Forth of the Era of the Hoop.  Livermore, CA:  by the
        author, 1994.
Martin, Richard and Harold Koda.  Bloom.  New York:  Metropolitan Museum of Art,
        1995. [includes 1864, 1856 gowns]
Martin, Richard and Harold Koda.  Swords Into Ploughshares.  New York:  Metropolitan
        Museum of Art, 1995.
Melcher, Joy.  “Women Who Work.” Civil War Lady no. 20 (1997):  12-16.
Mescher, Virginia.  Historic Accounts:  A Study of Store Ledgers from the Mid-Nineteenth
        Century, With a Searchable Database
.  Burke, VA: Vintage Volumes, 2001.
“Middle Aged Women and Little Old Ladies.”  Civil War Lady no. 18 (November 1996):
Mills, Betty J.  Amanda’s New Life:  A Journal of Fashion History  Through Paper
.  Lubbock:  Texas Tech University, 1983.  [Well researched—second of three
        volume set.]
Moore, Doris Langley-Levy.  Fashion Through Fashion Plates:  1771-1970. New York:
Clarkson N. Potter, 1971.
Moore, Doris Langley-Levy.  The Woman in Fashion.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1949.
Musser, Cynthia Erfurt.  “Silhouettes in the Past:  A Study in Fashion Trends. The 1840s:
End of the Crinoline.”  Vintage Fashions 1 no.3 (May/ June 1990):  18-25.
Musser, Cynthia Erfurt.  “Silhouettes in the Past:  A Study in Fashion Trends. The 1850s:
Craze for the Hoop.”  Vintage Fashions 2 no.3 (May/June 1991): 36-42.
Musser, Cynthia Erfurt.  “Silhouettes in the Past:  A Study in Fashion Trends. The 1860s, Part
        I:  Pyramid Shaping, Looped-Up Skirts and Round Waists.” Vintage Fashions 3 no. 1
        (January/February 1992): 12-16.
Norris, Herbert.  Costume & Fashion.  New York:  Dutton, 1933.
“Novelties for December From the Pages of Lady’s Book, 1857.” Lady’s Gallery 1 no.3
        (1993):  50.
“Orientalism:  Visions of the East in Western Dress.”  Lady’s Gallery 2 no. 4: 60, 63.  [photo
        of opera cloak, c1850]
Peacock, John.  Costume, 1066-1990s.  Rev. ed.  London:  Thomas and Hudson, 1994.
Perrot, Philippe.  Fashioning the Bourgiousie:  A History of Clothing in the Nineteenth
.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1994.
Peterson’s Magazine
Peterson’s Patterns for Civil War Era Ladies
. 2nd ed.  Springfield, OR:  Pioneer
        Printwork, 1994.
Presley, Ann Beth and Martha Jenkins.  “A 19th Century Day Dress, Documentation and
        Reproduction.”  Costume & Dressmaker no. 1 (1996):  5-9.
Rawlings, Eleanor Hasbruck.  Godeys Costume Plates in Color.  New York:  Dover
        Publications, 1979.
.  [1998 Historic Fashions calendar].  Arlington, VA:  Q Graphics Production
        Co., 1997.
Richardson, Joanna.  La Vie Parisienne, 1852-1870.  New York:  Viking Press, 1971.
Roberts, Helene E.  “The Exquisite Slave:  The Role of Clothes in the Making of the Victorian
        Woman.”  Signs 2 no. 3 (1977):  554-569.
Rowland-Warne, L.  Costume.  Eyewitness Books.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.
[Although a children’s book, many excellent color photographs of original and
        reproduction clothing and accessories.]
Ruth, John A.  Decorum, a Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the Best
        American Society
.  Tyrone PA:  Westvaco, 1979.
Schmidt, Albert J.  Fashioning the Bourgeoisie:  A History of Clothing in the Nineteenth
.  Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 1994.
Schmitt, Carolann.  “Some Thoughts on Diversity in Dress:  ‘Playing It Safe’ vs. Finding New
        Information.”  Citizens’ Companion 9 no. 1 (April-May 2002):  25-27.
Setnik, Linda.  Victorian Costume for Ladies, 1860-1900.  Atglen, PA:  Schiffer Pub. Ltd.,
Severa, Joan.  Dressed for the Photographer:  Ordinary Americans & Fashion,
.  Kent, Ohio:  Kent State University Press, 1995.
Sirkis, Susan Bonsall.  The Wish Booklet:  Fashion 1861-1865.  Reston, VA:  the author,
1965.  [costuming dolls]
Snyder-Haug, Diane.  Antique & Vintage Clothing:  A Guide to Dating & Valuation of
        Women’s Clothing
1850 to 1940.  Paducah, KY:  Collector Books, 1997.  [pp. 8-19
        is “The Crinoline 1850-1869.”]
Strand, Sandra Lou.  “The Psychology of Dress and Its Effects Interpreted in Nineteenth
        Century Costume of Women.”  M.A. thesis, University of Washington, 1964.
“Swords into Ploughshares:  Military Dress and the Civilian Wardrobe.”  Lady’s Gallery 3
        no. 2 (1995):  58.  [review of an exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
Tandberg, Gerilyn G.  “Towards Freedom in Dress for the 19th Century Woman.”  Dress
11 (1985):  11-30.  [morning gowns, josies, maternity dresses, day gowns]
Taylor, Lauren.  “A Common Thread:  A Review of Civil War Fashions.”  Civil War Times
24 no. 3 (1985):  32-41.
Thieme, Otto C.  Simply Stunning.  Cincinnati, OH:  Cincinnati Museum, 1988.
Thieme, Otto C., et al.  With Grace & Favour:  Victorian and Edwardian Fashion in
.  Cincinnati:  Cincinnati Art Museum, 1993.
“A Time Line of Influences on American Clothing, 1840-1990.” Human Ecology Forum 19
        no. 3 (Spring 1991):  22-25.
Tortora, Phyllis and Keith Eubank.  A Survey of Historic Costume.  New York:  Fairchild
Publications, 1989.
Turza, Beth.  “Women’s Work Dresses.” Midwest Open Air Museum Magazine 21 no. 1
        (2000):  17-21.
Turza, Beth.  “Working Women’s Attire:  A Study of Four Cotton Print Dresses &
        Construction Notes.”  Citizens’ Companion 5 no. 6 (February-March 1999):  18-24.
Tyler, Linda Kartchner.  “Material Culture of Nineteenth-Century America as Reflected in
        Women’s Fashion.”  D.A. thesis, Illinois State University, 1999.
Urbanski, Mary Ellen.  "A Civil War Fashion Dictionary, Part II."  Camp Chase Gazette 18
        no. 5 (April 1991):  26-27.
Urbanski, Mary Ellen.  "The Dilemma of the 'Everyday' Woman."  Camp Chase Gazette 19
        no. 10 (September 1992):  34-35.
Urbanski, Mary Ellen.  “In the Eye of the Beholder.”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no. 6
        (February-March 1997):  11-13.
Urbanski, Mary Ellen.  “Myths, Fallacies and Misinformation.”  Citizens’ Companion 1 no.3
        (August/September 1994): 17-19.
Vansteamburg, Arny.  The Everyday Clothing of Rural Women at the Time of the Civil
.  Rev. ed.  Baltimore:  Mariah Furnace Press, 1993.
Vachon, Diane Leggett.  “Documentation Guidelines for Women’s Day Dress, 1850-1949.”
M.A. thesis, University of Kentucky, 1976.
Victorian and Edwardian Fashions from “La Mode Illustree”.
  Mineola, NY:  Dover
        Publications, 1998.
Victorian Fashion Designs CD-ROM and Book
.  New York:  Dover, 2002.
Walkley, Christina.  Dressed to Impress:  1840-1914.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1989.
Walkley, Christina and Vanda Foster.  Crinolines and Crimping Irons:  Victorian Clothes,
        How They Were
Cleaned and Cared For.  London:  Peter Owen, 1978.
Warner, Patricia Campbell.  “’It Looks Very Nice Indeed’:  Clothing in Women’s Colleges,
        1837-1897.”  Dress 28 (2001):  23-39.
Warren, Geoffrey.  Fashions & Accessories, 1840 through 1980.  Atglen, PA:  Schiffer
        Pub. Co., 1997.
Waugh, Norah.  The Cut of Women’s Clothes, 1600-1300.  New York:  Theatre Arts
        Boks, 1968, 1985.
Wilcox, R. Turner.  Five Centuries of American Costume.  New York:  Scribner, 1963.
Winter, Janet and Carolyn Schultz.  Victorian Costuming  vol. I:  1840-1865.  Oakland,
        CA:  Other Times Productions, 1980.
Women & Children
.  [1999 Historic Fashions calendar].  Arlington, VA:  Q  Graphics
        Production Co., 1998.
Women’s Fashions at the Time of the Civil War, 1860-1865
, v.1-3.  Beverly Shores, IN:
Yesterday in Pictures, 1991.
Worrell, Estelle A.  American Costume, 1840-1920.  Harrisburg:  Stackpole Books, 1979.
York, Kathleen A.  Civil War Ladies Sketchbook, v. 1-3.  Elgin, Ill.:  House of York, 1980.
Ziegert, Beate.  “American Clothing:  Identity in Mass Culture, 1840-1990.” Human
        Ecology Forum
19 no. 3 (Spring 1991):  5-11.

