October 8, 1863 – December 31, 1864 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 8, 1863, p. 2, c. 1


            The want of a newspaper in this section of our country, advocating the rights of the many against the encroachments of the few, having been long and severely felt, a number of loyal citizens have determined to supply this grievous deficiency.  The New Era, for a new era is indeed dawning upon the People, will be conducted upon the "Unconditional Union" principle.  Traitors, and sympathizers with such, will be exposed, unflinchingly, and their dark deeds of infamy put in proper light.
Fort Smith and vicinity, unfortunately, like too many places all over the South, under rebel rule, has been most shamefully imposed upon by a set of newspapers entirely devoted to the interests of that abominable set of men who, under the cry of "Liberty and Constitution," aimed at nothing else than the total enslavement and the subversion of the rights of the great mass of the laboring white population.  But the tables are turned now, and the freedom of the Press and of Speech will no longer be a dead letter.  Emancipation from the thraldom of the selfish, overbearing Aristocracy, so gloriously begun since the re-establishment of the authority of the United States Government, will be carried forward successfully, until every vestige of the baneful influence that formerly weighed upon the People, will be utterly dissipated.
                                                            E. Pluribus Unum. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 8, 1863, p. 2, c. 1

The Federal Flag at Van Buren.

            The first of this month was a happy day for the ladies and other citizens of Van Buren.  The ladies of that place made and presented to the 1st Reg't Ark. Infantry, a large Federal flag, which was elevated to the top of a fine and substantial flag-staff occupying the front yard of the Court House.  The rebels once waved the treasonable ensign of the Confederacy from the same towering shaft; but their first endeavor in this shameful boast of their treason resulted in tearing their flag nearly in twain.  That disaster may be regarded as the omen of ill to the nefarious scheme of destroying the Federal Nationality, for the purpose of rearing on its ruins an aristocracy of the imperious few, who disregard the will and the interests of the laboring many that constitute the bone and sinew of the Arkansian population.
Appropriate speeches were delivered on the occasion by Col. J. M. Johnson, of the 1st Ark. Inf., Col. W. F.  Cloud, of the 2d Kansas Cav., Col. Williams, of the 1st "Iron-Clads," and Lieut. Col. E. J. Searle, of the 1st Ark. Inf.  These speeches were loudly applauded, and were well calculated to encourage the patriotic aspirations of the numerous assemblage of citizens and soldiers. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 8, 1863, p. 2, c. 3

The Brave Arkansians.

            Parts of two companies (H and I) of the 1st Ark. Infantry, numbering about 50 men, were attacked on their march from Dardanelle to Fort Smith, by not less than 1000 Confederates—some say 1,500.  The surprisal was made at noon on the 27th Sept.  The Confederates seem to have had parts of several commands, but chiefly that of Col. Shelby.  The command of the Federals was held by Capt. W. C. Parker and Lieuts. Rob't Morrison and J. L. Jones.
The surprise seems to have been mutual, neither party expecting the other.  The rebels, however, seeing the smallness of the Federal force, and observing them to be charged with the care of two Government wagons, made a disposition of their force (1000 cavalry and two howitzers) for the purpose of capturing our men and the property in charge.  The enemy drew up on three sides, and, firing, demanded the surrender of the Federals.  But the demand was quickly answered by a volley from our muskets that sent consternation into the rebel lines.
After a courageous and desperate resistance of two hours, during which our little band used both their guns and revolvers, surrender or swift retreat became unavoidable.  Twenty eight of our soldiers and ten citizens who accompanied them, were taken prisoners, two were killed and two wounded.  The two killed were B. F. Wilkins and ____ Hawkins.  Wilkins fell pierced with several bullets, bravely discharging his six-shooter and killing one of his assailants; but he sternly refused to surrender.  Hawkins was in one of the wagons, accompanied by his sister.  He continued to fire until, pierced by the deadly missile of the foe, he yielded up his spirit in the presence of his sister, who had fled from her home for protection within the Federal lines.
Of the twenty-eight prisoners, all were immediately paroled but five, who were retained for some days in expectancy of death.  Four, however, have since been released, and are now in camp.  The other one, John Little, is reported to have been shot as a deserter from the rebel army.  In the affray, our men inflicted greater suffering than they received, killing ten and wounding eight of the enemy.  Our men who were taken prisoners represent the rebels as badly scared.  They said they had never seen such determined and desperate fighting as was done by that little squad of Feds.  They had evidently measured our men by themselves, and were disappointed on witnessing the fiery energy with which loyal Arkansians fight.
That whole rebel troop seems to be made up of the commands of Shelby, marmaduke, Cabell, Brooks and Hunter, and their destination is Missouri, for the purpose of disengaging the troops there under the notorious villains, Quantrill, Parker and Jackman.  It is to be hoped the Missouri Militia will minister a good time to the raiders, and give them a plentiful dosing of Father Abraham's blue pills.  They will need some such physic to relieve them of the heavy spoils they are making of Union property on their route. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 14, 1863, p. 2, c. 3

