Home Fabric Dyes Mentioned in Confederate Newspapers

[LITTLE ROCK] ARKANSAS TRUE DEMOCRAT, February 22, 1860, p. 1, c. 2 
            Sundries, Just received, and for sale cheap— . . . Indigo; 1½ barrel Madder; . . .
Feb. 1, 1860.                                                                                         Sarasin & Kramer. 

[LITTLE ROCK] WEEKLY ARKANSAS GAZETTE, July 7, 1860, p. 1, c. 4

Manufacturers' Articles.
J. & C. Reakirt,
52 Second Street, Cincinnati, O.

Keeps a Full Supply of
Manufacturers' Articles,
. . . Also a full assortment of
Dye-Stuffs,            Cochineal,
Cudbear,            Indigo,
Madder,            Cutch,
Log Wood,            Sumac,
Cam Wood, &c., &c.
October 1, 1859                         13—1y. 

[DES ARC, ARK.] THE CONSTITUTIONAL UNION, November 16, 1860, p. 4, c. 4 
            To Dye Slate Color.—Boil green chestnut bark one hour; take out the bark, and add four ounces green vitriol for one pound woolen yarn or cloth; stir frequently one hour; dry before washing. 

TENNESSEE BAPTIST, December 21, 1861, p. 4, c. 2 
            To Dye Wool Blue.—Take six pounds of wool, wash all the grease out, put it in a kettle, cover with water, add half a pound of alum dissolved in water, boil two hours, wring out and dry.  Have another kettle, put in three bushels of parseline, (the common field pursley,) cover with water, cook until the stems are quite soft, strain through a basket, put the liquid back in the kettle, add one ounce of the extract of logwood and one ounce of sulphate capri (blue stone,) both previously dissolved, put the wool in, boil two hours, wring out and dry, and then wash the loose dye out.  Spun wool can as easily be dyed in the hanks.  If the dye does not stick after the first washing, too much logwood has been put in.  For twenty years, Mrs. M. has used this dye, and finds it useful in servants clothing and mixed cloth and socks.             
                                                                                                                Mecklenburg.  

CHARLESTON MERCURY, January 1, 1862, p. 1, c. 4
The Washington Star, of the 23d inst., says:
               
The clothing of the "secesh" taken in the recent battle at Drainsville, proves that the enemy are, indeed, intense sufferers for want of Quartermaster's stores.  Thus, three-fourths of their coats are of cotton cloth--not woolen--lined in some instances with a heavier cotton cloth, or padded with cotton.  The coats of the South Carolina troops engaged were colored by being dyed with tobacco juice.

[LITTLE ROCK] ARKANSAS TRUE DEMOCRAT, February 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 5 
The following letter was accompanied by some samples of home made cloth, remarkable for their fineness: 

For the True Democrat.             

                                                                                            Belfast, Saline Co., Ark., Jan. 20, 1862.   
            Mr. Editor—As your valuable paper is a welcome visitor in our family circle, and while perusing its columns, in these stirring and heart-rending times, in search of something new and interesting, I see a premium offered to those young ladies who will send in the largest number of yards of home made jeans cloth, and as I wish the young ladies success in their efforts to gain the medals, I will send you a few samples of my own manufacturing for those young ladies to excel.  Now girls, try yourselves.       
            As times are hard, I will send you some receipts for dying cloth, and if you think they will be of any value to the public, you may make them known to your numerous readers.           
            For Brown.—Take a large pot, fill it with walnut roots and the bark of red oak, about equal parts, boil them until the strength is out, then take out the bark; strain the ooze through a cloth into a clean vessel; wash the pot, pour back the ooze, let it boil.  The cloth must be sewed up like a sack, right side in, rinsed in warm soap suds before you put it in; put in your cloth now.  Raise every 15 or 20 minutes, air it well and put it back again, until it is as deep as you desire.  Rinse it well in clean water, then soap suds again; then dip the cloth in starch, let it get half dry, then roll it, right side in, on a smooth beam very tight, and be very careful to let no rinkles [sic] go on the beam, or they never will come out.  Then keep turning and beating with a mallet for one hour and a half; then commence rolling off and ironing on the wrong side until perfectly dry, as you take it off the beam.—The warp should be colored as you desire before putting in the loom.   
            For Black.—First boil a potfull of walnut root, take out the root then, add extract of logwood enough to dye it black; add a small portion of acatate [sic] of copper; carry the cloth through the same process as the first in dressing.  Post oak will do if you cannot get the walnut root; for dying black, add copperas.  This is no humbug, and will not rot the cloth, for I have been trying it for 18 years.  
            To Dye Drab Color.—Beech bark and peach tree root, boiled together, will make a beautiful color.  
            To Make a Dark Brown.—Walnut roots and the inside of pine bark, and copperas.         
            To Make a Light Clear Brown.—Walnut roots and laurel leaves. 
            To Make a Flesh Color.—The inside of pine bark and madder.           
            To Make a Dove Color.—The inside of pine bark and walnut leaves, add copperas. . . .   
                                                            Mary E. Barr. 

[MARSHALL] TEXAS REPUBLICAN, March 15, 1862, p. 2, c. 2  
Mr. Loughery,   
            You will greatly oblige the ladies of this community, and, I have not a doubt, of the State and South generally, by publishing these receipts for dyeing woollen goods.  I have had numberless applications for them, and since old Abe's blockade, I think every person ought to contribute what little knowledge he has for the benefit of the whole.  I therefore send my mite.                      
                                                                                                            Respectfully,                
                                                                                                            Sally M. Ward.  
            To Dye Scarlet.—Put two ounces of cream of tartar in enough water to cover a pound of goods well; boil the yarn one hour in the water; take out the hanks and wash them in clear water.  Scour the kettle, and the, to every lb. of yarn, take 1 oz. of muriate of tin, 1 oz. of cochineal, 2 oz. of cream of tartar, and put them all in clear water; wet the hanks in the water while it is cold to prevent spotting; after which boil them for one hour stirring them all the while.  Hang them in the shade till dry, then rinse them in clear water.   
            To Dye Blue.—Pound an oz. of indigo very fine, put it in a bowl, pour on it a pound of oil of vitriol slowly, stirring it all the while; let it set 24 hours, then bottle it.  Put enough water in the kettle to cover well a pound of goods; put in a teaspoon full of the mixture, and [illegible] oz. of alum powder, stir it well, then drop in your hanks; boil them half an hour, stirring them occasionally.  You can get as deep a shade as you wish, by pouring in more of the mixture, a little at a time, first taking out the hanks.  The first proportion is for a very pale blue.  Be careful in handling the oil of vitriol, as it will eat anything it comes in contact with.     
            To Dye Green.—Boil a strong decoction of red oak and hickory bark, in equal parts; take enough of the bark dye to cover 1 lb. of goods well, stir in 3 oz. of alum powder, and a soup spoon full of the mixture you dyed the blue with.  Have your hanks washed clean, and rinsed free of the soap, or they will spot, then put them in the dye, boil half an hour; let them dry, then wash in soap suds to free them of the vitriol.   

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, April 29, 1862, p. 2, c. 8 
               
A Cheap Dye.—A gentleman has handed us a specimen of cotton yarn colored to represent copperas, which it does very closely.  The dye employed is very cheap.  It is made of red or black oak bark, the rough outside of which should be first trimmed off.  Make a strong decoction of the bark by boiling, and to a pot of about ten gallons, add a tablespoonful of blue vitriol.  The yarn to be colored should be put in and boiled for an hour or two, and then washed as much as you please.  The color will stand, and the yarn will be found soft and free from the hardness usual in copperas dye.—Exc.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 31, 1862, p.  1, c. 3
                                                                                            
Bellville, May 27th, 1862.       
. . . A few days since I called in to see my old friend Dr. Reams.  The Doctor's health is not very good now a days, still he is going about trying to do good.  His family are all hard at work, some knitting, some spinning and some weaving, carding, etc.  Mrs. Reams is making some very good cloth.  The cloth sells well and I have no doubt will wear well.  It is dyed a sort of brown color, whether they color the cotton first before spinning or color the cloth I was not informed.  This cloth seems to be a good deal in demand about here and I am told there are a good many families about here making similar cloth.
               