Genre and Other Paintings as Sources
American Genre Painting in the Victorian Era
.  New York:  Hirschl & Adler, 1978.
[good color illustrations.]
Ayres, William, ed.  Picturing History:  American Painting, 1770-1930.  New York:
Rizzoli, 1993.  [good illustrations.]
Burns, Sarah.  Pastoral Inventions:  Rural Life in Nineteenth-Century Art and Culture.
Philadelphia:  Temple University Press, 1989.
Clark, H. Nichols B.  Francis W. Edmonds:  American Master in the Dutch Tradition. 
Washington, DC:  Published for Amon Carter Museum by the Smithsonian Institution
        Press, 1988.  [good illustrations for fine genre artist.]
Edwards, Lee M.  Domestic Bliss:  Family Life in American Painting, 1840-1910.
Yonkers, NY:  Hudson River Museum, 1986.  [Good interior scenes of people at
Fischel, Oskar, and Max von Boehm.  Modes and Manners of the Nineteenth Century as
        Represented in the
Pictures and Engravings of the Time. v.3, 1843-1878.  London:
J. M. Dent, 1909.
Garrett, Elisabeth Donaghy.  At Home:  The American Family, 1750-1870.  New York:
Abrams, 1990.  [Useful for illustrations.]
Hills, Patricia.  The Painters’ America:  Rural and Urban Life, 1810-1910.  New York:
Praeger, 1974.
Holzer, Harold and Mark E. Neeley, Jr.  Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory:  The Civil War
in Art
.  New York:  Orion Books, 1993.
Johns, Elizabeth.  American Genre Painting:  The Politics of Everyday Life.  New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1991.  [Good illustrations.]
Ormond, Richard and Carol Blackett-Ord.  Franz Zaver Winterhalter and the Courts of
        Europe, 1830-1870
.  London:  National Portrait Gallery, 1987.
Peterson, Harold L.  Americans at Home:  From the Colonists to the Late Victorians.
New York:  Scribner’s, 1971.
Spencer, Lily Martin.  Lily Martin Spencer, 1822-1902:  The Joys of Sentiment.
Washington:  National Collection of Fine Arts, 1973.  [A wonderful American genre
        artist who focused on the home and family.]
Taylor, Joshua C.  America as Art.  Washington:  National Collection of Fine Arts, 1976.
Williams, Hermann Warner, Jr.  Mirror to the American Past:  A Survey of American
        Genre Painting:
  1750-1900.  Greenwich CT:  New York Graphic Society, 

Gloves and Mitts
Cumming, Valerie.  Gloves.  Costume Accessories Series.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1982.
Falls, Dixie.  “Fingerless Silk Mitts to Crochet.” Piecework 2 no. 4 (July/August 1994):
Kalil, Lynn.  “Hand in Hand:  Ladies’ Gloves and Reenacting.”  The Watchdog 6 no. 3
        (Summer 1998):  5-6. 

Hair Styles
Byrd, Ayana D. and Lori L. Tharps.  Hair Story:  Untangling the Roots of Black Hair in
.  New York:  St. Martin’s Press, 2001.
Griffin, Bobette.  “Victorian Style Hair.”  The Lady Reenactor v.1, p.22.
Isaacson, Jon.  “What’s Wrong with This Picture? Well, Hair It Is!” [men’s hair styles and
        hair dressing] Citizens’ Companion 2 no. 2 (June/July 1995): 16-18.
Lawhon, Victoria.  “Creating a Period Hairstyle:  A Period Hairstyle for Every Occasion.”
Citizens’ Companion 6 no. 2 (June-July 1999):  12-15.
McKeown, Deborah.  “Hairstyles and Head Dress.”  Citizens’ Companion 2 no. 5
        (December 1995/January 1996):  12-17.
Sherman, Ruthann.  1860-65 Victorian Coiffure.  Marietta, GA:  by the author, 1988.
Wong, J.  “Hair Plaiting.”  Civil War Lady  no. 15 (1995):  12-13.
Wong, J.  “In Search of the 1860’s Hairstyle.”  Civil War Lady  2 no. 7 (1993): 25. 

Hoop Skirts and Petticoats
Altman, Saundra.  “Stick-Out Petticoats.”  Civil War Lady no. 17 (1996):  22-24, 26-29.
Clayton-Gouthro, Cecile.  “Social Commentary in Nineteenth Century Crinoline Cartoons
        from Punch.”  Dress 23 (1996):  63-74.
“Exhibit of Hoop Skirts Opens in Philadelphia.”  Citizens’ Companion 6 no. 3
        (August-September, 1999):  10. [includes photo of 1865 hoop skirt]
Gamble, J. G.  “Dressed to Kill:  The Mid-Nineteenth Century Crinoline Craze.”  Pharos of
        Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society
63 no. 1 (Winter 2000):  16-21.
Garoutte, Sally, ed.  Undercoverings, 1995.  Volume 6 of the Research Papers of American
        Quilt Study Group.  Mill Valley, CA:  American Quilt Study Group, 1986.  [includes
        article on quilted petticoats]
McKeown, Deborah V.  “The Scarlet Flannel Petticoat:  Origin and Construction of a
        Popular Garment.”  Citizens’ Companion 7 no. 3 (August-September 2000):  21-24.
Miller, Beth.  “Achieving the Look of the 1860’s:  Starching Your Underpinnings.” Civil War
1, no. 6: 19-20.
“Petticoats and Pantalettes:  Victorians Undressed:  Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT.”
Lady’s Gallery 4 no. 2 (Feb 1997):  44-46.  [shows female manikin in mid-19th
        century underwear]
“Under Wraps, from Crinoline to Crinoline:  Undergarments 1850 to 1950.”  Lady’s Gallery
     v.3 no. 2 (1995): 57, 62.  [review of exhibit at the Kemerer Museum of Decorative
        Arts, Bethlehem, PA]
Walkley, Christina.  “’Nor Iron Bars a Cage.’”  History Today 25 no. 10 (October 1975):
712-718.  [cage crinolines] 

Jewelry, Watches, and Related Accessories
Armstrong, Nancy.  Victorian Jewelry.  New York:  Macmillan Publishing, 1976.
Baker-Anderson, Catherine. “Cameos in Vogue.”  Vintage Fashion  2 no.1 (January-
        February 1991):  14-17.
Baker, Lillian.  100 Years of Collectible Jewelry, 1850-1950.  Paducah, KY:  Collector
        Books, 1999.
Becker, Vivienne. Antique and Twentieth Century Jewellry:  A Guide for Collectors.  2d
        ed.  Colchester:  NAG Press, Ltd., 1987.
Bell, Jeanenne.  Answers to Questions About Old Jewelry, 1840 to 1950.  3rd ed.
Florence, Ala:  Books Americana, 1985.
Bell, C. Jeanenne. Collector’s Encyclopedia of Hairwork Jewelry:  Identification &
.  Paducah, KY:  Collector Books, 1998.
Bernstein, Michael J.  “Hair Jewelry, Locks of Love.”  Smithsonian  6 no. 12 (1976):
Blersch, Stuart.  “Victorian Jewelry Made of Hair.”  Nineteenth Century 6 no. 1 (1980):
Bradford, Ernle.  English Victorian Jewellery.  London:  Spring Books, 1967.
Bush, Nancy.  “The Hair Workers of Sweden.”  Piecework 10 no. 3 (May/June 2002):
Byassee, Jean L.  "The Civil War Lady's Jewelry."  Camp Chase Gazette 19 no. 8 (July
        1992):  42-43.
Byassee, Jean L.  “Victorian Jewelry.”   The Lady Reenactor 1, pp. 20-21, 57.
Byassee, Jean L.  “Victorian Sentimental Jewelry,” Citizens’ Companion 2 no. 2 (June-July
        1995): 21.
Campbell, Mark.  Self-Instructor in the Art of Hair Work.  New York:  Campbell, 1867.
Cooper, Diana and Norman Battershill.  Victorian Sentimental Jewellery.  Newton Abbot,
        England:  David and Charles, 1972.
Ettinger, Roseann.  Popular Jewelry:  1840-1940.  2d ed.  Atglen, PA:  Schiffer Pub., 1997.
Fales, Martha Gandy.  Jewelry in America, 1600-1900.  Woodbridge, Suffolk, U.K.:
Antique Collectors’ Club, 1995.
Flower, Margaret (Cameron Coss).  Victorian Jewellery.  South Brunswick and New
        York:  A. S. Barnes, 1973.
Gere, Charlotte.  European and American Jewellery:  1830-1914.  London:  Heinemann,
Gilbert, Ruth.  “American Jewelry from the Gold Rush to Art Nouveau.”  Art in America 53
        no. 6 (1965-1966):  80-82.
Goldberg, Nancy.  Jewelry.  New York:  Hart Publishing Co., 1977.  [engravings from
        various magazines and historic books.]
Gordon, Ruth.  “Remember Me When Far Away:  Victorian Hairwork.”  Piecework  4 no. 2
        (March/April 1996):  36-40.
“Hair Braiding.”  Piecework 4 no. 2 (March/April 1996):  70.  [instructions for ring]
Harris, Kristina.  “Cameo Collecting.” Vintage Fashion 2 no.4 (August 1991): 39-41.
“Hoopla Over Hoops.”  Civil War Lady no. 18 (Nov. 1996):  4-5. [hoop earrings]
Hudson River Museum.  The Jeweler’s Eye:  Nineteenth-Century Jewelry in the
        Collection of Nancy and
Gilbert Levine.  Yonkers:  Hudson River Museum, 1986.
Isaacson, Suzanne Carter.  “’A Comb Upon the Crown of Your Head’:  A ‘Crowning Glory’
        to a Lady’s Impression.”  Citizens’ Companion 7 no. 4 (October-November 2000):
Isaacson, Suzanne Carter.  “The Jewel in the Crown:  The Perfect Finish to Your
        Impression.”  Citizens’ Companion 5 no. 5 (December 1998-January 1999):  12-17.
James, Duncan.  Old Jewellry.  Aylesbury:  Shire Publications, 1989.
Janson, Dora Jane.  “From Slave to Siren.”  ArtNews 70 (1971):  49-53, 68-71. (on
Kaplan, Arthur Gay.  Antique Jewelry.  6th ed.  New York:  Random House, 1990.
Kirsch, Fritz and Dusty Books.  "A Timely Piece." Camp Chase Gazette 18 no. 8 (July
        1991):  22-24. [watches]
Klein, Christine DeBow.  “Scottish Pebble Jewelry.” Vintage Fashion 1 no.6 (November-
        December 1990): 35-38.
Kliot, Jules.  The Art of Hairwork. Berkeley, CA:  Lacis Publications, 1989.
Kusnetz, Evelyn S.  “With This Ring:  Victorian Wedding Rings.”  Lady’s Gallery 1 no.1
        (1993): 21.
Lauramore, Anita.  “Jewelry Accessories for Women, Part I:  The Fan Chatelaine.”  Civil
        War Lady
no. 22 (1999):  10-11.
Lauramore, Anita.  “Jewelry Accessories for Women, Part II:  The Handkerchief Holder.”
Civil War Lady no. 23 (1999):  9-11.
Leopold, Allison Kyle.  “The Lost Art of Victorian Hair Work:  What it Meant to Nineteenth
        Century Americans Then...We Think of it Today” Open Notebook.  Victorian Homes
     7 no. 1 (1988): 68-69+.
Luthi, Ann Louise.  Sentimental Jewellery.  Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire, UK:
Shire Publications, 1998.
Mascetti, Daniela and Amanda Triossi.  Earrings, From Antiquity to the Present.  New
        York:  Rizzoli International Publications, 1990.
Megill, Andrew M.  "The Civil War Era Pocketwatch:  A Quality Addition to an Authentic
        Impression."  Camp Chase Gazette 23 no. 9 (August 1996):  34-42.
Mescher, Virginia.  “Lady’s Necessaire or Housekeeper’s Chatelaine.”  Citizens’
4 no. 3 (August-September 1997):  30-31.
Miller, Anna M.  Cameos Old and New.  New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
Morgan, Daniel.  “The Lady and Her Watch.”  Civil War Lady  1 no.2 (1991):  17-19.
Muller, Helen.  Jet Jewellery and Ornaments.  Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire:  Shire
        Publications, 1998.
Musser, Mary.  “Massachusetts Horn Smiths:  A Century of Comb-Making, 1775-1875.”
Old-Time-New England 58 no. 3-4, 59-68.
Navarro, Irene Gugenheim.  “Hairwork of the Nineteenth Century.”  The Magazine Antiques
     159 no. 3 (March 2001):  484-493.
O’Day, Deirdre.  Victorian Jewellery.  London:  Charles Letts Books, 1982.
Peter, Mary.  Collecting Victorian Jewellery.  New York:  Emerson Books, 1971.
“Reenactresses Recreating the Image.”  Civil War Lady no. 19 (April 1997):  14. [earrings]
Romero, Christie.  Warman’s Jewelry:  A Fully Illustrated Price Guide to 19th and 20th
        Century Jewelry, Including Victorian, Art Nouveau, and Costume
.  2d ed.  Iola,
        WI:  Krause Publications, 1998.
Sams, Marion Ruth Young.  “Chatelaines.”  Alabama Heritage 44 (1997):  18-21.
Sams, Marion Ruth Young.  “Sentimental and Memorial Jewelry.”  Alabama Heritage 35
        (1995):  28-33.
Schwartz, Jeri.  “The Flower in Fashion.”  Vintage Fashion, 1 no.6 (November-December
        1990): 17-19.  (Posey holders)
Shenton, Alan.  Pocket Watches:  19th & 20th Century.  Woodbridge, Suffolk:  Antique
        Collectors’ Club, 1995.
Sheumaker, Helen.  "'This Lock You See':  Nineteenty-Century Hair Work as the
        Commodified Self."  Fashion Theory 1 no. 4 (December 1997):  421-446.
Tandberg, Gerilyn G.  “Decoration and Decorum:  Accessories of Nineteenth-Century
        Louisiana Women.”  Southern Quarterly 27 no.1 (Fall 1988):  9-31.
Vever, Henri.  French Jewelry of the Nineteenth Century.  New York:  Thames &
        Hudson, 2001. 