Prospect of the Farmers—Bush-Whacking.

            The town is full of refugees from the country, of whom a large number is supported by the Government.  This is deplorable, not so much on account of the expense of feeding them, as from the injury the community at large is receiving by the almost total suspension of farming operations.  The cause of all this is bush-whacking.  No family known to entertain Union feelings, is safe out of the reach of U. S. troops.  The recent advance of the rebels encouraged this abominable, fiendish set of men to extend their operations nearer to town than ever.  Since the hasty flight of the rebels these fiends have also become less bold in the immediate vicinity of this place.  But there is still so great a feeling of insecurity among the country people, that they are very little disposed to go to work in good earnest and prepare for another year's crop.  Many families also had their houses burnt, after having been robbed of everything, and have come to town in most pitiable circumstances.  The inauguration of the guerilla warfare, is one of the deepest stains of infamy to be charged to this hellish Confederacy; for, while it decides nothing eventually, it inflicts infinitely more suffering, and especially on the helpless, than an open and regular system of warfare.  Good judges estimated the amount of grain raised this year in Arkansas sufficient to bread the people for two years.  Owing to the presence of large forces in the State, and the great waste and destruction caused by the rebels, we may consider ourselves fortunate if the supply holds out till next harvest.  But, if we don't show now, we can have no harvest next year, when there will be ten times more applications for rations than now, and the suffering among the people must necessarily be great.  The only remedy is, to clean out the bush-whackers, and give them no mercy wherever and whenever found; and then, and not till then, may we look for a revival of prosperity. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 14, 1863, p. 2, c. 3
The immense supply train from Fort Scott, arrived yesterday in safety at this post.  It consisted of some 600 wagons, including the Government supply and Paymasters' trains, a large amount of Indian goods, and the sutlers.  It was escorted by the 2s Kansas Colored Regiment, under Col. Crawford, and a detachment of cavalry.
Gen. Blunt accompanied the train.  His health is excellent, and he was cordially welcomed by all.  He had a splendid reception at Van Buren on Thursday night.  His stay will be brief.  Gen. McNeil cordially concurs in his measures for administering affairs, and the best understanding exists between them.
Accompanying the escort were Maj. T. J. Anderson, A. A. G., Capt. Tholen, A. A. G., Lieut. Tappan, A. D. C., Majors Sleeper and Adams, Paymasters, Maj. Calkins, 3d Wis. Cav., Maj. Hopkins, 2d Kansas, and a number of other officers of the Army of the Frontier. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 14, 1863, p. 4, c. 2

                                                                                                    Head Quarters District
                                                                Of the Frontier,
                                            Fort Smith, Ark., Nov. 14th, 1863.
General Orders,     }
No. 4.       }
I...Hereafter, no church edifice or other house of public worship, of any religious denomination or sect, within the limits of this District, shall be used for military purposes, or occupied as hospitals, except in cases of absolute necessity; nor shall school houses, academies, colleges, or any kind of institution for education, whether religious or secular, be intruded upon, or their grounds, groves, lawns or gardens molested; nor shall camps be established so near them as to create annoyance.  The only exception to this rule will be when such grounds are required for the purposes of defense against an impending attack.
II...A decent respect for the opinions of mankind—if no higher motive actuates us—should render unnecessary to the officers and men in this District, all mention of the desecration of places of burial and the wanton defacing of tombs and grave stones, or the removal and destruction of those more "mute memorials" that mark the residing place of the poor.  But acts of this kind have not escaped the attention of the Commanding General.  He sincerely hopes that these evidences of vandalism are to be charged only to the troops of the enemy; yet he warns all men of this command, that if convicted of such practices, they will be dealt with both promptly and severely.
III...All churches in this District now occupied as barracks, hospitals, or store-rooms will be delivered to the properly authorized trustees, upon being claimed by them, after they shall have filed proof of future loyalty and good disposition toward the Government of the United States, before the nearest Provost Marshal, and given guarantees that neither open nor covert treason shall be taught within their walls.
By command of Brig. Gen. John McNeil.
                                                                                Jos. T. Tatum,
                                                                    Act'g Ass't Adj't Gen'l. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 28, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
Furious riding through the streets is still frequently indulged in, to the great danger of life and limb of pedestrians, especially women and children.  Last Sunday two gentlemen, returning from church, had a very narrow escape.  A man, apparently intoxicated and minus his hat, charged along the sidewalk at a tremendous rate, his horse, for the rider could or would not control him, just clearing those gentlemen by a few inches. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 28, 1863, p. 2, c. 3
There is a great scarcity of female help at present in this town, while at the same time a large number of women, white and colored, draw supplies from Government.  It strikes us that many of these could find comfortable and decent homes, and earn money besides, if disposed to do so. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 28, 1863, p. 4, c. 2