There are a good many families making cloth of cotton and wool.  This you know is called linsey woolsy.  They dye the wool before it is carded or spun.  The old lady where I board colored some the other day.  She told me she wanted a cotton basketful of little green moss.  I wondered what she could want that stuff for.  I never heard that it was good for anything before.  True, in North Carolina, we used to cut down trees in the winter when the snow was upon the ground, and fodder and hay were scarce as they generally were there, and let the sheep eat this green moss to keep them alive, and by this means we were saved the trouble of pulling the wool from the dead sheep.  However, I said nothing to the old lady, and after dinner I took the cotton basket and a couple of the boys and went to the timber.  We found a plenty of moss.  The boys climbed the trees and pulled it off while I picked it up and put it in the basket.  In about three hours, we had got the basket full, when we started home. . . 
               
You have known some very clever old women no doubt, who would sometimes commence to tell a story, and after commencing it tell five or six other stories before finishing the one they started to tell or perhaps forget all about it and not finish it at all.  You probably begin to think it is going to be about so with my moss, but I have been all the time thinking about that moss and will try and get to it now.
               
After we got home, the old lady took the moss and picked it all over, picking out all the sticks and pieces of bark and dead moss, she then took the large kettle and spread a layer of moss all over the bottom of it and then a layer of wool and then a layer of moss, and so moss and wool alternately until the kettle was full.  She then laid some boards across the top and put a rock on the top to hold it down and then filled the kettle with water and boiled it.  It made the most beautiful brown color I ever saw.  They used to call it a dark snuff color in North Carolina.  This is called "dyeing in the wool," and will not wash out nor fade.  The old lady has a piece of about thirty yards in the loom now.  You shall have a "Sunday go to meeting" suit off of it, if you get home pretty soon.  You would look better in a suit of it than if dressed up in Yankee "store clothes." . . .                                                                              G. W. Jefferson Smith. 

[LITTLE ROCK] ARKANSAS TRUE DEMOCRAT, July 24, 1862, p. 1, c. 6

General Order No. 1.

                                                                                                    Provost Marshal's Office,          }                                                                                                              3d Division of Arkansas,           }                      
                                                                                                    Springfield, July 1862.               }          
. . . The following tariff of prices is hereby announced to govern the sale of all articles specified or included therein, and all subordinate Provost Marshals of this district are required to enforce the same.  All violations of this order will be met with punishment commensurate with the offence:
. . . All other goods, wares, merchandize, drugs, medicines, dye-stuffs of every description or character whatever, generally sold by merchants, druggists and grocery keepers of this district, 40 per cent. on cost and carriage.           
                                                                                                    D. McCreery, Maj.             
                                                                                                    and Provost Marshal, 3d Dis't of Ark.                
    [fold in paper] 

STATE GAZETTE [AUSTIN, TX], October 1, 1862, p. 1, c. 3
    
           RECIPE FOR DYING SLATE COLOR.--Equal portions of the inside bark of sassafras and willow, boiled in a brass kettle; strain the decoction from the bark, and add to two gallons of the fluid a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small portion of the latter.  Have the wool well scoured, and taken out of a clean soapsuds; wring it dry and put it into the dye--let it boil a short time raising it out to get air frequently; dry it and then wash it in suds until quite cleansed from the smell of dye.  It is a permanent color, and does not take a great quantity of the bark above named; it is richer than almost any other bark I have ever used.
    
           The black jack will dye a good slate color, prepared in the same way, but not so permanent a color as the other.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 11, 1862, p. 2, c. 3
               
Recipe for Dying Slate Color.—Equal portions of the inside bark of sassafras and willow, boiled in a brass kettle; strain the decoction from the bark, and add to two gallons of the fluid a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small portion of the latter. [sic?]  Have the wool well scoured, and taken out of a clean soapsuds; wring it dry and put it into the dye, let it boil a short time, raising it out to get air frequently; dry it and then wash it in suds until quite cleansed from the smell of dye.  It is a permanent color, and does not take a great quantity of the bark above names; it is richer than almost any other bark I have ever used.
               
The black jack will dye a good slate color, prepared in the same way, but not so permanent a color as the other.

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, October 28, 1862, p. 3, c. 1
               
To Dye Solferino.—Take a quantity of poke-berries, squeeze out the juice and to each cup of the juice add one cupful of vinegar; put in a brass or tin kettle, put your yarn in warm water, squeeze it out, then put it in the dye and let it boil slowly about thirty minutes, or until it received the proper color.  Wynnton.
               
The writer of the above has shown us a child's stocking dyed after the above recipe.  Though it has been worn and washed, it retains a deep and handsome, and apparently permanent scarlet color.  Indeed it is as pretty a color for children's wear as any we have ever seen.

THE SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], October 29, 1862, p. 3, c. 3

From the Richmond Enquirer.

                The Comfort Cloak--A Substitute for Overcoats and Blankets for Our Army.
                I see that great complaint is made for the want of clothing for our army.--Allow me to suggest a cheap and warm substitute for a blanket and overcoat, and which can be made by any country matron.
                Take sufficient quantity of common cotton shirting, dye it brown with black walnut, cut it and make it in the form of a large loose cloak without sleeves, leaving slits for the arms; wad it with cotton batting, in thin layers like a quilt, fix an oil cloth cape to it, reaching down to the waist, fasten it with a belt around the waist, the throat and breast part to be fastened with string--and you have the most complete cloak and blanket a soldier ever slept in, and much lighter than the woolen coat. . . . 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, November 3, 1862, p. 1, c. 4
               
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.—Place in your kettle a layer of Walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.
               
The Walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn, just as they begin to fall from the trees.
   

CHARLESTON MERCURY, November 5, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
               
Aged Industry.--We have been shown by a friend a sample of check homespun, the cotton of which was carded spun and woven by an aged and venerable lady in Marion District, whose grand-children had planted and picked the raw material.  The indigo with which the homespun is dyed was also made by the industrious lady, who has nearly completed here three-score and ten.  Surely when such work can be accomplished by the aged, and with the great staple in abundance, there is no reason why homespuns should be selling at fabulous prices, nor why younger fingers with an average share of industry, might not supply the wants of an army.
   

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATLANTA, GA], November 7, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
               
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.--Place in your kettle a layer of Walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days, after which wash it and it will be a fine black.
               
The Walnut leaves should be gathered in the Autumn just as they begin to fall from the trees.
   

SELMA MORNING REPORTER, November 7, 1862, p. 1, c. 5 
            To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.—Place in your kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days, after which wash it and it will be a fine black.        
            The walnut leaves should be gathered in the Autumn just as they begin to fall from the trees. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, November 8, 1862, p. 1, c. 7
               
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.—Place in your kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full; pour on water, till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before, and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days; after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.
               
The walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn, just as they begin to fall from the trees.   

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, November 11, 1862, p. 1, c. 8
               
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.—Place in your kettle a layer of Walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves, and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days, after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.
               
The Walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn just as they begin to fall from the trees.
   

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, November 12, 1862, p. 1, c. 7
               
Confederate Dye.—To make a Beautiful Blue.—Take alder berries, mash them and press out the juice; to two gallons of juice add about one ounce of copperas and two ounces of alum.  Dip the thread in this thoroughly, and air it, and the dye is set.   