Buck, Anne.  Thomas Lester, His Lace and the East Midlands Industry, 1820-1905.  Ruth
        Bean:  Carleton, 1981.
Earnshaw, Pat.  How to Recognise Machine Laces.  Guildford:  Gorse, 1995.
Earnshaw, Pat.  Lace in Fashion:  From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries.  New
        York:  Drama Book Publishers, 1985.
Gwynne, J. L.  The Illustrated Dictionary of Lace.  London:  Batsford, 1997.
Rotella, Kathleen.  "Application Lace at the Great Exhibition of 1851."  Piecework 9 no. 6
        (November/December 2001):  26-29.  Includes 1865 wedding dress; 1851 knitted
        baby's gown.
Wardle, Patricia.  Victorian Lace.  New York:  Frederick A. Praeger, 1969. 

Duffy, Linda.  “To Paint or Not to Paint?  That is the Question.”  Civil War Lady 2 no.11
        (1994): 10-11. [makeup]
Kleiger, Estell.  “Vanity in the 19th Century.”  American History Illustrated 14 no. 5
        (August 1979): 24-33. [makeup]
Mehaffey, Karen Rae.  “Facing the Fact:  Cosmetic Use in the 1860s.”  The Watchdog  2
        no. 1 (Winter 1994): 4-5.
Mescher, Jen.  “On 19th Century Cosmetics” Civil War Lady no.14 (1995): 21-22.
Peiss, Kathy Lee.  Hope in a Jar:  The Making of America’s Beauty Culture.  New York:
        Metropolitan, 1998.
Vail, Gilbert.  A History of Cosmetics in America.  Prepared for the Toilet Goods
        Association.  New York:  Toilet Goods Association, 1947. 

Maternity Clothing
Danischewsky, Lorraine.  “Upon Encountering a Certain Condition.”  Costume &
no. 1 (1996):  3-4.
Bailey, Rebecca Lou.  “Fashions in Pregnancy:  An Analysis of Selected Cultural Influences,
        1850-1980.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1981.
Christen, Glenna Jo.  “In the Family Way?  Clothing While You’re Waiting for the ‘Blessed
        Event.’”  Citizens’ Companion 6 no. 6 (April-May 1999):  12-16.
Moon, Cassandra Curry.  “Selecting and Adapting Clothing for Pregnancy in the Nineteenth
        Century.”  M.S. thesis, Iowa State University, 1995.
Tarrant, Naomi E. A.  “A Maternity Dress of About 1845-50.”  Costume no. 14 (1980):

Men’s Clothing
Adams-Graf, John.  “In Rags for Riches:  A Daguerreian Survey of Forty-Niner’s Clothing.”
Dress 11 (1985):  59-68.
Aldrich, Winired.  “Tailor’s Cutting Manuals and the Growing Provision of Popular Clothing,
        1770-1870.”  Textile History 31 no. 2 (November 2000):  163-201.
Baumgarten, Linda R.  "Leather Stockings and Hunting Shirts" in American Material
        Culture:  The Shape of the Field
.  Edited by Ann Smart Martin and J. Ritchie
        Garrison.  Winterthur,  DE:  Winterthur Museum, 1997, pp. 251-276.
Bean, Susan.  “Bandanna:  On the Indian Origins of an All-American Textile.”  Annual
        Proceedings of the Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife
22 (1997):  168-183.
Bond, Constance.  “The Lure of Gold.”  Smithsonian 28 no. 10 (January 1998):  82-85.
[California 49’ers.]           
Brown, William L., III.  Thoughts on Men's Shirts in America, 1750-1900.  Gettysburg,
        PA:  Thomas Publications, 1999. 
Byrde, Penelope.  The Male Image:  Men’s Fashion in England, 1300-1970.  London:  B.
        T. Batsford, 1979.
Christen, Bill.  “I Put My Foot Into It (Part One).”  The Watchdog 10 no. 1 (Winter 2002):
5-7.  [shoes and boots]
Christen, Bill.  “A New Matrix for Men’s Attire in the 1860s.”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no.4
        (October-November 1996):  12-18.
Christen, Bill and Bill “Mac” MacIntosh.  “A Short Sketch of Men’s Attire in the 1860s.”
Citizens’ Companion 1 no.4 (October-November 1994): 10-15.
Colle, Doriece.  Collars, Stocks, Cravats:  A History and Costume Dating Guide to
        Civilian Men’s
Neckpieces, 1655-1900.  Emmaus, PA:  Rodale Press, 1972.
Davis-Meyers, Mary L.  “Boston’s Menswear Garment Workers:  The Impact Tailoresses
        and Seamstresses Had on the Emerging Menswear Ready-Made Clothing Industry,
        1820-1860.”  M.A. thesis, University of Connecticut, 1989.
Eckstein, E.  Gentlemen’s Dress Accessories.  Aylesbury:  Shire Publications, 1987.
Furnival, Jane.  Dumbells, Ear Caps and Hair Restorers:  A Shopper’s Guide to
        Gentlemen’s Foibles, 1800s-1930s
.  London:  Michael O’Mara Books, 1999.
Heidel, Lisa Marie.  “Men’s Nineteenth Century Wedding Clothing Found in Historic
        Costume Collections.”  M.S. thesis, University of Maryland at College Park, 1992.
Henderson, Debbie.  “Men’s Hats of the 1860s.”  The Watchdog 7 no. 1 (Winter 1999):
Henderson, Debbie.  The Top Hat:  An Illustrated History of Its Styling and
.  Yellow Springs, OH:  Wild Goose Press, 2000.
Honeyman, Katrina.  Well Suited:  A History of the Leeds Clothing Industry, 1850-1990.
Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2000.
Isaacson, Jon.  “From Wells to Slop Shops:  A Study of Men’s Clothing 1845-1870,
        Beginning a Series on Men’s Clothing in the 19th Century.”  Citizens’ Companion 6 no.
        6 (February-March 2000):  12-19.
Kuchta, David.  The Three-Piece Suit and Modern Masculinity:  England, 1550-1850.
Burkeley:  University of California Press, 2002.
Lassiter, J. A.  “The Gentleman Collector:  The Frock Coat.”  Vintage Fashion 3 no.2
        (March-April 1992):  13-15.
Maglio, Diane.  “Luxuriant Crowns:  Victorian Men’s Smoking Caps, 1850-1890.”  Dress 27
        (2000):  9-17.
McCulloh, Charlie.  “A Look at Some of the Sam Davis Home Relic Collection.”  The
  9 no. 3 (Summer 2001):  14-17.  [particularly the printed handkerchief]
McDowell, Colin.  The Man of Fashion:  Peacock Males and Perfect Gentlemen.  New
        York:  Thames and Hudson, 1997.
Morra, Marissa.  “Silent Informers:  Men’s Coats from a 19th Century Period of        
Transition.”  Dress 11 (1985):  68-76.  [1846-1870]
Penzig, Edgar F.  Fast Squatters, Gents, and Gamblers:  The Dress, Artifacts and
        Weapons of Colonial Men, 1850-1900
.  Katoomba, N.S.W.:  Tranter Enterprises,
Poole, Miriam Rosenkrans.  “A Historical Study of Men’s Costumes as a Reflection of the
        Culture in Virginia From 1607-1963.”  M.S. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1964.
Pufpaff, Suzanne.  Nineteenth Century Hat Maker’s and Felter’s Manuals.  Hastings, MI:
Stony Lonesome Press, 1995.
Pugliese, Patri J.  “Formal Dress for Men.”  Civil War Lady no. 18 (November 1996):
Rafferty, Lois.  “A Brief History of the United States Sanitary Commission.”  Citizens’
3 no. 1 (April/May 1996):  16-20.  [includes diagram for hospital cotton
Scherer, Joe and Kathy Scherer.  “Men’s Hats of the 1860s—Part Two.”  The Watchdog 7
        no. 3 (Summer 1999):  5, 19.
Shade, Laurie.  “Shipwreck:  Ansel and Adeline Easton’s Honeymoon Voyage of 1857.”
     Dress 27 (2000):  71-77.
Shaw, Thomas G.  “1860s Civilian Shirts for the Soldier.”  The Watchdog 4 no. 4 (Autumn
        1996):  2-4.
Shaw, Thomas G.  “1860s Civilian Shirts—An Update.”  The Watchdog 5 no. 1 (Winter
        1997):  7.
Shaw, Tim.  "Making a Money Belt."  Camp Chase Gazette 23 no. 1 (October 1995):  40.
Shaw, William Harlan.  American Men’s Wear, 1861-1982.  Baton Rouge:  Oracle Press,
Shep, R. L. and W. S. Salisbury.  Civil War Gentlemen:  1860s Apparel Arts &
.  Mendocino, CA:  R. L. Shep, 1994.
Simmons, Rick.  “Dirty Billy’s Straw Hats & Some Thoughts on 1850-1860s Hats in
        General.”  The Watchdog 8 no. 2 (Spring 2000):  11.
Thomas, Michael R.  A Confederate Sketchbook, vol. 1.  Elgin, IL:  House of York, 1980.
Time-Life Books.  Arms and Equipment of the Confederacy.  Alexandria, Va:  Time-Life
Books, 1991.  [Includes shirts and housewifes—items that were often or usually
        produced at home.]
Time-Life Books.  Arms and Equipment of the Union.  Alexandria, VA:  Time-Life Books,
Waugh, Norah.  The Cut of Men’s Clothes, 1600-1900. New York:  Theatre Arts Books,
Zakim, Michael.  “Customizing the Industrial Revolution:  The Reinvention of Tailoring in the
        Nineteenth Century.”  Winterthur Portfolio 33 no. 1 (Spring 1998):  41-58.
Zakim, Michael.  “A Ready-Made Business:  The Birth of the Clothing Industry in America.”
Business History Review 73 no. 1 (1999):  61-90.
Zakim, Michael.  “Sartorial Ideologies:  From Homespun to Ready-Made.”  American
        Historical Review
106 no. 5 (2001):  1553-1586. 