Pictures!  Pictures!

In those days came Clay & Brother, in the City of Fort Smith, taking Pictures for Abraham's Soldiers, in the latest and most improved style known to the art.  Having removed their establishment from Fort Scott to this place, they feel confident that they can give entire satisfaction to all that may call on them for a perfect Counterfeit of their countenances.
Rooms opposite Bostwick, Griffith & Pennywitt's Store, Garrison Avenue.
                                                                    Clay & Brother, Artists. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 5, 1863, p. 3, c. 3
It must be a happy thought to a lover to know that his blood and that of his sweetheart's mingle in the same—mosquito. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 12, 1863, p. 2, c. 3
The booming of cannon awoke the denizens of this place from their slumbers last Monday at daybreak.  It was, of course, in commemoration of the battle of Prairie Grove, fought on the 7th of December 1862, with what result is a matter of history now.  The papers of this place, and elsewhere, came out a few days afterwards, with a flaming proclamation of braggadocio Hindman's, announcing to the world of having gained a "magnificent victory," forgetting to state, however, that he ran off in the dead of night with muffled cannon wheels, for which purpose he took his poor men's blankets, and making this latter mean transaction an excuse for stealing all the carpets in Fort Smith. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 12, 1863, p. 3, c. 1

Review of Troops.

            The review of the troops stationed near this town and Van Buren, and intended to have been held on the anniversary of the battle of Prairie Grove, but postponed on account of the unfavorable weather, came off on the 9th inst.  The day was most propitious, the weather being more like May than December.
Race track prairie was the place of rendezvous, and about noon long columns of Infantry were seen emerging from the woods, their burnished weapons glittering gaily in the splendor of an unclouded, noonday sun.  These were followed by Artillery and horse.
The head of the column, consisting of the 18th Iowa, commanded by Lieut. Col. Campbell, (col. Edwards being Commander of the Post,) took position just below the fine mansion, once owned by that notorious rebel, Elias Rector, formerly U. S. Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
The 1st Kansas colored Infantry, Col. Williams commanding, next wheeled into line, followed by the 2nd Kansas colored Infantry, Col. Crawford commanding, 2nd Kansas Battery, Capt. Smith, 6th Kansas Cavalry, Lieut. Col. Campbell commanding, 13th Kansas Infantry, Major Woodruff commanding, 3d Kansas Battery, (taken from the rebels,) Lt. Dudley commanding, 3d Wisconsin Cavalry, Maj. John C. Schroeling commanding, 14th Kansas Cavalry, Lieut. Col. Moonlight commanding.
There were in all about 10,000 effective men on the ground, ready to meet the foe and battle for their country.  A salute of 13 guns announced the arrival of Major Gen'l James G. Blunt and Brig. Gen'l John McNeil with their staffs.  The inspection then took place, the Generals and staffs passing along the whole front of the extensive line, and after passing up in the rear, posted themselves opposite the center, in front, ready for review.  The different regiments then filed past in "common time," making a fine and most warlike appearance.  The mounted part of the command then passed review the second time in "double quick," giving the uninitiated a faint idea of the shock produced by a cavalry charge.
The whole affair passed off very satisfactorily to the participants, as well as the spectators.  It was indeed, the finest treat that could be offered to a loyal man, to witness such a display, after having seen nothing but "greybacks" for years. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 12, 1863, p. 3, c. 3
Cheap and Beautiful Ornaments.—A few years since a box of autumn leaves, selected for the beauty and variety of their tints, was sent to the wife of the American ambassador at London.  She wore them as ornaments, and they attracted much attention and admiration, our brilliant forest autumnal leaves being unknown in England.  Since then packages of these beautiful leaves have been sent over every autumn to fashionable ladies in London. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 26, 1863, p. 3, c. 3

Fencing School.