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, November 19, 1862, p. 4, c. 5 
            Substitute for Blankets.—We have been shown a substitute for soldier's blankets, manufactured under the direction of Mrs. Wiley E. Jones, of this vicinity.  It is made after the style of rag carpets of a new material, and colored with barks so as to make it the "loyal nut brown hue," so well adapted to camp life.  The sample we have seen is a good substitute, and can be manufactured at a cost not exceeding $4.50 or $5.   
            Let others of our female friends follow the patriotic example of Mrs. Jones.  Blankets can't be had—they are not in the country, and money won't buy them.  Our soldiers must have something to shield them from the frosts and snow of the coming winter, and rag carpet blankets will do when nothing better can be hand.—Columbus Sun.  

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, December 10, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
Substitute for Copperas.—The following is a recipe which answers every purpose in dyeing where copperas is used in setting colors, or for dying copperas color:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing at one dollar per pound while this will answer every purpose.
   

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
               
John H. Taylor of Georgia gives the above recipe, and says, many have tried it with complete success last season.
               
To dye cotton or wool brown.—A lady friend sends the following receipt for dying cotton or wool brown:
               
Take the bark of the root of a common wild plum—boil in iron or brass, as most convenient until the dye looks almost black.  Strain, and add a small quantity of copperas dissolved in a small quantity of the dye.  Add the article to be dyed.  Boil an hour or so.  Wring out and dip in strong cold ley.  When dry, rinse in cold water.  This gives a genuine, bright brown, which is the prettiest contrast for blue; and when checked in together makes a dress becoming enough for the proudest Southern dame or belle.  Ladies, try it.   

[LITTLE ROCK] ARKANSAS TRUE DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1862, p. 2, c. 3|
            To Dye Wool Black Without Copperas.—Place in your kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves, and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before, and pour the same liquor over it, and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days; after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.        
            The walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn, just as they begin to fall from the trees. 

[LITTLE ROCK] ARKANSAS TRUE DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1862, p. 2, c. 5 
            To Color Thread.—Prepare a lump of beeswax by mixing into it while in a melted state enough of soot to make it perfectly black.  When cold it is ready for use.  By drawing a white thread of cotton of silk over this twice, you will have gray thread, and by repeating it you will have it black and good enough for nearly every purpose.           
            With the above, says an exchange, we were furnished a sample of thread colored as described, and find it all claimed for it.  The method has been tested by a well-known citizen, and there is no question of its value.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 17, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
               
The following is a recipe which answers every purpose in dyeing copperas color:  Half pint vinegar half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing at one dollar per pound, while this will answer every purpose.   

SELMA MORNING REPORTER, January 21, 1863, p. 1, c. 6

To Dye Scarlet.

            For 5 pounds of wool take 2 ounces pulverized cochineal, 2 ounces cream tartar, boil 15 minutes, then add 1 ounce muriate of tin, put in the thread and simmer for 30 minutes, then air 30 minutes and simmer again for 30 minutes and the work is done.   
For Cotton add to the above preparation ½ pound of red wood, 4 ounces linseed oil and 1 ounce of alum; simmer and air as above.—Southerner. 

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, February 4, 1863, p. 2, c. 2 
            Blues of every shade are dyed with the indigo oat.  Yellow, after aluming [sic?], with a bath of tumeric or weld.  Other tints may be obtained by a mixture of the above dyes. 

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, February 18, 1863, p. 2, c. 3 
            A Mobile, Alabama, lady recently dyed her kid gloves in the following manner:  The gloves were originally of an olive color.  She put them on, and, with a piece of sponge, besmeared or rubbed them over, with common writing ink, with a soft tooth brush, she rubbed them again with mutton suet.  When dry, they have a beautiful soft, glossy black color, equal to the best black gloves.  Now that gloves have got to be so scarce and so high, the above experiment is worth the trial. 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [JACKSON, MS], February 18, 1863, p. 1, c. 6

How to Dye Different Colors.

                1.  It is important to cleanse the wool or other material to be dyed, from grease and all foreign matters, which might prevent it from taking the dye.  Wool must be well washed in warm soap suds, rinsed in warm water, squeezed as dry as possible, and then put into the dye.  Cotton and linen must be thoroughly wet in boiling water, and then squeezed or wrung out of it, and put in the dye wet.
               
2.  Use a copper cauldron for all light and delicate colors, and an iron pot for black and dark colors.  The shades of color will be regulated by the strength of the dye, the number of times the article is dipped, or the length of time it remains in the dye.
               
3.  Many dyes that will color cotton will leave wool and linen untinged, and some that will color wool deeply will dye cotton a very light shade.
               
4.  What is used for brightening and making the colors durable are called mordants.  The mordants used here are copperas, (sulphate of iron), blue vitrol [sic], (sulphate of copper), alum, wheat bran, lye and lime water.  Those who cannot obtain copperas (now a scarce article) use the water from one of the mineral springs, which is strongly impregnated with iron.
               
5.  The best seasons with dyeing with bark is in the spring and summer, while the sap is up in the tree.  Autumn is the best season for dyeing with leaves, and winter is the season for dyeing with roots, because the sap of the tree goes into the roots.
               
6.  Bark and roots must be cut in small pieces, let the caldron be two-thirds filled with the pieces, then fill up with water, and boil for several hours until the color is as deep as desired.  If leaves and twigs are used, fill the boiler with stem, and cover with water.  Two or three hours steady boiling will extract the color from the bark, roots, and leaves.  Then strain off the liquid carefully from the sediment, and put it back into a clean boiler, add to it the alum or copperas, or  both, according to the color desired; let it be completely dissolved and well mixed with the dye, after which immerse the wet wool, yarn or cloth in the dye, and proceed according to the definite directions for each color.  By mixing different barks, roots and leaves together in the same dye, a variety of shades of different colors are obtained by those who are skilled in the art of preparing domestic dyes.  The following named trees are much used for dying wool and cotton:
               
Sassafras bark and roots are used for dying worsted a permanent and beautiful yellow and orange color.  Use a copper boiler, and five ounces of alum to one pound of wool or worsted yarns.
               
Kalmia, or dwarf laurel, dyes cotton a fine drab color.  Use a copper boiler.  The leaves and twigs of the kalmia and about one tablespoonful of copperas to three gallons of dye.  Scale the cotton material in the dye for twenty minutes, then rinse in cold water, and hang to dry in the air.
               
Willow.—The bark dyes wool and linen a deep blue black, and dies [sic] cotton a dark slate color.  Use an iron boiler.  For black, three ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye; for slate color, one ounce of copperas is sufficient.  Boil in the dye for twenty minutes, rinse in cold water and hang to dry.  The dye may be deepened by a repetition of the same process in fresh dye.
               
Red Oak.—The bark and roots dye a fine shade of chocolate brown.  Use an iron boiler two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye.  Boil twenty minutes in the dye and rinse in cold water.  This dyes cotton.  The Spanish oak dyes another shade of brown.
               
White Oak.—The bark dyes cotton lead color.  Use an iron boiler; two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye; scald in the dye twenty minutes, and rinse with cold water.  Oak bark will not die [sic] wool.
               
Pine bark—all the varieties found in our woods—dyes cotton slate color, combined with the Kalmia it dyes dove color.  For each color put one ounce of copperas to four gallons of dye, and boil in it for twenty minutes.  Rinse the slate color in cold water and the doe color in cold lye.
               
Sweet gum bark dyes cotton dove color.  Use a copper boiler; a spoonful of copperas to three gallons of dye, and scald in the dye for twenty minutes; rinse in cold water.  To produce another shade, rinse the cotton stuff in cold lye water, and hang to dry in the air.
               