Mormon Clothing
Anderson, Carma de Jong.  “A Historical Overview of the Mormons and Their Clothing,
        1840-1850.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, 1992.
Clayton, Ruth Vickers.  “Clothing and the Temporal Kingdom:  Mormon Clothing Practices,
        1847 to 1887.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1987.   
Fischer, Gayle Veronica.  "The Obedient and Disobedient Daughters of the Church:  Strangite
        Mormon Dress as a Mode of Control" in Religion, Dress and the Body.  Edited by
        Linda Arthur.  Oxford:  Berg, 1999, pp. 73-94.
Shumway, Larry V.  "Dancing the Buckles Off Their Shoes in Pioneer Utah."  Brigham
        Young University Studies
37 (3):  7-50.

Mourning Dress
Hughes, Susan Lyons.  “Crinoline, Crape, and Corpses:  Mourning Practices in 19th Century
        America.”  The Lady Reenactor v.1, pp. 26-29, 62.
Kete, Mary Louise.  Sentimental Collaboration:  Mourning and Middle-Class Identity in
Century America.  Durham, NC:  Duke University Press, 2000.
Laderman, Gary.  The Sacred Remains:  American Attitudes Toward Death, 1799-1883.
New Haven:  Yale University Press, 1996.
Loughridge, Patricia R. and Edward D. C. Campbell, Jr.  Women in Mourning.  Richmond:
Museum of the Confederacy, 1985.
Majka, Holly.  Life in the Midst of Death:  A Victorian Manual for Mourning.  Ohio:
Golden Cord Clothiers, printed by Medina Books Publishing, 1996.
Marsh, Heidi.  Styles for Mourning in the Era of the Hoop.  Greenville, CA:  by the author,
Masson, Ann and Bryce Reveley.  “When Life’s Brief Sun Was Set:  Portraits of Southern
        Women in Mourning--1830-1860.”  Southern Quarterly 27 no.1 (Fall 1988):  33-56.
Mehaffey, Karen Rae.  The After-Life:  Mourning Rituals and the Mid-Victorians.
Pipestone, MN:  Laser Writers Publishing, 1993.
Morley, John.  Death, Heaven, and the Victorians.  London:  Studio Vista, 1971.
“Mourning.”  Civil War Lady  no. 15 (1995):  16-17.
Pike, Martha V. and Janice Gray Armstrong.  A Time to Mourn:  Expressions of Grief in
        Nineteenth Century America
.  Stony Brook, NY:  The Museums at Stony Brook,
Puckle, Bertram S.  Funeral Customs:  Their Origin and Development.  London:  T.
        Werner Laurie, 1926.  Reprint.  Detroit:  Singing Tree Press, 1968.
Reveley, Bryce.  “The Black Trade in New Orleans, 1840-1880.”  Southern Quarterly 31
        no. 2 (1993):  119-122.  [mourning]
Roeschke, Corinna.  "Mouring."  Camp Chase Gazette 19 no. 2 (November-December
        1991):  34.
Taylor, Lou.  Mourning Dress:  A Costume and Social History.  London:  George Allen
        and Unwin, 1983.

Needlework Used on Garments
Dickinson, Carol.  “Broderie Anglaise:  An 1860s Ornamental Work.”  Citizens’
6 no. 2 (June-July 1999):  19-23.
Mescher, Virginia.  “Mid-19th Century Tatting:  Needlework Techniques Then and Now.”
Citizens’ Companion 7 no. 6 (February-March 2001): 12-20.
Miller, Beth.  “Broderie Anglaise.”  Civil War Lady 2 no. 11 (1994):  6,8-9.   

Northern U.S. Clothing
Farrell, Jane A.  “Clothing for Adults in Iowa, 1850-1899.”  Annals of Iowa 46 no. 2
        (1981):  100-120.
Frisbee-House, Cornelia H.  Not Just Another Pretty Dress:  Two Centuries of Clothing
        & Textiles from
Cherry Hill.  Albany:  Historic Cherry Hill, 1983.
Gehret, Ellen.  Rural Pennsylvania Clothing. 2d ed.  York, PA:  G. Shumway, 1990.
[Useful for stockings, caps, aprons for early period.]
Gordon, Beverly.  “Meanings in Mid-Nineteenth Century Dress:  Images From New England
        Women’s Writings.”  Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 10 no. 3 (1992):
Helvenston, Sally I.  “Fashion and Function in Women’s Dress in Rural New England:
1840-1900.”  Dress 18 (1991):  26-38.
“In the Museum:  An American Renaissance, Fort Hunter Mansion, Harrisburg, PA” Lady’s
2 no.3 (1994): 62-63.  [photos of dresses in collection.]
Jachimowicz, Elizabeth.  Eight  Chicago Women and  Their Fashions, 1860-1929.
        Chicago:  Chicago Historical Society, 1978.
Jackson, Donald D.  Twenty Million Yankees:  The Northern Home Front.  Alexandria,
        VA:  Time-Life Publications, 1985.
Turza, Beth.  “The Farmer Takes a Wife:  The History of a ca. 1860 Homespun Dress.”
Midwest Open Air Museum Magazine 9 no. 4 (Winter 1988):  26-29.  [A very
        detailed look at the dress of a poor farm wife.]
Wilson, Kathryn E.  "Commodified Craft, Creative Community:  Women's Vernacular Dress
        in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia" in The Culture of Sewing:  Gender, Consumption
        and Home Dressmaking
.  Edited by Barbara Burman.  Oxford:  Berg, 1999, pp.
Wilson, Kathryn E.  "Fashioning Difference:  Women's Dress in Nineteenth-Century
        Philadelphia."  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1996.  [1825-1885]

Dickinson, Carol A.  “A Change of Habit:  The Search for Mother Angela Gillespie.”
Citizens’ Companion  5 no. 2 (June-July 1998):  12-20. 

Hoisington, Daniel.  ‘Women of Discreet Manners’:   Union Army Nurses and Their Attire.”
Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 5 (December 1997-January 1998):  12-19 

Parasols and Umbrellas
Farrell, Jeremy.  Umbrellas and Parasols.  Costume Accessories Series.  New York:
Drama Book Publishers, 1985.
Martin, Elizabeth A.  “Distinguishing Parasols:  How to Tell the Difference Between English
        and American Parasols Manufactured Between 1850 and 1870.”  M.A. thesis, Bowling
        Green University, 1996.
Morris, Sheila.  “Punching Holes in Period Parasols.”  The Watchdog v.1 no. 1 (Winter
        1993): 5-6.
Steinhelper, Layne.  “The Necessary Accessory.”  Lady’s Gallery v. 3 no. 6 (Oct. 1996):
6-11.  [includes some information on mid-19th century parasols, and a fashion print ca.