The Undersigned, at the request of a number of Officers and others, has opened a Fencing School at the corner of Water and Walnut streets, and will receive a few more persons desiring instruction.  The following branches will be taught:  Sword Exercise, Mounted Sabre Drill and Bayonet Exercise.  The course of instruction will be thorough.
Terms, either by the lesson or session, at a reasonable rate.
For further particulars inquire of
                                                    John Frost, Graduate of the
                                                                Naval Academy of Sweden
                                                                and late of the U. S. Army. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 12, 1863, p. 4, c. 1

Commanding General's Orders.

                                                                                        Head Quarters, District of the Frontier,
                                                    Fort Smith, Ark., Dec. 21, 1863.
The General Commanding this District desires to call the attention of the citizens of Arkansas, living within the limits of this command, to the permanency of the occupation of Western Arkansas by the United States military forces; and to the vast advantages that must accrue to its citizens by a prompt return to their farms, workshops and other legitimate avocations, of all who, from any cause, have abandoned their homes since the commencement of hostilities, and who may now desire to give assurance of their loyalty, and to hereafter maintain the integrity of the Federal Union.
The occupation of this country by a large Federal force must necessarily create an active demand and ready market for all farm produce; and even though the army move farther south, the citizens of this section of the State cannot fail to enjoy, to a great extent, the same prosperity that has heretofore attended their labors in times of peace.
With a view to encourage the re-occupation of abandoned farms and workshops, it is hereby announced, that upon the return of the owners thereof, and proper assurance of loyalty being given, safeguards against military intrusion or violence will be granted from these Head Quarters, and every protection in their rights and property consistent with the interests of the public service, is hereby guaranteed.
For the encouragement of those who have lost their stock, and from that cause are unable to resume the cultivation of their farms, it is further announced, that the Government has now on hand large numbers of public animals, at present unfit for service, that, with proper attention and care, may be made entirely serviceable by the coming Spring for all domestic purposes.  This stock must soon be sold at public auction, to the highest bidder, and all may avail themselves of the opportunity thus afforded for the resumption of peaceful labor, domestic quiet, and financial prosperity.
By command of Brig. Gen'l John McNeil.
                                                                            T. J. Anderson,
                                                                                    Ass't Adj't General. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 12, 1863, p. 4, c. 2

Provost Marshal's Orders.

                                                                                                    Office District Provost Marshal,
                                                    Head Quarters, District of the Frontier, 
                                                                                                    Fort Smith Ark., Dec. 22, 1863

General Orders,       }
No. 2,         }
I... All sales of cotton, between private parties, are prohibited.  All the cotton in the District of the Frontier is hereby seized for the Government of the United States.  The cotton so hereby seized will be sold, or otherwise disposed of, as lawful authority may direct.  When so disposed of, the Government will account to loyal owners.
All sales of the produce of the country to speculators and middle men are prohibited.  Wheat, corn, oats, hay, flour, meat and stock will be sold only to Government, or to public contractors for the use of the Government.  But contractors to furnish stock and meat for the Government may buy forage for the same in sufficient necessary quantities until turned in, and sales of provisions and other necessary articles for immediate consumption may be made to citizens and others, in limited quantities.
II....Regimental, detachment, company, and other commanders, and all commanders of forage and other details, will cause to be immediately turned in to the Provost marshal property of every description, seized, captured or taken up astray, or by any other irregular means, held in their respective commands, and such commanding officers will be held responsible for all such property in their respective commands until so turned in.
By command of Brig. Gen. John McNeill.
                                                    E. A. Calkins,
                                                    Maj. 3d Cav. Wis. Vol., and
                                                                Dist. Provost Marshal. 