Guinea Corn—The seed dyes wool lead color, and will not dye cotton.  Use an iron boiler, a little copperas, and rinse in lye.
               
Maple—The bark dyes both wool and cotton a fine dark shade of purple.  Use an iron boiler and two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye; scald in hot dye for twenty minutes and rinse in cold water.
               
Beech—The bark dyes dove color.  Use an iron boiler and one ounce of copperas to four gallons of dye; rinse in cold water, or in lye for another shade.
               
Sumach—The leaves and berries dye black.  Use an iron boiler, and four ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye.  Boil the cotton yarn or cloth in the dye for an hour, and rinse in cold water.
               
Walnut.—The bark and roots dye cotton fawn-brown and root-color, according to the portion of bark or of roots and copperas used.  The leaves boiled into dye color cotton purple and wool black; when used without boiling the leaves dye wool fawn-color.  The green shells of the full grown nuts dye black with copperas.  What is dyed black must be rinsed in cold water; the cotton to be dyed purple must be rinsed in lye.  The fawn, brown and root color must be rinsed in cold water.  The proportion of copperas used for black is two ounces to four gallons of dye; for the other shades use much less copperas.
               
To make a cold dye for wool, fill a tub with alternate layers of walnut leaves and wool, then pour on water till all is covered.  The next day take out the wool and dry it in the sun, then re-place it in another tub with alternate layers of fresh walnut leaves.  Strain off the water from the old walnut leaves and pour it over the wool and fresh walnut leaves; let it remain again till the next day.  Repeat this process for one week, adding as much water from day to day as to make the dye sufficient to cover the wool and fresh leaves.  This is a fine, permanent fawn-colored dye.
               
Madder dyes wool red.  Mix four quarts of wheat bran with four gallons of water, and set it to ferment.  When it is quite sour strain off the water and dissolve in it a lump of alum the size of a hen's egg.  Set the liquid on the fire in a copper kettle, and just before it boils mix well into it a half pound of fresh madder for every pound of wool.  Then put into the dye the wet wool or worsted stuff to be dyed, and let it remain immersed in the dye for an hour, turning and pressing it frequently, during which hour the dye must be kept very hot, but must not boil, lest the color should be tarnished.  When the wool is taken from the dye pot it must be rinsed immediately in cool strong lye, or in lime water, and then dried.
               
Spanish brown is used for dyeing cotton red.  Put a pound of Spanish brown, powdered, into
a little bag, and rub it out in a gallon of hot water till the bag is completely emptied of its contents.  Then put the cotton yarn into the painted water, and rub the color into the yarn till all the coloring  matter is transferred from the water to the yarn.  After which put two tablespoonsful of linseed oil into the water and boil the yarn in it for fifteen minutes, then hang the yarn to dry.  If the linseed oil cannot be obtained, boil the painted yarn in new milk for fifteen minutes.
               
Solferino pink.—Cut a piece out of the end of a pumpkin large enough to admit the hand, take out all the seeds and leave the strings in.  Mash poke berries into a pulp and fill the cavity of the pumpkin with them, stir them up well with the strings and put the worsted yarn into the mixture, then cover it up close with the piece of pumpkin that was cut out.  The next day take out the yarn and dry it in the air; when dry put the yarn back into the pumpkin as before, and cover it up again till next day.  Repeat this process every day till the desired shade of pink is obtained, then rinse the worsted out in cold strong vinegar, and dry it for use.  It will take a week to dye the deepest shade of pink.—Charleston Courier.
   

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, March 3, 1863, p. 1, c. 7
               
A Good Wool Dye.—A gentleman in Terrell Co., Ga., says a good dye for wool, or woolen cloth, may be made of white oak and spanish oak bark.  Make a strong decoction of these barks, and let the goods remain in it a day or two, and then set the dye by dipping them in a weak lime water.
   

[LITTLE ROCK] ARKANSAS TRUE DEMOCRAT, March 4, 1863, p. 2, c. 3          
            The following is a recipe which answers every purpose in dyeing copperas color:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing, at one dollar per pound, when this will answer every purpose. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, March 14, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
The following is a recipe which answers every purpose in dyeing copperas colors:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing, at a dollar per pound, while this will answer every purpose.   

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, March 20, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
The following is a recipe which answers every purpose of dying copperas color:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing, at one collar per pound, while this will answer every purpose.
   

[LITTLE ROCK] ARKANSAS TRUE DEMOCRAT, March 25, 1863, p. 1, c. 5

How to Dye Different Colors.