Atlas, Michele and Alain Monniot.  Guerlain:  Perfume Bottles Since 1828.  Toulouse:
Editions Milan, 1997.
Maginnis, Tara.  “Perfume for the Period Scent.”  Lady’s Gallery 2 no. 1 (1994): 21-23.
Wong, J.  “Fragrances From the Past.”  Civil War Lady  no. 14 (1995): 15-17. 

Photographs as Sources
Burrows, Adrienne and Ivan Schumacher.  Portraits of the Insane:  The Case of Dr.
.  New York:   Quartet Books, 1990. [Photographic study of insane and
        recovered people.  Very useful for poor people’s clothing, with good look at fabric
        patterns, bodice styles, collars, and a remarkable look at the bottom of a bonnet
        because the woman has it on upside down.]
Carlebach, Michael L.  Working Stiffs:  Occupational Portraits in the Age of Tintypes.
Washington, DC:  Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002.
Dalrymple, Priscilla Harris.  American Victorian Costume in Early Photographs.  New
        York:  Dover, 1991.
Darrah, William.   Cartes de Visite in Nineteenth Century Photography.  Gettysburg:  W.
        C. Darrah, 1981.  [Good for studying fashion and hair]
Davis, William C. and Bell I. Wiley, ed.  Photographic History of the Civil War.  2 vols.
New York:  Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers, 1994.  [massive compilation]
Gernsheim, Alison.  Victorian and Edwardian Fashion:  A Photographic Survey.  New
        York:  Dover Publications, 1981.
Ginsburg, Madeleine.  Victorian Dress in Photographs.  New York:  Holmes and Meier,
Harris, Kristina.  American Victorian Fashions in Vintage Photographs, 1855-1910.
Mineola, NY:  Dover Publications, 2001.
Haworth-Booth, Mark, ed.  The Golden Age of British Photography, 1839-1900.
Millerton, NY:  Aperture, 1984. [ Several good photographs from period showing
Heyert, Elizabeth.  The Glasshouse Years:  Victorian Portrait Photography, 1839-1870.
Montclair:  Alanheld & Schram, 1979.
Lambert, Miles.  Fashion in Photographs, 1860-1880.  London:  B. T.  Batsford, 1991.
Lansdell, Avril.  Fashion a la Carte, 1860-1900:  A Study of Fashion Through
.  History in Camera Series.  Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks,
        UK:  Shire Publications, 1985.
Mace, O. Henry.  Collector’s Guide to Early Photographs.  Radnor, Penn.:
Wallace-Homestead Book Co., 1990.  [Use for the examples of photographs from the
McCulloch, Lou W.  Card Photographs:  A Guide to Their History and Value.  Exton,
        PA:  Schiffer Pub., 1981.
Mehaffey, Karen Rae.  “Collecting the Carte-de-Visite.”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no. 1
        (April/May 1996):  11-15.
Newberry, Susan Annette.  “Commerce and Ritual in American Daguerreian Portraiture,
        1839-1859.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1999.  [may address choice of
        clothing for sitters]
Pfister, Harold Francis.  Facing the Light:  Historic American Portrait Daguerreotypes.
Washington:  National Portrait Gallery, 1978.
Reilly, James M.  Care and Identification of 19th-Century Photographic Prints.
Rochester, NY:  Eastman Kodak Company, 1986.  [A few good 1840-1865 examples]
Rinhart, Floyd.  The American Tintype.  Columbus:  Ohio State University Press, 1999.
Rinhart, Floyd and Marion Rinhart.  The American Daguerreotype.  Athens:  University of
        Georgia, 1981.
Sandweiss, Martha A., ed.  Historic Texas:  A Photographic Portrait.  Austin:  Texas
        Monthly Press, 1986.
Smith, Margaret Denton and Mary Louise Tucker.  Photography in New Orleans:  The
        Early Years, 1840-1865
.  Baton Rouge:  Louisiana State University, 1982.
Sobieszek, Robert A. and Odette M. Appel.  The Daguerreotypes of Southworth &
.  New York:  Dover, 1980.
Taft, Robert.  Photography and the American Scene:  A Social History:  1839-1889.
New York:  Dover, 1964.
Wichard, Robin.  Victorian Cartes de Visite.  Princes Risborough:  Shire, 1999.
Wood, John.  The Daguerreotype:  A Sesquicentennial Celebration.  Des Moines:
University of Iowa Press, 1989.
Younger, Dan.  Photography With a New Face:  The Advent of the Carte de Visite in
        American Culture
.  United States:  by the author?, 1981.

Reese, Annette J.  “Where the Boys Are:  Prostitution from the Mining Camps to Civil War
        Encampments.”  Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 6 (February-March 1998):  12-18. 

Barnes, Galer Britton.  “A Matter of Fashion:  Beaded Bags of the Civil War Era.”
Piecework  2 no.3 (May/June 1994):  48-51.
Bury, Lynne.  “A Tisket a Tasket:  There’s More to Carry than Just a Basket.”  Civil War
no. 23 (1999):  24-27.
Camacho, Joyce Marie.  “Indispensables:  Pockets, Purses, Bag and Pouches.” Vintage
1 no.3 (May/June 1990): 42-47.
Foster, Vanda.  Bags and Purses.  Costume Accessories Series.  London:  B. T. Batsford,
Fournier, Jane.  “A Beaded Bag to Knit.” Piecework 2 no.3 (May/June 1994): 52-53.
Haertig, Evelyn.  Antique Combs & Purses.  Carmel, CA:  Gallery Graphics Press, 1983.
Jones, Janice.  “Bags, Bags, Bags, by Any Other Name Would Still Come in Handy
        When…”  The Watchdog 7 no. 4 (Fall 1999):  6-8.
Lago, Ann Marie.  “Collecting Beaded Purses.”  Vintage Fashion 1 no.3 (May/June 1990):
Murphy, Vivian.  “Bags, Baskets, Reticules or Pockets?”  Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 5
        (December 1997-January 1998):  30-32.
Rosenthal, Harriet Stern.  “Collecting Cut Steel Purses.”  Vintage Fashion  1 no.4
        (July/August 1990):  50-55. 

Quaker Clothing
Lee-Whitman, Leanna.  “Silks and Simplicity:  A Study of Quaker Dress as Depicted in
        Portraits, 1718-1855.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1987. 

Isaacson, Jon.  “Polite Inquiries.”  Citizens’ Companion  2 no. 4 (October/November
        1995):  32.  [response to letter about rainwear]
“Manufacture of India-Rubber Shoes.”  Chambers’ Journal of Popular Literature, Science
        and Arts
28 (1858): 165-168.
Williams, Jacqueline.  “India Rubber Kept Them Dry.”  Overland Journal 14 no. 1 (1996):
4-8.  [1840s and 1850s]
Woshner, Mike.  India-Rubber and Gutta-Percha in the Civil War Era.  Alexandria, VA:
O’Donnell Publications, 1999. 

Farrell-Beck, Jane.  “Use of Patented Sewing Devices in a Sample of Manufactured
        Garments Dated ca. 1860-1900.”  Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 10 no. 3
        (1992):  3-11.
Fenster, J. M.  “Seam Stresses.”  American Heritage of Invention & Technology 9 no. 3
        (1994):  40-52.
Fernandez, Nancy Page.  “’If a Woman Had Taste . . . ‘:  Home Sewing and the Making of
        Fashion, 1850-1910.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Irvine, 1987.
A Lady.  The Lady’s Guide to Plain Sewing.  Springfield, OH:  Kannik’s Korner, 1993.
A Lady.  The Workwoman’s Guide.  Containing Instructions to the Inexperienced in
        Cutting Out and
Completing Those Articles of Wearing Apparel, etc., Which are
        Usually Made at Home...1838
  Reprint.  Guildford, Ct:  Opus Publications, 1987.
[useful for underwear, caps, etc.]
Lopez, Judith.  “Buttonholes:  Some Differences in Gender-Related Front Closures.”  Dress
     20 (1993):  74-78.
Miller, Beth.  “Achieving the Look of the 1860’s:  Reproducing Civil War Clothing.”  Civil
        War Lady
2 no. 7 (1993): 9-10.
Miller, Beth.  “Day Dress Bodices.”  Civil War Lady 2 no. 12 (1994):  4-6.
Miller, Beth.  “No More Cartridge Pleats.”  Civil War Lady 2 no.8 (1993): 13-14.
Miller, Beth.  “Period Sewing Techniques Make Your Clothing Accurate.”  Civil War Lady
no.16 (1996):  4-6, 8-10.  [piping]
Miller, Beth.  “Pleating a Civil War Skirt.”  Civil War Lady no. 17 (1996):  5-7,9-10.
Miller, Beth.  “’Under’ Construction.”  Civil War Lady 1 no.4 (1992) 9-10. [seams on
        underwear]; Part II 1 no. 5, 11-12 [placket and waistband].
Mohanty, Gail Fowler.  “The Sewing Machine—‘The Queen of Inventions,’ an Exhibition at
        Slater Mill Historic Site, Pawtucket, Rhode Island.”  Technology and Culture 28 no. 4
        (1987):  839-841.
Murphy, Vivian.  “The Look is in the Fit:  Properly Fitting a Civil War Era Bodice.”  Citizens’
5 no. 3 (August-September 1998):  21-24.
Pullan, Mrs. Marion M.  Beadle’s Dime Guide to Dress-Making and Millinery.  New
        York:  Beadle & Co., 1863.  Reprint ed.  West Chester, PA:  Sullivan Press, 1996.
Schmitt, Carolann.  “Trimmings and Embellishments:  The Finishing Touch for Your Civil War
        Dress.”  Citizens’ Companion 5 no. 1 (April-May 1999):  12-20.
Smith, Mary Denise.  “Pinkers, Pounces, and Punches:  Slashing Your Fabrics in Period
        Fashion.”  Costume & Dressmaker no. 1 (1996):  10-11.
Yearous, Jenny.  “Stitches in Time:  The Development of Sewing Thread in the Nineteenth
        Century and Beyond.”  Uncoverings 19 (1998):  155-178.   
York, Kathleen A.  “Creating a Civil War Outfit.”  Civil War Lady 1 no. 1 (May/June
        1991):  12-14; 1 no. 2 (1991): 9-10.
York, Kathleen A.  “Trims for Civil War Clothing.”  Civil War Lady 1 no.3 (1992):  10-13.
York, Kathleen A.  “20th Century Sewing Techniques vs. 19th Century Clothing.” Civil War
1 no.4 (1992): 11-12.