                                                                                        Office District Provost Marshal,
                                        Head Quarters, District of the Frontier,
                                        Fort Smith, Ark., Dec. 23, 1863.
General Orders,     }
No. 3.       }
Hereafter, no enlisted man will be allowed on the streets of this city after Retreat, without a pass from his commanding officer, countersigned by the commanding officer of his regiment, and approved by the Assistant Provost Marshal.  All enlisted men not provided with passes, approved in the above mentioned manner, found on the street after Retreat, will be arrested by the Patrol Guard and confined in the guard house.
                                                                E. A. Calkins,
                                        Maj. 3d Wis. Cav., Dist. Provost Marshal. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 2, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
We would call the attention of our readers to the large accession of goods received this week at A. McDonald's store.  A good assortment of toys, though not exactly in time for Christmas, will enable our friends to make their little ones' faces beam with joy and gladness. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 2, 1864, p. 4, c. 2
Praying No Crime.—An officer once complained to General Jackson that some soldiers were making a great noise in their tent.—"What are they doing?" asked the General.  "They are praying now, but have been singing," was the reply.  "And is that a crime?" the general demanded.  "The articles of war order punishment for any unusual noise," was the reply.  "God forbid that praying should be an unusual noise in any camp," said Jackson with much feeling, and advised the officer to join them. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 2, 1864, p. 4, c. 2

Barber Wanted.

Wages Fifty Dollars per month, or half of proceeds.  Apply at Barber Shop, opposite the Garrison.
                                                                            S. Silber.
Jan. 2, 1864. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 2, 1864, p. 4, c. 2

Lane's String Band

Are prepared to furnish a choice collection of New and Popular Music, on all public occasions.  Engagements made through Mr. I. B. Dickerson, proprietor of the Cosmopolitan Saloon, or with
                                                                        M. Lane, Principal,
                                                                        18th Iowa Infantry.
Jan. 2, 1864. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 9, 1864, p. 1, c. 3
What was Eve made for?  For Adam's Express Company. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 9, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
What is the difference between a girl of seventeen and a woman of seventy?  The former is careless and happy, and the other hairless and cappy. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 9, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
                                                Head Quarters, District of the Frontier,
                                                Fort Smith, Ark., Jan. 7, 1864.
General Orders,     }
No. 2.       }
Vagrancy and idleness are a bane to any community where they exist.  Labor is the only legitimate means of support for honest men.  Hereafter every able bodied man in this District will be compelled to enter the service of the United States, either in the ranks of the army, or in the trains or workshops, or they must seek other lawful avocations, defined in Orders heretofore issued.  Subsistence will not hereafter be furnished to any person able to work.  Gambling, pimping, prostitution and other grossly immoral pursuits, will not be tolerated.
The District Provost Marshal is charged with the rigid execution of this Order, and will banish from the District all vagrants and other notoriously disreputable characters.
By Command of Brig. Gen. John McNeil.
                                                                            T. J. Anderson,
                                                                            Ass't. Adj't General. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 16, 1864, p. 1, c. 3

The Tone of Bullets.

            A soldier writing from one of the camps on the Potomac, thus alludes to the peculiar music made by bullets passing through the air:
"It is a very good place to exercise the mind, with the enemy's pickets setting close at hand.  A musical ear can study the different tones of bullets as they skim through the air.  I caught the pitch of a large-sized minnie yesterday.  It was a swell from E flat to F, and, as it passed into the distance and lost its velocity, receded to D, a very pretty change.  One of the most startling sounds is that of the Hotchkiss shell.  It comes like a shriek of a demon, and the bravest old soldiers feel like ducking when they hear it.  It is no more destructive than some other shells; but there is a great deal in mere sound to work upon our fears.  The tremendous scream is caused by a ragged edge of lead which is left on the shell. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 16, 1864, p. 1, c. 3
How Brave Men Suffer and Die.—In his report of the Chickamauga battles, B. F. Taylor records the following solemn, yet creditable fact:--"If any body thinks that when our men are stricken upon the field, they fill the air with cries and groans, till it shivers with such evidence of agony, he greatly errs.  An arm is shattered, a leg carried away, a bullet pierces the breast, and the soldier sinks down silently upon the ground, or creeps away if he can, without a murmer [sic] or complaint—falls as the sparrow falls, speechlessly; and like that sparrow, I earnestly believe, falls not without the Father.  The dying horse gives out his fearful utterance of almost human suffering, but the mangled rider is dumb.  The crash of musketry, the crack of rifles, the roar of guns, the shrieks of shells, the rebel whoop, the Federal cheer, and the indescribable undertone of grinding, rumbling, splintering sound, make up the voices of the battle-field."—Phil. Presby. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January16, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
There was quite a row last Monday night, between the Provost Guard and some refractory soldiers, who were out late against orders.  A considerable number of shots were exchanged, startling the inhabitants and causing some timid ones to believe the Rebs had attacked this place.  No harm was done, besides making a few ventilating holes through hats, etc. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

Affairs in Northern Texas.