            1.  It is important to cleanse the wool or other material to be dyed, from grease and all foreign matters, which might prevent it from taking the dye.  Wool must be well washed in warm soap suds, rinsed in warm water, squeezed as dry as possible, and then put into the dye.  Cotton and linen must be thoroughly wet in boiling water, and then squeezed or wrung out of it, and put in the dye wet.           
            2.  Use a copper cauldron for all light and delicate colors, and an iron pot for black and dark colors.  The shades of color will be regulated by the strength of the dye, the number of times the article is dipped, or the length of time it remains in the dye.        
            3.  Many dyes that will color cotton will leave wool and linen untinged, and some that will color wool deeply will dye cotton a very light shade.      
            4.  What is used for brightening and making the colors durable are called mordants.  The mordants used here as coppers, (sulphate of iron), blue vitrol, (sulphate of copper), alum, wheat bran, lye and lime water.  Those who cannot obtain copperas (now scarce article) use the water from one of the mineral springs, which is strongly impregnated with iron.          
            5.  The best seasons for dyeing with bark is in the spring and summer, while sap is up in the tree.  Autumn is the best season for dyeing with leaves, and winter is the season for dyeing with roots, because the sap of the tree goes into the roots.         
            6.  Bark and roots must be cut in small pieces, let the caldron be two thirds filled with the pieces, then fill up with water, and boil for several hours until the color is as deep as desired.  If leaves and twigs are used, fill the boiler with them, and cover with water.  Two or three hours steady boiling will extract the color from the bar, roots and leaves.  Then strain off the liquid carefully from the sediment, and put it back into a clean boiler, add to it the alum or copperas, or both, according to the color desired; let it be completely dissolved and well mixed with the dye, after which immerse the wet wool, yarn or cloth in the dye, and proceed according to the definite directions for each color.  By mixing different barks, roots and leaves together in the same dye, a variety of shades of different colors are obtained by those who are skilled in the art of preparing domestic dyes.  The following named trees are much used for dyeing wool and cotton. 
Sassafras bark and roots are used for dyeing worsted a permanent and beautiful yellow and orange color.  Use a copper boiler, and five ounces of alum to one pound of wool or worsted yarns.  
            Kalmia, or dwarf laurel, dyes cotton a fine drab color.  Use a copper boiler.  The leaves and twigs of the kalmia and about one table spoonful of copperas to three gallons of dye.  Scald the cotton material in the dye for twenty minutes, then rinse in cold water and hang to dry in the air. 
            WILLOW.—The bark dyes wool and linen a deep blue black, and dies [sic] cotton a dark slate color.—Use an iron boiler.  For black, three ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye; for slate colors one ounce of copperas is sufficient.  Boil in the dye for twenty minutes, rinse in cold water and hang to dry.  The dye may be deepened by a repetition of the same process in fresh dye.         
            RED OAK.—The bark and roots dye a fine shade of chocolate brown.  Use an iron boiler, two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye.  Boil twenty minutes in the dye and rinse in cold water.  This dyes cotton.  The Spanish oak dyes another shade of brown.  
            WHITE OAK.—The bark dyes cotton lead color.  Use an iron boiler; two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye, scald in the dye twenty minutes, and rinse with cold water.  Oak bark will not dye wool.    
            PINE BARK.—All the varieties found in our woods—dyes cotton slate color, combined with the kalmia it dyes dove color.  For each color put one ounce of copperas to four gallons of dye, and boil in it for twenty minutes.  Rinse the slate color in cold water, and the dove color in cold lye.           
            SWEET GUM bark dyes cotton, dove color.  Use a copper boiler; a spoonful of copperas to three gallons of dye, and scald in the dye for twenty minutes; rinse in cold water.  To produce another shade, rinse the cotton stuff in cold lye water, and hang to dry in the air.          
            GUINEA CORN.—The seed dyes wool lead color, and will not dye cotton.  Use an iron boiler, a little copperas, and rinse in lye.
            MAPLE.—The bark dyes both wool and cotton a fine dark shade of purple.  Use an iron boiler and two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye; scald in hot dye for twenty minutes and rinse in cold water.  
            BEECH.—The bark dyes dove color.  Use an iron boiler and one ounce of copperas to four gallons of dye; rinse in cold water, or in lye for another shade. 
            SHOMACH [sic].—The leaves and berries dye black.  Use an iron boiler, and four ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye.  Boil the cotton yarn or cloth in the dye for an hour, and rinse in cold water.    
            WALNUT.—The bark and roots dye cotton fawn brown and root color, according to the portion of bark or of roots and copperas used.  The leaves boiled into dye color cotton purple and wool black; when used without boiling the leaves dye wool fawn color.  the green shells of the full grown nuts dye black with copperas.  What is dyed black must be rinsed in cold water; the cotton to be dyed purple must be rinsed in lye.  The fawn, brown and root color must be rinsed in cold water.  The proportion of copperas used for black is two ounces to four gallons of dye; for the other shades use much less copperas.         
            To make a cold dye for wool, fill a tub with alternate layers of walnut leaves and wool, then pour on water till all is covered.  The next day take out the wool and dry it in the sun, then replace it in another tub with alternate layers of fresh walnut leaves.  Strain off the water from the old walnut leaves and pour it over the wool and fresh walnut leaves; let it remain again till the next day.  Repeat this process for one week, adding as much water from day to day as to make the dye sufficient to cover the wool and fresh leaves.  This is a fine, permanent fawn-colored dye.     
            Madder dyes wool red.  Mix four quarts of wheat bran with four gallons of water, and set it to ferment.  When it is quite sour strain off the water and dissolve in it a lump of alum the size of a hen's egg.  Set the liquid on the fire in a copper kettle, and just before it boils mix well into a half pound of fresh madder for every pound of wool.  Then put into the dye the wet wool or worsted stuff to be dyed, and let it remain immersed in the dye for an hour, turning and pressing it frequently, during which hour the dye must be kept very hot, but must not boil, lest the color should be tarnished.  When the wool is taken from the dye pot it must be rinsed immediately in cool strong lye, or in lime water, and then dried.  
            Spanish brown is used in dyeing cotton red.—Put a pound of Spanish brown, powdered, into a little bag, and rub it out in a gallon of hot water till the bag is completely emptied of its contents.  Then put the cotton yarn into the painted water, and rub the color into the yarn till all the coloring matter is transferred from the water to the yarn.  After which put two tablespoonfuls of linseed oil into the water and boil the yarn in it for fifteen minutes, then hang the yarn to dry.  If the linseed oil cannot be obtained, boil the painted yarn in new milk for fifteen minutes. 
            SOLFERINO PINK.—Cut a piece out of the end of a pumpkin large enough to admit the hand to take out all the seeds and leave the strings in.  Mash poke berries into a pulp and fill the cavity of the pumpkin with them, stir, them up well with the strings and put the worsted yarn into the mixtures, then cover it up close with the piece of pumpkin that was cut out.  The next day take out the yarn and dry it in the air; when dry put the yarn back into the pumpkin as before, and cover it up again till next day.  Repeat this process every day till the desired shade of pink is obtained, then rinse the worsted out in cold strong vinegar, and dry it for use.  It will take a week to dye the deepest shade of pink.—Charleston Courier. 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, May 7, 1863, p. 1, c. 1

Substitute for Copperas.

                To the Ladies:  Copperas is composed of Sulphuric Acid, or Oil of Vitriol and Iron, and is called by chemists Sulphate of Iron.  A better material for dyeing, and the one invariably used by dyers is called Acetate of Iron, and is thus prepared:
    
           Take common vinegar, the stronger the better, put into it rusty nails, or any pieces of rusty iron, and let it stand several days; the vinegar will eat off or dissolve the rust, and when it ceases to act on the iron, pour off the clear liquor and use it as you would Copperas, and you will find it a much better article and cost you nothing.
                                                                                               
E. N. Elliott, Chemist.   

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, May 16, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
Substitute for Copperas.—To the Ladies:  Copperas is composed of sulphuric acid, or oil of vitriol and iron, and is called by chemists sulphate of iron.  A better material for dyeing, and the one invariably used by dyers, is called acetate of iron, and let it stand several days; the vinegar will eat off or dissolve the rust, and when it ceases to act on the iron, pour off the clear liquor and use it as you would copperas, and you will find it a much better article, and cost you nothing.                         E. N. Elliott, Chemist.
   

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, May 16, 1863, p. 2, c. 3
               
Substitute for Copperas.—Prof. E. N. Elliott publishes the following in the Natchez Courier:
               
Copperas is composed of sulphuric acid, or oil of vitriol and iron, and is called by chemists Sulphate of Iron.  A better material for dyeing, and the one invariably used by dyers, is called Acetate of Iron, and is thus prepared:
               
Take common vinegar, the stronger the better, put into it rusty nails, or any pieces of rusty iron, and let it stand several days; the vinegar will eat off or dissolve the rust, and when it ceases to act on the iron, pour off the clear liquor and use it as you would copperas, and you will find it a much better article.   

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 23, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
Dye.—Place in a kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves, then another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before, and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days, after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.
               
The walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn, just as they begin to fall from the trees, and dried in the shade.   

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, May 26, 1863, p. 1, c. 6
               
Substitute for Copperas.—To the Ladies:  Copperas is composed of sulphuric acid, or oil of vitriol  and iron, and is called by chemists sulphate of iron.  A better material for dyeing, and the one invariably used by dyers, is called acetate of iron, and is thus prepared:
               
Take common vinegar, the stronger the better, put into it rusty nails, or any pieces of rusty iron, and let it stand for several days; the vinegar will eat off or dissolve the rust, and when it ceases to act on the iron, pour off the clear liquor and use it as you would copperas, and you will find it a much better article, and cost you nothing.                                                         E. N. Elliott, Chemist.
   

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, June 9, 1863, p. 3, c. 1
               
A Receipt to Dye Black.—We publish for the benefit of our lady readers, the following recipe which has been furnished us, to dye cotton a beautiful jet black colour:
               
1 pot of red oak ooze; 1 do. of maple dye; 1 do. of strong ley; 1 do. of strong copperas water.
               
Dip the hank in the red oak, and next in the ley, and then in the copperas water five times.  Then dip in the maple, ley, and copperas water five times.  It is no humbug.  Try it.—Atlanta Intell.
   

THE SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], June 17, 1863, p. 1, c. 6
Receipt to dye black.--We publish for the benefit of our lady readers, the following receipt which has been furnished us, to dye cotton a beautiful jet black color:

    
1 pot of red oak ooze; 1 do. of maple dye; 1 do. of strong copperas water.
    
Dip the hank in the red oak, and next in the lye, and then in the copperas water five times.  Then dip in the maple, lye and coperas, five ties.  It is no humbug.  Try it.
   

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 29, 1863, p. 2, c. 4

To Dye Copperas.