Shaker Clothing
Hughes, Susan Lyons.  “With Hands to Work and Hearts to God.”  Citizens’ Companion  3
        no. 4 (October-November 1996):  21-28.  [includes 1857 illustrations]
Sorge, Lynn.  “The Evolution of Nineteenth-Century Shaker Dresses:  Reflections of the
        World.”  Dress 21 (1994):  39-60. 

Ames, Frank.  The Kashmir Shawl and Its Indo-French Influence.  Woodbridge, Suffolk:
Antique Collector’s Club, 1986.
Atira-Soncea, Rae.  An Intricacy of Design:  Kashmir Shawls in the Helen Allen Textile
Madison, WI:  University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990.
Blair, Matthew.  The Paisley Shawl and the Men Who Produced It:  A Record of an
        Interesting Epoch in
the History of the Town.  Paisley, Scotland:  Alexander Gardner,
Brett, David.  “The Management of Colour:  The Kashmir Shawl in a Nineteenth-Century
        Debate.”  Textile History 29 no. 2 (Autumn 1998):  123-133.
Buie, S.  “The Kashmir Shawl.”  Asian Art & Culture 9 (Spring/Summer 1996):  38-51.
Bury, Lynne.  “Victorian Shawls:  Not Just for Warmth.”  Civil War Lady no. 22 (1999):
Clabburn, Pamela.  The Norwich Shawl:  Its History and a Catalogue of the Collection at
Stangers Hall
Museum, Norwich.  London:  HMSO, 1995.
Clabburn, Pamela.  Shawls.  Princes Risborough:  Shire Publications, 1981, 1986, 2002.
Irwin, John.  The Kashmir Shawl.  London:  Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1973.
Kelly, C.  “Crazy for Paisley [Two Shows of Paisley Shawls:  Philadelphia Museum of Art;
        Rhode Island School of Design, Providence]  Art & Antiques 19 (December 1996):
Levi-Strauss, Monique.  The Cashmere Shawl.  New York:  Abrams, 1987.
Levi-Strauss, Monique.  Il Cashemire:  Indian and European Shawls.  S.l.:  Ratti, Elli e
        Pagani, 1995.
Levi-Strauss, Monique.  The Romance of the Cashmere Shawl.  Ahmedabad:  Mapin
        Publishing in Association with Mapin International, New York, 1987.
Mackrell, Alice.  Shawls, Stoles and Scarves.  Costume Accessories Series. London:  B. T.
        Batsford, 1986.
Reilly, Valerie.  The Paisley Pattern:  The Official Illustrated History.  Salt Lake City:
Peregrine Smith Books, 1987.
Schmitt, Carolann.  “Summer Mantles and Shawls.”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no. 3
        (August-September 1996):  12-14.
Stewart, A. M.  The History & Romance of the Paisley Shawl.  Glasgow, n.p., 1946.
Reprint ed.  Paisley, Scotland:  Paisley Museum and Art Galleries, 1978.
Why Paisley
?  Paisley:  Paisley Museum & Art Galleries, 1985.
Whyte, Dorothy.  “Edinburgh Shawls and Their Makers.”  Costume 10 (1976):  16-28.
Worth, Susannah.  “Embroidered China Crepe Shawls, 1800-1870.”  M.S. thesis, University
        of Rhode Island, 1986. 

Baynes, Ken and Kate Baynes, ed.  The Shoe Show:  British Shoes Since 1790.  The Crafts
        Council, 1979.
Carlton, Craig.  “Homemade Shoes,”  Foxfire 10.  New York:  Doubleday, 1993, pp.
Christen, Glenna Jo.  “Polite Inquiries.”  [response to letter on ladies’ shoes].  Citizens’
2, no. 4 (October/November 1995):  33.
Coleman, Dorothy and Evelyn Jane Coleman.  “Designs for Making an Applique Slipper, Plus
        a Patriotic Bed Quilt from the July 1861 Issue of Peterson’s Magazine.”  Vintage
3 no.2 (March/April 1992): 47-48.
Coleman, Dorothy and Evelyn Jane Coleman.  “Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Berlin Work
        Slippers.” Vintage Fashion 2 no. 5 (September/October, 1991):  42-44.
Disney, Rosemary Elizabeth.  “Stepping Lightly:  The Romance of the Shoe.”  Lady’s Gallery
     3 no. 5 (August 1996):  18-23, 57.  [includes photos of ladies boots 1845, 1850, 1854]
Every Lady Her Own Shoemaker, or, a Complete Self-Instructor in the Art of Making
        Gaiters and Shoes.
  New York:  DeWitt and Davenport, 1856. Reprint.  Davenport,
        Iowa:  Amazon Drygoods, 1989.
Greig, T. Watson.  Ladies’ Old-Fashioned Shoes.  Edinburgh, Scotland:  D. Douglas, 1885.
[Hughes, Susan Lyons].  “Ruby or Glass?--Searching for Correct Women’s Shoes.”  The
 3 no. 4 (Autumn 1995):  4.
Ladies’ Dress Shoes of the Nineteenth Century:  With Sixty-Three Illustrations
Edinburg:  D. Douglas, 1900.
Rexford, Nancy.  Women’s Shoes in America, 1795-1930.  Kent, OH:  Kent State
        University Press, 2000.
Sneathen, Brenda.  “The Fashionable Foot:  A Show of Shoes, 1850-1950.”  Vintage
1 no.5 (September/October 1990):  20-25.
Swann, June.  Shoes.  Costume Accessories Series.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1982. 

Adburgham, Alison.  Shops and Shopping 1800-1914:  Where, and in What Manner the
Englishwoman Bought Her Clothes.  2d ed.  London:  Allen and
        Unwin, 1981.   London:  Barrie & Jenkins, 1989. 

Slave Clothing
Baumgarten, Linda.  “Plains, Plaid and Cotton:  Woolens for Slave Clothing.”  Ars Textrina
15 (1991):  203-221.
Campbell, Edward D. C., Jr., ed.  Before Freedom Came:  African-American Life in the
        Antebellum South.
  Richmond:  Museum of the Confederacy, 1991.
Durand, Sally Graham.  “The Dress of the Ante-bellum Field Slave in Louisiana and
        Mississippi from 1830 to 1860.”  M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1977.
Foster, Helen Bradley.  New Raiments of Self:  African American Clothing in the
        Antebellum South
.  New York:  Berg, 1997.
Fry, Gladys-Marie.  Stitched from the Soul:  Slave Quilts from the Ante-Bellum South.
New York:  Dutton Studio Books, 1990.  [Several photographs of slaves, 1859 child’s
        petticoat, three piece wool suit, 1845 white homespun slave woman’s wedding gown,
        two sewing bags, plus quilts and coverlets]
Hawkes, Alta Marcellus.  “Food, Clothing and Shelter of the American Slave.” Ph.D.
        dissertation, Southern Methodist University, 1936.
Hunt, Patricia K.  “Fabric Production in the 19th Century African American Slave
        Community.”  Ars Textrina 15 (1991):  83-92.
Hunt, Patricia K.  “Osnaburg Overalls, Calico Frocks, and Homespun Suits:  The Use of 19th
        Century Georgia Newspaper Notices to Research Slave Clothing and Textiles.”
Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 14 no. 3 (1996):  200-eoa.
Hunt, Patricia K.  “The Struggle to Achieve Individual Expression Through Clothing and
Adornment:  African American Women Under and After Slavery” in Discovering the
        Women in Slavery.
  Edited by Patricia Morton.  University of Georgia Press, 1996.
Hunt, Patricia K.  “Textile Fragments Recovered from a Slave Cemetery in South Carolina.”
Ars Textrina 22 (December 1994):  87-105.
Hunt-Hurst, Patricia.  “’Round Homespun Coat & Pantaloons of the Same’:  Slave Clothing
        as Reflected in Fugitive Slave Advertisements in Antebellum Georgia.”  Georgia
        Historical Quarterly
83 no. 4 (1999):  727-740.
Sanders, Eulanda Annette.  “African-American Slave Appearance:  Cultural Analysis of Slave
        Women’s Narratives.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1997.
Stachiw, Myron O.  Negro Cloth:  Northern Industry and Southern Slavery.  [North
        Andover, Mass.:  Merrimack Valley Textile Museum, 1981.]
Starke, Barbara M.  “Nineteenth-Century African-American Dress” in Dress in American
.  Edited by Patricia Cunningham and Susan Voso Lab.  Bowling Green, OH:
Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1993, pp. 66-79.
Tandberg, Gerilyn G.  “Dress-Up Clothes for Field Slaves of Ante-Bellum Louisiana and
.”  Costume 15 (1981): 40-48.
Tandberg, Gerilyn G.  “Field Hand Clothing in Louisiana and Mississippi During the
        Ante-Bellum Period.”  Dress 5 (1980):  89-104.
Wares, Lydia Jean.  “Dress of the African American Woman in Slavery and Freedom,
        1500-1935.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1981.
White, Shane and Graham White.  “’Every Grain is Standing for Itself’:  African-American
        Style in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.”  Australian Cultural History 13
        (1994):  111-128.
White, Shane and Graham White.  “Slave Clothing and African-American Culture in the
        Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.”  Past and Present 148 (August 1995):
White, Shane and Graham White.  “Slave Hair and African-American Culture in the
        Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.”  Journal of Southern History 61 (1995):
White, Shane and Graham White.  Stylin’:  African American Expressive Culture from Its
        Beginning to the Zoot Suit
.  Ithaca:  Cornell University Press, 1998. 