                Mrs. Jane Waters, of Hart county, has sent us a sample of thread dyed a copperas color by a new process, which is as follows:
    
           Find a spring or stream of chalybeate water, stir it up, then take a tub full and let it stand until it settles.  Pour off the clear water, and wash the thread or cloth in the dregs.  It will not fade.  Mrs. W. says some of her neighbors have tried it and found it will set dye--which we do not doubt, as it is the very thing of which copperas is made.   

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, September 11, 1863, p. 2, c. 1

Communicated.
How to Dye Wool Gray.

                In the course of some experiments by my wife last year, in regard to dying wool and cotton, it was ascertained that if wool be immersed in a decoction of the sliced fruit of the pomegranate, prepared in an iron vessel, a permanent and beautiful and beautiful gray color will be the result, which may be varied from the lightest drab to a deep black.  The lighter shades require no mordant, the black should be set with copperas.  The shade, of course, will vary with the changing proportion of fruit and water.  By this simple process the tedious labor of hand-mixing is saved, while perfect uniformity and regularity of color is obtained.
               
Cotton thread may also be dyed blue by soaking well in the juice of elderberries, washing in warm suds, and setting with copperas.  Previously to immersion in the warm suds, it is a royal purple.  Though not a fast color, it is as permanent as any of our indigenous dyes.   

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, September 25, 1863, p. 2, c. 4
               
Blue Dye for Cotton and Linen.—Cotton and linen articles are dyed blue by a solution of one part indigo, one part green sulphate of iron and two parts of quick lime.   

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, September 30, 1863, p. 4, c. 5 
            How to Dye Wool Grey.—In the course of some experiments by my wife last year in regard to dying [sic] wool and cotton, it was ascertained that if wool be immersed in a decoction of the sliced fruit of the pomegranate, prepared in an iron vessel, a permanent and beautiful grey color will be the result, which may be varied from the lightest drab to a deep black.  The lighter shades require no mordant, the black should be set with copperas.  The shade, of course, will vary with the changing proportion of fruit and water.—By this simple process the tedious labor of hand mixing is saved, while perfect uniformity and a regularity of color is obtained.          
            Cotton thread may also be dyed blue by soaking well in the juice of elder berries, washing in warm suds, and setting with copperas.  Previously to immersion in the warm suds, it is a royal purple.  Though not a fast color, it is as permanent as any of our indigenous dyes.—Mobile Register.  

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 25, 1863, p. 4, c. 1

How to Dye Wool Gray.

                In the course of some experiments by my wife last year, in regard to dying wool and cotton, it was ascertained that if wool be immersed in a decoction of the sliced fruit of the pomegranate, prepared in an iron vessel, a permanent gray color will be the result, which may be varied from the lightest drab to a deep black.  The lighter shades require no mordant, the black should be set with coperras [sic].  The shade, of course, will vary with the changing proportion of fruit and water.  By this simple process the tedious labor of hand mixture is saved, while perfect uniformity and regularity of color is obtained.
    
           Cotton thread may also be dyed blue by soaking well in the juice of elderberries, washing in warm suds, and setting with copperas.  Previously to immersion in the warm suds, it is a royal purple.  Though not a fast color, it is as permanent as any of our indigenous dyes.--Mobile Reg.   

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, December 1, 1863, p. 1, c. 3
               
Receipt for Dyeing Brown.—Take red oak bark, sufficient to make four gallons of very strong dye, boil very strong, then strain it; add two table-spoonsful of blue stone, then dip your thread in the dye, then in strong lye; repeat it four times, then hang out and let it get half dry and rinse in clear water.
               
Blue Dye.—Take one quarter of a pound of extract of logwood, put it in four gallons of water, boil one half an hour, add two table-spoonsful of blue stone, put in your thread or cloth, boil one-half hour more, take it out and let it air fifteen minutes; put back and wash out in warm soap suds, then rinse in clear water.
               
Black Dye.—Put a quarter of a pound of extract of logwood in three gallons of water, boil it thirty minutes, add two table spoonsfull of copperas, put in your thread, boil fifteen minutes, take out, wash in strong soap, then air and rinse in clear water.
               
Yellow Dye.—Take of each a lot of sassafras, swamp bay and butterfly root, put in four gallons of water, boil until strong, then strain and put in your thread or cloth and boil it thirty minutes, take out and air fifteen minutes, put in a table spoonful of burnt copperas and two of alum and boil fifteen minutes, then rinse in clear water and let it dry.
               
Five pounds of thread can be dyed in any of these.
               
To Dye a Blue Color Without Indigo.—Make a strong dye of red oak bark, another of maple bark, and have in a third vessel of weak copperas water, and in a fourth vessel a weak lye.  Wet your cotton thoroughly in each vessel of dye, and rinse it out in the order in which they are mentioned, having each fluid as hot as the hand can bear, repeating the process until the color is sufficiently deep.
               
By making the thread a deep copperas color first, and then going through the process, you can have a good black color.
   

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, December 1, 1863, p. 2, c. 4
               
To Dye Cotton or Wool.—A lady sends the following recipe for dying cotton or wool brown:
               
Take the bark of the root of a common wild plum—boil in iron or brass, as most convenient, until the dye looks black.  Strain, and add a small quantity of copperas dissolved in a small quantity of the dye.  Add the article to be dyed.  Boil an hour or so.  Wring out, and dip in strong cold ley.  When dry rinse in cold water.  This gives a genuine, bright brown which is the prettiest contrast for blue; and when checked in together, it makes the dress becoming enough for the proudest Southern dame or belle.
   

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, December 2, 1863, p. 1, c. 7 
            To Dye Cotton or Wool.—A lady sends the following recipe for dying cotton or wool brown:  
            Take the bark of the root of the common wild plum—boil in iron or brass, as is convenient, until the dye looks almost black.  Strain, and add a small quantity of copperas dissolved in a small quantity of the dye.  Add the article to be dyed.  Boil an hour or so.  Wring out, and dip in strong cold ley.  When dry, rinse in cold water.  This gives a genuine, bright brown, which is the prettiest contrast for blue; and when checked in together, it makes a dress becoming enough for the proudest Southern dame or belle.  

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 9, 1863, p. 4, c. 1
                Receipt for Dyeing Brown.--Take red oak bark, sufficient to make four gallons of very strong dye, boil very strong then drain it; add two table spoonsful of blue stone, then dip your thread in the dye, then in strong lye; repeat it four times, then hang out and let it get half dry, and rinse in clear water.
                Blue Dye.--Take one quarter of a pound of extract of logwood, put it in four gallons of water, boil one half an hour, add two table spoonsful of blue stone, put in your thread or cloth, boil one half hour more, take it out and let it air fifteen minutes; put back and wash out in warm suds, then rinse in clear water.
                Black Dye.--Put a quarter of a pound of extract of logwood in three gallons of water, boil it thirty minutes, add two tablespoonsful of copperas, put in your thread, boil fifteen minutes, take out, wash in strong soap suds, then air and rinse in clear water.
                Yellow Dye.--Take of each a lot of sassafras, swamp bay and butterfly root, put in four gallons of water, boil until strong, then strain and put in your thread or cloth, and boil it thirty minutes, take out and air fifteen minutes, put in a tablespoonful of burnt copperas and two of alum, and boil fifteen minutes, then rinse in clear water and let it dry.

    
           Five pounds of thread can be dyed in any of these.
    
           To Dye a Blue Color Without Indigo.--Make a strong dye of red oak bark, another of maple bark, and have in a third vessel of weak copperas water, and in a fourth vessel of weak lye.  Wet your cotton thoroughly in each vessel of dye and rinse it out in the order in which they are mentioned, having each fluid as hot as the hand can bear, repeating the process until the color is sufficiently deep.
    
           By making the thread a deep copperas color at first, and then going through the process, you can have a good black color.  