Southern U.S. Clothing
Betts, Vicki.  "The Lena Dancy Homespun Dress:  An Example of the Patriotic Homespun Dress."
        Citizens' Companion 9 no. 4 (October-November 2002):  18-23.
Betts, Vicki.  "'They Call It Patriotism':  Homespun as Politics in the South, 1860-1861."  Citizens'
9 no. 4 (October-November 2002):  12-17.
Channing, Steven A.  Confederate Ordeal:  The Southern Home Front.  Alexandria, Va.:
Time-Life Books, 1984.  [See photographs and artwork]
Cocke, Doris Lanier.  “A Historical Study of Women’s Costumes as a Reflection of the
        Culture in Virginia from 1608-1900.”  M.S. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1962.
DuPont, Ann.  “Textile and Apparel Management Functions Performed by Women in the
        Nineteenth Century Plantation South.”  Ars Textrina 18 (1992):  51-61.
Hague, Parthenia.  A Blockaded Family:  Life in Southern Alabama During the Civil
.  Boston:  Riverside Press, 1888.  Reprint.  Lincoln:  University of Nebraska,
        1991.  No pictures, but excellent description of Southern homespun process.
Hay, Elzey.  "Dress Under Difficulties; or, Passages from the Blockade Experience of Rebel Women." 
        Godey's Lady's Book and Magazine 73 (July, 1866):  32-37.  Contributed by Jan Stofferna
        to Citizens’ Companion 8 no. 5 (December 2001-January 2002):  30-37.
Hooper, Susan E. McFarland.  “Rural Dress in Southwestern Missouri Between 1860 and
        1880.”  M.S. thesis, Iowa State University, 1976.
Koontz, Marcy Leigh.  “The Costume Collection at the Goodwood Plantation, Tallahassee,
        Florida:  One Hundred and Fifty Years of the Most Intimate Possessions of Margaret
        Wilson Hodges Hood and Her Family, 1825-1975.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State
        University, 1995.
Leisch, Juanita.  “The Myth-Story of Scarlet O’Hara, or Notes on How Not to Portray a
        Southern Woman.”  Civil War Lady 1 no.3 (1992): 5-8.
Life Threads:  Clothing Fashions in Early Arkansas, 1810-1870.  Little Rock:  Arkansas
        Territorial Restoration, 1989.
Marks, Paula Mitchell.  Hands to the Spindle:  Texas Women and Home Textile
        Production, 1822-1880
.  College Station:  Texas A&M University Press, 1996.
Massey, Mary Elizabeth.  Ersatz in the Confederacy.  Columbia:  University of South
        Carolina Press, 1952, 1993.  [Includes clothing in the South]
Mescher, Virginia and Michael Mescher.  “’The Burial of Latane’  The Role of Women in the
        War.”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no. 3 (August-September 1996):  21-27.  [includes
        b&w copy of painting]
Mills, Betty J.  Calico Chronicle:  Texas Women and Their Fashions, 1830-1910.
Lubbock:  Texas Tech University, 1985.
Ordonez, Margaret Thompson.  “A Frontier Reflected in Costume, Tallahassee, Leon
        County, Florida:  1824-1861.”  Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, 1977.
Ordonez, Margaret Thompson.  “Plantation Self- Sufficiency in Leon County, Florida:
1824-1860.”  Florida Historical Quarterly 60 no. 4 (1982):  428-439.
Puryear, Pamela Ashworth.  Dressing Victorian:  Being a Brief Overview of Women’s
        Victorian Clothing
in Texas, 1837-1900, with Notes on Recreation of the Styles.
Brenham, TX:  Herrmann Print Shop, 1987.
Ramsey, Bets and Merikay Waldvogel.  Southern Quilts:  Surviving Relics of the Civil
.  Nashville, TN:  Rutledge Hill Press, 1998.  [homespun dress and skirts on pp.
Stamper, Anita.  “One Woman’s Work:  Clothing the Family in Nineteenth-Century
        Mississippi.”  Southern Quarterly 27 (Fall 1988):  95-104. 

Sport Clothing
Bartsch, Donna and Patricia Trautman.  “Skirts for the Nineteenth-Century American
        Equestrienne.”  Dress 13 (1987):  21-32.
Gallery of English Costume:  Costume for Sport.  Manchester:  Art Galleries Committee,
Leslie, Judith Elaine.  "Sports Fashions as a Reflection of the Changing Role of American
        Women in Society from 1850 to 1920."  Ph.D. dissertation, University of North
        Carolina, Greensboro, 1986.
Marsh, Heidi, comp.  Ladies’ Sports of the Era of the Hoop.  Livermore, CA:  by the
        author, 1993.
Marsh, Heidi, comp.  Riding Habits of the Era of the Hoop.  Livermore, CA:  by the
        author, 1987.
Warner, Patricia Campbell.  “Clothing the American Woman for Sport and Physical
        Education, 1860 to 1940:  Public and Private.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of
        Minnesota, 1986. 

Stockings and Socks
Bury, Lynn.  “The Importance of Knitting in the American Civil War.”  Civil War Lady no.
        21 (1999):  18-19.
Farrell, Jeremy.  Socks and Stockings.  Costume Accessories Series.  London:  Batsford,
Grass, Milton N.  History of Hosiery:  From the Piloi of Ancient Greece to the Nylons of
        Modern America
.  New York:  Fairchild Publications, 1955.
Hawthorne, Rosemary.  Stockings and Suspenders:  A Quick Flash.  London: Souvenir
        Press, 1993.
Hughes, Nicky.  “...From Head to Toe, Sock It To Me.”  The Watchdog 4 no. 1 (Winter
        1996):  7.
“Proper Prudence.” Civil War Lady 20 (1997):  18. [light or dark colored stockings and
White, J. Andrew, Robin Nelson, and Kate Thomas.  “Socks for the Army:  Re-Discovering
        a Domestic Art.”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no. 3 (August-September 1996):  16-18. 

“Bathing Dresses.” Citizens’ Companion 6 no. 3 (August-September 1999):  38. [taken
        from Peterson’s Magazine, August 1856]. 
Bosker, Gideon and Lena Lencek.  Making Waves:  Swimsuits & the Undressing of
.  San Francisco:  Chronicle Books, 1988.
Harris, Kristina.  “The Shaping of Bathing Beauties.”  Lady’s Gallery 1 no.2 (1993): 20-28.
Johns, Maxine James.  “Women’s Functional Swimwear, 1860-1920.”  Ph.D. dissertation,
        Iowa State University, 1997.
Johns, Maxine James and Jane Farrell-Beck. “’Cut Out the Sleeves’:  Nineteenth-Century
        U.S. Women Swimmers and Their Attire.”  Dress 28 (2001):  53-63.
Kidwell, Claudia.  Women’s Bathing and Swimming Costume in the United States.
United States National Museum Bulletin, no. 250.  Washington, DC:  Smithsonian
        Institution Press, 1968. 

Aronstein, B.  Textiles and Decorations of the Second Quarter of the Nineteenth
.  New York:  B. Aronstein, 1933.
Bassett, Lynne Zacek.  Textiles for Clothing of the Early Republic, 1800-1850:  A
        Workbook of Swatches and Information.
 Arlington, VA:  Q Graphics Production
        Co., 2001.
Brackman, Barbara.  Clues in the Calico:  A Guide to Identifying and Dating Antique
McLean, VA:  EPM Publications, 1989.  [Good for identifying appropriate
        cotton prints and colors]
Clagg, Penny Ho.  “A Closer Look at Homespun Fabrics:  A Guide to What Was Available
        Then and What is Available Now.”  Citizens’ Companion 4 no. 3 (August-September
        1999):  32-35.
Connolly, Loris and Agatha Huepenbecker.  “Home Weaving in Southeast Iowa,
        1833-1870.”  Annals of Iowa 48 no. 1-2 (1985):  3-31.
Cozart, Dorothy.  “Handwork of the Women of  One Southern Family.”  Uncoverings  13
        (1992):  61-84.
Crawford, Barbara and Lyle Royster, Jr.  “Yarn is My Currency:  Textiles in Rockbridge
        County, 1739-1857.”  Virginia Cavalcade 45 no. 4 (1996):  148-163.
Dickerson, Sara Hollis.  “Accounts of the Total Clothmaking Process in the South on
        Plantations During the Period Immediately  Before Emancipation as Told to Interviewers
        in the Nineteen-Thirties During WPA.”  Typescript, Indiana University, 1980.
Dronsfield, Alan and John Edmonds.  The Transition from Natural to Synthetic Dyes:
.  Little Chalfont: J. Edmonds, 2001.
Ford, Benjamin Peter.  “A Profitable and Creditable Establishment:  Industrial Textile
        Manufacturing and Capitalist Relations of Production in the Antebellum Central Virginia
        Piedmont.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1998.
Forrester, Misha P.  “Aniline Dye Chemistry in the Textile Industry:  The Introduction and
        Response in America, 1858-1870.”  M.S. thesis, University of Massachusetts at
        Amherst, 1994.
Fox, Robert and Agusti Nieto-Galan.  Natural Dyestuffs and Industrial Culture in Europe,
.  Canton, MA:  Science History Publications, 1999.
Goody, S. Rabbit.  “Jean?  Satinette?  Fustian?”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no. 1 (April/May
        1996):  27-28.
Greene, Susan W.  “Service with Style:  Indigo, Manganese Bronze, and Hoyle’s Purple
        Dress Prints, 1800-1855.”  Dress 26 (1999):  17-30.
Greene, Susan W.  Textiles for Early Victorian Clothing, 1850-1880:  A Workbook of
        Swatches & Information
.  Arlington, VA:  Q Graphics Production Co., 2002.
Griffin, Richard and Diffee W. Standard.  “The Cotton Textile Industry in Ante-Bellum North
        Carolina.  Part 2:  An Era of Boom and Consolidation, 1830-1860.”  The North
        Carolina Historical Review
34 (April 1957): 131-164.
Kiracofe, Roderick.  The American Quilt:  A History of Cloth and Comfort, 1750-1950.
     New York:  Clarkson Potter, 1993.  [See chapter on “Fabrics”]
Kurasz, Lisa.  “Understanding Fabrics.”  The Lady Reenactor v.1, pp. 43-46.
Lipsett, Linda Otto.  Pieced from Ellen’s Quilt.  Dayton, OH:  Halstead &  Meadows,
        1991.  [good color closeups of quilt fabrics for this period]
Lohrenz, Mary Edna.  “Two Lives Intertwined on a Tennessee Plantation:  Textile Production
        in the Diary of Narcissa L. Erwin Black.”  Southern Quarterly 27 no. 1 (Fall 1988):
Lohrenz, Mary Edna and Anita Miller Stamper.  Mississippi Homespun:  Nineteenth
        Century Textiles and the Women Who Made Them
.  Jackson, Miss:  Dept. of
        Archives and History, 1989. [color photo of homespun dress]
McClew, Jean Margaret.  “Production and Use of Textiles in the United States During the
        Nineteenth Century.”  M.A. thesis, University of Washington, 1939.
Meller, Susan and Joost Elffers.  Textile Designs:  Two Hundred Years of European and
Patterns.  New York:  Harry N. Abrams, 1991. [The Bible for identifying
        correct prints for the 19th century—absolutely wonderful!]
Mescher, Virginia.  “What Color Is It?”  Citizens’ Companion 3 no. 6 (February-March
        1997):  14-22. [how colors photograph using period techniques]
Montgomery, Florence M.  Textiles in America, 1650-1870.  New York:  W. W. Norton,
        1983.  [dictionary of types of fabrics, heavily 18th century but still useful]
Nieto-Galan, Agusti.  Colouring Textiles:  A History of Natural Dyestuffs in Industrial
.  Boston:  Kluwer Academic, 2001.
19th Century European Textiles, v. 1, Dyeing, Weaving and Wallpaper
.  Tokyo:  Bijutsu
Shuppan-Sha, 1987.  [good illustrations, but not specifically dated]
On, Maola L.  “Beaver Cloth.”  Civil War Lady no. 22 (1999):  12.
Parry, Linda.  The Victoria & Albert Museum’s Textile Collection:  British Textiles from
        1850 to 1900
.  New York:  Canopy Press, 1993.
Pettit, Florence H.  America’s Printed and Painted Fabrics, 1600-1900.  New York:
Hastings House, 1970.
“Polka Dots & Polka Nots:  Fabric Selection for Reenactresses.”  Civil War Lady no. 19
        (April 1997):  7.
Preyer, Morris W.  “The Historian, the Slave, and the Ante-Bellum Textile Industry.”
Journal of Negro History 44 no. 2 (April 1961):  68-82.
Richards, Lynne.  “Folk Dyeing With Natural Materials in Oklahoma’s Indian Territory.”
Material Culture 26 no. 2 (1994):  29-47.
Schmitt, Carolann.  “Fabrics and Fibers.”  Civil War Lady 2 no.9 (1993): 7-8.
Schoeser, M. and C. Rufey.  English and American Textiles from 1790 to the Present.
London:  Thames and Hudson, 1989.
Soszynski, Jomarie.  "Weaves 101."  The Watchdog 10 no. 2 (Spring 2002):  9-10.
Stamper, Anita.  “Manuscript Sources of ‘Mississippi Homespun:  Nineteenth-Century
        Textiles and the Women Who Made Them.”  Journal of Mississippi History 53 no. 3
        (1991):  185-217.
Sykas, Phililp.  “Calico Catalogues:  Nineteenth-Century Printed Dress Fabrics from Pattern
        Books.”  Costume 33 (1999):  57-67.
Taylor, Loretta M.  “Fabric in Women’s Costumes from 1860 to 1880:  A Comparison of
Fashion Periodicals and Selected Canadian Museum Collections.”  M.S. thesis,
        University of Alberta, 1990.
Travis, Anthony S.  “From Manchester to Massachusetts Via Mulhouse:  The Transatlantic
        Voyage of Aniline Black.”  Technology and Culture 35 no. 1 (1994):  70-99.
Trestain, Eileen Jahnke. Dating Fabrics: A Color Guide 1800-1960.  Paducah, KY: 
        American Quilters Association, 1998. 
Ulrich, Pamela V.  “Promoting the South:  Rhetoric and Textiles in Columbus, Georgia,
        1850-1880.”  Dress 11 (1985):  31-46.
Urbanski, Mary Ellen.  "Fabrics and Fibers:  A Dictionary of Fabric Terms."  Camp Chase
19 no. 6 (May 1992):  44, 46.
Urbanski, Mary Ellen.  "Fabrics and Fibers:  A Dictionary of Fabric Terms."  Camp Chase
19 no. 7 (June 1992):  42-43.
Wadsworth Atheneum.  French Textiles From the Middle Ages Through the Second
.  Hartford, Conn.:  the Atheneum, 1985.
Waas, Ann Buermann.  “Natural and Synthetic Dye Use for Protein Fibers in the American
        Textile Industry, 1856-1891.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park,
Wass, Ann Beurmann and Clarita Anderson.  “Rivalling Nature in the Beauty and Brilliancy of
        Their Coloring—Synthetic Dyes and Fashionable Colors in Godey’s Lady’s Book and
        Magazine 1856-1891.”  The Chronicle of the Early American Industries Association
     53 no. 4 (December 2000):  156-162.
Welters, Linda.  “Dress as Souvenir:  Pina Cloth in the Nineteenth Century.”  Dress 24
        (1997):  16-26.
White, Chris.  “Jeans?  Satinette?  Cassimere?  What Kind of Cloth is It?”  The Watchdog 7
        no. 2 (Spring 1999):  5-7. 

Benson, Elaine and John Esten.  Unmentionables:  A Brief History of Underwear.  New
        York:  Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Carter, Alison.  Underwear:  The Fashion History.  London:  Batsford, 1992.
Clark, Elizabeth.  “Make Your Own Drawers.”  Citizens’ Companion 8 no. 1 (April-May
        2001):  26-29.
Cunnington, Cecil Willett and Phyllis Cunnington.  The History of Underclothes.  London:
Faber and Faber, 1981.
Ewing, Elisabeth.  Dress and Undress:   A History of Women’s Underwear.  London:  B.
        T. Batsford, 1978.
Ewing, Elisabeth.  Fashion Underwear.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1971.
Farrell-Beck, Laura Poresky, Jennifer Paff, and Cassandra Moon.  “Brassieres and Women’s
        Health from 1863 to 1940.”  Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 16 no. 3
        (1998):  105-115.
Finch, Casey.  “’Hooked and Buttoned Together’:  Victorian Underwear and Representations
        of the Female Body.” Victorian Studies 34, no. 3 (Spring 1991): 337-365.
Hawthorne, Rosemary.  Knickers:  An Intimate Appraisal.  London:  Souvenir Press, 1993.
Lattimore, Debora Nourse and David A. Carter.  I Wonder What’s Under There?:  A Brief
        History of Underwear
.  San Diego:  Brownder Press, 1998.  [children’s book]
Leisch, Juanita.  “From the Skin Out:  A Reenactress’ Guide to Undergarments.”  Civil War
1 no.4 (1992): 5-8.
Patrick, Lori.  "Victorian Unmentionables Worth Mentioning, or How I Spent My Summer
        Vacation."  Camp Chase Gazette 19 no. 5 (April 1992):  38-39.
Ruby, Jennifer.  Underwear.  London:  B. T. Batsford, 1996.
St. Laurent, Cecil.  A History of Ladies’ Underwear.  London:  Michael Joseph, 1968.
Szatkowski, Karen J.  “Underpinnings Uncovered.”  Citizens’ Companion 2 no. 6
        (February/March 1996):  20-22. 

Wedding Gowns
Anthony, Susan.  “Planning the Mid-19th Century Wedding:  An In-Depth Study.”  Citizens’
8 no. 2 (June-July 2001):  12-23.
“Bridal Preliminary Matters—Behavior of the Parties.”  Civil War Lady no. 22 (1999):
Cleveland, Debra Regan.  “Victorian Wedding Gowns.” Lady’s Gallery 1 no. 1 (1993):
Cunnington, Phyllis and Catherine Lucas.  Costume for Births, Marriages, and  Deaths.
        New York:  Barnes and Noble, 1972.
Felger, Donna H., comp.  Bridal Fashions:  Victorian Era.  Cumberland, Md: Hobby
        House Press, 1986.
Ginsburg, Madeleine.  Wedding Dress, 1740-1970.  London:  Her Majesty’s Stationery
        Office, 1981.
I Do, I Do:  American Wedding Etiquette of Yesteryear
.  New York:  Hippocrene Books,
Lassiter, Julie.  “Christmas Weddings.” Lady’s Gallery 1 no.3 (1993):  39-43.  [photo of
        1850 gown]
Marsh, Heidi, comp.  Wedding Suggestions of the Era of the Hoop.  Livermore, CA:  by
        the author, 1992.
Monsarrat, Ann.  And the Bride Wore ... The Story of the White Wedding. New York:
Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1974.
Olian, JoAnne, ed.  Wedding Fashions, 1862-1912:  380 Costume Designs from “La
        Mode Illustree”
.  New York:  Dover, 1994.
“A Page for Brides” Civil War Lady no.21 (1999):  inside front cover.
Seekamp, Jennifer.  “From Victorian to Modern:  The Persistence of Tradition in the Wedding
        Ceremony.”  B.A. thesis, University of Northern Colorado, 1997.
Staniland, Kay and Santina M. Levey.  Queen Victoria’s Wedding Dress and Lace.
London:  Friends of Fashion of the Museum of London, n.d.
Zimmerman, Catherine S.  The Bride’s Book:  Pictorial History of American Bridal
.  New York:  Arbor House, 1985. 

Wrappers, Dressing Gowns, and Sacks
Altman, Saundra.  “Sacks & Dressing Gowns.”  Civil War Lady  no.14 (1995):   5-8.
Altman, Saundra.  “Wrappers, Dressing Gowns and Robes.”  Civil War Lady no. 18 (Nov.
        1996):  6-9.

Zouave Jackets
Bauer, Cricket.  “The Zouave Among Them:  Exotic Influence in Mid-19th Century Fashion.”
Costume & Dressmaker no. 3 (1997):  4-8.
Soszynski, Jomarie.  "Crochet Zouave Jacket Pattern Developed by Janice Jones."  Watchdog 10
        no. 3 (Summer 2002):  6.