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, January 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Home Industry.

            As the time is at hand when families are making their plans and preparations for the ensuing year, we deem it appropriate to offer a suggestion.  Much more than heretofore should housekeepers and farmers make their arrangements for meeting all their wants by home industry and enterprise.  
            It will not do to rely on importation.—Already the blockade has closed all our Atlantic ports except Wilmington; and twenty grim steamers lie as watchers off the mouth of the Cape Fear, like so many grimalkins at a mouse hole.  We shall have no reason to be disappointed or surprised if the port of Wilmington should be closed ere many months.  Nor must we rely on our factories.  Look how the prices of their products have already ascended until they have become unpurchasable by the multitude.  This is all according to "the laws of trade" we are told, and therefore to be approved and applauded; but a protection must be found, and it is to be found in home production.  Besides, the number of these mills has been reduced by fire, and the machinery of those that remain will not last forever.       
            A hundred reasons combine to urge upon every family to look to its own resources.  The hand card and the hand loom and the spinning wheel, whose music is sweeter far than that of the piano, should be found everywhere.  All who can should grow their patches of flax and cotton.  All should have sheep, if but a few.  Our forest furnish dyes as various and as bright as the tints that make their foliage so glorious at "the turn of the leaf."  With these materials, there is no reason why our ladies should not be clad in beautiful apparel, the product of their own industry and taste, while they may clothe their husbands and sons fine enough for kings.  There is not a farmer's wife who may not easily provide for all her servants, and make some to sell besides. 
            And how much more independent and happy should we all be if thus providing for ourselves.  A fig for blockaders, we might well exclaim; nor would be any longer exposed to the extortioner's grip.  And those eventualities of the future in which we have alluded would bring no terror to us.  Earnestly, therefore, do we advise every one to use every means and make every arrangement in his power to provide for the clothing of his family from his own resources, and thus make himself independent of manufacturers and blockade runners.—Richmond Sentinel.  

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, January 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 7

Home Resources.

            The good of our country, the advancement of our cause, the comfort of our brave defenders in the field, self-interest—in fact a hundred reasons, says the Augusta Chronicle & Sentinel, combine to urge upon every family to look to its own resources.  The hand card and the hand loom, and the spinning wheel should be found every where—in every family.  All who can, should grow their patches of flax and cotton.  All who can should have sheep, if but a few.  Our forests furnish dyes as various and as bright as the tints that make their foliage as glorious at "the turn of the leaf."  With these materials, there is no reason why our ladies should not be clad in beautiful apparel, the product of their own industry and taste; while they also may clothe their husbands and sons.  There is not a planter's wife who may not easily provide clothing for all her servants, and make some to sell besides.  Ladies in the cities also can do much towards providing cheap and substantial clothing for their families, if they only had the mind so to do.  Where there is a will, there is generally a way.  A little energy, a little determination, a little effort put forth in the right direction by ladies who do nothing, would accomplish a great deal.        
            How much more independent and happy we should all be if we thus provided for ourselves as we ought to.  Much more now, than heretofore, should all housekeepers and heads of families make their arrangements for meeting all their wants by home industry and enterprise.  Earnestly, therefore, do we advise all to use every means in their power to provide for themselves and their families from their own resources.  

CLARKE COUNTY [AL] JOURNAL, February 4, 1864, p. 2, c. 4

New Goods.

            We are receiving the following Goods:  . . . Blue Stone, Ext. Logwood, . . . Indigo, . . . all of which will be sold as low as the present high prices will justify.  Persons purchasing liquid medicines must furnish Bottles or Vials. 
                                                                                                                            Burge & Daffin.  
Grove Hill, Feb. 2. 

[LITTLE ROCK] UNCONDITIONAL UNION, April 22, 1864, p. 2, c. 6

1864                                            1864
New Goods,
Latest Arrival from the North.
Attention!  Attention!!
Marshall & Saxton,
One door East of Fisher's old stand, on the corner
of Markham and Cumberland Streets.

Have just received a large and well selected stock of

Spring and Summer Goods. . . .

Cotton Cards,
Wool Cards,
Dye Stuffs.

Copperas and Indigo,
                    Madder and Blue Stone.

CLARKE COUNTY [AL] JOURNAL, May 19, 1864, p. 2, c. 1      
            Every pound of cochineal contains seventy thousand insects boiled to death, and from six to seven hundred thousand pounds are annual brought to Europe for scarlet and crimson dyes. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, June 8, 1864, p. 1, c. 4
                                                                                               
Bonham, May 28th, 1864.
               
. . . The ink with which this note is written was made by boiling a very prevalent weed of our prairies and adding a small quantity of copperas to the decoction as a mordant.  There is no further need of quartermasters paying a thousand dollars a bottle for ink.  A lake of it might be made about here.  Our women have been dying their garments with it.  One girl said "she went into the woods, in a dress dyed with it, the other day, and the birds all went to roost;" and I don't know what all happened.  The dye is ordinarily called "Lincoln's Blood."                                                                                                                                         B.   

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, June 8, 1864, p. 1, c. 5
                                                                                               
Bonham, May 28th, 1864.
. . . If I was a botanist, I would make known to your female readers a jet black die [sic], recently discovered, and now in use in the country.  The weed used for this purpose grows in great abundance on the prairies.
               
Your correspondent, "B," has this instant handed me a bottle of ink, with which I write, taken, as he says, from his wife's "die pot," and as he informs me he is before me in communicating this "item," it is proper that I should desist. . .
                                                                                                                               
"A."
   

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, August 11, 1864, p. 1, c. 7 

Indigo.
[From the Charleston Courier.]

                Editors Courier:  The present high price of indigo may render some information on the culture of the plant and some simple processes for extracting the coloring matter, not unacceptable or inopportune to a portion of your readers.  They are compiled from the valuable work, "Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, by Dr. Francis Peyre Porcher:"
               
Indigo (indigofera tinctoria) was once cultivated in South Carolina to a considerable extent, and the remnants of indigo plantations, with the vats in which indigo was prepared, are still to be seen in the lower districts.  In quality it is inferior to the wild indigo (indigofera argentea), but the increase of production will more than make up for the deficiency in price.
               
The soils best adapted to it are the rich, sandy loams, though it grows moderately well on most lands, provided they are not wet.  The ground should be well broken, and kept light and free from grass by the plough.  Lime, poudrette, ashes, &c., favor the growth of the plant, without injuring the coloring matter.  The seed should be mixed with ashes or sand, and sown in drills, fourteen inches apart, four quarts of seed to the acre, about the 1st of April.  When it first comes up it should have the grass picked out with the hand.—When an inch or two high the grass between the rows should be cut out with the hoe or scraper, and the soil loosened about the roots.  Three weedings are enough before the first cutting, which should be commenced as soon as the plant throws out its bloom.
               
The following process of manufacturing indigo, in small quantities, for family use, is from the Southern Agriculturalist:
               
Cut the indigo when the under leaves begin to dry, and while the dew is on them in the morning; put them in a barrel, and fill this with rain water, and place weights on to keep it under the water; when bubbles begin to form on the top, and the water begins to look of a reddish color, it is soaked enough, and must be taken out, taking care to ring and squeeze the leaves well, so as to obtain all the strength of the plant; it must then be churned, which may be done by means of a tolerably open basket, with a handle to raise it up and down, until the liquor is quite in a foam.  To ascertain whether it is done enough, take out a spoonful in a plate, and put a small quantity of very strong lye to it.  If it curdles, the indigo is churned enough, and you must proceed to break the liquor in the barrel in the same way, by putting in lye, which must be as strong as possible, by small quantities, and continuing to churn until it is all sufficiently curdled; care must be taken not to put in too much lye, as that will spoil it.  When it curdles freely with the lye, it must be sprinkled well over the top with oil, which immediately causes the foam to subside, after which it must stand until the indigo settles to the bottom of the barrel.  This may be discovered by the appearance of the water, which must be let off gradually by boring holes first near the top, and afterwards lower, as it continues to settle; when the water is all let off, and nothing remains but the sediment, take that and put it in a bag (flannel is the best,) and hang it up to drip, afterward spreading it to dry on large dishes.  Take care that none of the foam, which is the strength of the plant, escapes while churning, but if it rises too high sprinkle a little oil on it.
               
The following is a method successfully used by a negro on a plantation in St. John's Berkley, to prepare a dye from the wild indigo:
               
Cut the plant, put it in a barrel, and cover with water.  In about three days it commences to foam and is then ready to churn.  Take out the leaves, pressing the liquid out of them.  It is then to be whipped up in a churn with a stick made like a dasher.  When it foams, a greased feather applied to the surface will check the foam.  In order to test whether the process is sufficiently advanced and the blue color extracted, it may be tested in a white plate put in the sunlight; the thickened grounds will be visible.  About a quart of strong lye water, or lime water, should be first thrown in to settle it.  This should be done before it is churned.  If the coloring substance appears to be sufficiently separated, draw the supernatant water carefully away.  The remaining or sediment should be placed in a bag to drain, and afterwards may be moulded into cakes.
               
For the manufacture of indigo on a more extensive scale, large vats and other facilities are needed.  The produce is about sixty pounds of indigo to the acre, and each hand can cultivate three acres.   

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, August 17, 1864, p. 4, c. 6 
            Indigo.—A friend informs us that a servant has prepared excellent indigo from the wild plant, which is found in abundance near this city.  We are promised a specimen, and shall be pleased to receive any hints or directions which will aid and encourage and direct any other efforts towards the use, application and development of our own resources.—Char. Courier.  

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, August 31, 1864, p. 3, c. 3

Valuable Recipes.  
Substitute for Copperas.

            The Macon Messenger says, it has received from good authority the following recipe, which answers every purpose in dying, where copperas is used in setting colors, or for dying copperas color:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dying at the present prices, while this will answer every purpose.

MONTGOMERY WEEKLY ADVERTISER, September 21, 1864, p. 3, c. 7  (not home, but interesting)

J. Jackson's  
Dyeing and Scouring Establishment

            Montgomery Street, one door from the corner of Washington Street, Montgomery, Ala.     
            All kinds of Gentlemen's wearing apparel cleaned, renovated or dyed, and made to appear new.  
            Also Tailoring of every description, neatly executed, and done with dispatch.          
            Ladies' wearing apparel cleaned, renovated or dyed as well as can be done in any house North.  
            All sorts of Military Goods done at short notice.     
            Goods not called for within three months will be forfeited.  

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, September 21, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
                                                                                               
Brenham, Texas, Sept. 9th, 1864.
               
Ed. News:--I send you a sample of wool dyed by Mrs. Caldwell and her daughter, Miss Kate Caldwell.  It is the only home dye I have seen that strong soap and hot water will not fade.
               
Process.—Take the pear from the large size cactus, bruise it well, put in a tub, a layer of the bruised pears and then a think layer of wool and continue that until the tub is nearly full, put a light weight on it, add no water, set it in the sun or by a stove for six or eight days and you have the color of the sample.  Nothing is required to set the color.
                                                                                                               
J.K.M.
               
The sample can be seen at our office.  It is what the ladies call salferreno [sic] color (we have no name for it.)  It is a reddish purple.  We are heartily glad at every success of this kind.  Until we become self-sustaining and self-supplying, we can never be a free people.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 27, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
                                                                                               
Brenham, Texas, Sept. 9th, 1864
               
Ed. News:--I send you a sample of wool dyed by Mrs. Caldwell and her daughter, Miss Kate Caldwell.  It is the only home dye I have seen that strong soap and hot water will not fade.
               
Process.—Take the pear from the large size cactus, bruise it well, put it in a tub, a layer of the bruised pears and then a thin layer of wool and continue that until the tub is nearly full, put a light weight on it, add no water, set it in the sun or by a stove for six or eight days and you have the color of the sample.  Nothing is required to set the color.                                                    J.K.M.
               
The sample can be seen at our office.  It is what the ladies call salferreno color (we have no name for it.)  It is a reddish purple.  We are heartily glad at every success of this kind.  Until we become self-sustaining and self supplying, we can never be a free people.
                                                                                                               
[Galveston News.   

DALLAS HERALD, October 1, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
               
The Macon Messenger says, it has received from good authority the following recipe, which answers every purpose in dyeing, where copperas is used in setting colors, or for dyeing copperas color:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup of molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing at the present price while this will answer every purpose.

CLARKE COUNTY [AL] JOURNAL, December 29, 1864, p. 1, c. 4

Cotton Cards for $2 60!

            We have on hand a superior article of English Cards, on good backs, and larger than the Whittemore, at the above price in specie.         
            Also, . . . Dye stuffs, . . .
            Burge & Davvin. 
Dec. 22, 1864, 42 3t. 

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, February 16, 1865, p. 2, c. 3
               
Valuable Receipts.--A correspondent sends the Lynchburg Republican the following receipts for dying purple and for making Confederate blackings and ink.  We hope our friends in this quarter will give them a trial.  Our correspondent writes:  "I see you are publishing many valuable receipts.  We have tried your pokeberry and vinegar; it is a beautiful durable scarlet.  Let me give you one or two which I and many in this neighborhood have tried.  To die [sic] purple--cut a pumpkin so as to form a lid, take out the inside and fill with white yarn hanks or wool and pokeberry juice, set in a warm place till fermentation takes place, wash out in soap, and you have a beautiful royal purple indelible.  The fermentation set the die [sic], and will take place in eight or ten days by the kitchen fire.
  Confederate blacking and ink--(excellent).  Take elder berries and set them away in a tub of water in a cool place till they ferment, strain through a cloth or squeeze them out, and boil down to the consistency of ink, boil still more and you have a fine liquid blacking, boil still longer and y you have a paste with which you may fill your old blacking boxes.  It is then put on as other blacking and does no injury to the leather.  A number of my neighbors are using it.   

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 1, c. 2
               
Recipe for Dying Slate Color.—Equal portions of the inside bark of sassafras and willow, boiled in a brass kettle; strain the decoction from the bark, and add to two gallons of the fluid a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small portion of the latter.  Have the wool well scoured, and taken out of a clean soapsuds; wring it dry and put it into the dye, let it boil a short time raising it out to get air frequently; dry it and then wash it in suds until quite cleansed from the smell of dye.  It is a permanent color, and does not take a great quantity of the bark above names; it is richer than about any other bark I have ever used.
               
The black jack will dye a good slate color, prepared in the same way, but not so permanent a color as the other.   

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, March 2, 1865, p. 1, c. 2
                Slate color on cotton or woolen.--Take beech bark, boil it in an iron kettle, skim out the chips after it has boiled sufficiently, then add copperas to set the dye.  If you wish it very dark, add more copperas.  This is excellent for stockings, as it does not fade.

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, March 8, 1865, p. 2, c. 7         
            Seeds to Give Away.—I will give to Soldiers' Families, or others unable to purchase, the following Seeds:  . . . Indigo . . .
James Burke. 

[MARSHALL] TEXAS REPUBLICAN, May 12, 1865, p. 2, c. 7

For Sale for Confederate Money,

At Marshall Ordnance Laboratory, . . . Also a large lot of

Red Dye-Stuff.

                                                                                                            Chas. O. Curtman,                 
                                                                                                            Surgeon in charge O. L.  
April 24, 1865