            Refugees from Texas continue to arrive constantly.  The persecution of Union men there is waxing hotter every day, and the loyal men are looking forward with the most anxious solicitude to the time when rebel rule in Texas shall terminate by the victorious advance of the Federal armies.  Two men from beyond Red River arrived here a few days ago, who had started with four others on the 26th ult.  They were pursued, tracked by bloodhounds, saw one of their companions shot down before their eyes, and expect that the other three either shared the same fate, or were taken prisoner, which is equivalent to death, for Gen. Henry McCullough had issued an order not to take any more Union men prisoner.
After baffling their pursuers by various maneuvers, crossing and re-crossing several large streams by swimming, they at last made their escape, turning their horses loose about one hundred miles from this place and traveling the remainder of their hard journey on foot.  They report provision and forage very abundant.  The rebels had commenced pressing wheat from Union men. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Honor to Capt. M. D. Hart and Lieut. Hays.

            We are gratified to learn that a subscription is in circulation, for funds to re-inter the bodies of Capt. hart and his Lieut. Hays, who were basely executed by the rebels at this Post nearly a year ago.  Those patriotic adventurers in the cause of their country, suffered death by the hands of vile traitors then in authority at Fort Smith.  Hart and Hays were loyal Texans, whose devotion to the Federal Union provoked the jealousy of the Secessionists.  Being on the march to Texas for recruits to the Federal Army, those brave men were surrounded by a superior force and captured.  They were brought to Fort Smith and executed as spies, Jan. 22d, 1863, by order of Col. Phil. Crump, the rebel officer then in command of the place.  It is proper and just that the Union citizens and soldiers here should tender a suitable tribute to the memories of the martyred heroes.
Lieut. Pratt, of the 14th Kansas Cavalry, himself a Texan, has the subscription paper and he is a man of the proper energy and industry to "put it through." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

A Remarkable Occurrence.

Mr. Editor:
The following remarkable occurrence took place a few days ago in our city:
A staunch Union man, an old resident of this county, who had to leave his farm, 12 miles from here, when the rebels some time ago made it very unsafe for him to remain at home, and who had been plundered about a year ago of all his provisions, clothes, horses, etc., and has decrepit old parents and a considerable family depending on him for support, was accosted in the streets by a recruiting agent, and told that he had to become a soldier.  The man replied that, situated as he was, he could not well join the army, but he was answered in return that there was an order to put every man in the service.  He was taken to a certain recruiting office near by, and there, with a protest on his part, sworn into the service of the U. S.
Now, sir, as such proceedings are greatly to the injury of the public good, and can never be approved of by our authorities, I would simply pronounce it an act of high-handed outrage, fully in accordance with the despotic usages in Austria or Russia, but altogether out of place in a free country.
I understand that, upon the circumstances in the case being a little ventilated, the obligation, taken so involuntarily by the man, was cancelled, and all further proceedings quashed.  It is well, however, for loyal men to know their rights, and "knowing, dare maintain."
General Order No. 2, as published in your paper of last week, and which was taken as a pretext for the above unjust proceedings, is an excellent one, and I would like to see it carried out to its fullest extent, but not made use of to impose upon people to whom it is very far from applying.  There are many characters among us of very doubtful loyalty and obscure means of support, whom it would be well to look after and find some useful employment for.
Fort Smith, Jan. 15, 1864.                                       Justicia. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

The Liberated Africans.

            A prejudice once established, is difficult of removal.  This phenomenon of passion is singularly illustrated in the present state of mind among pro-slavery people.  They have been trained through a succession of six generations, to the feeling of disdain for the negro, except only as an article of merchantable property; and now that the negro is no longer a slave, the same prejudice persists in denying to him the capabilities and rights of a liberated manhood.  The sentiment appears to be, that if the negro is a human being at all, he is such only as a slave, and, therefore, that freedom is worse for him than slavery.
It is curious to observe how the boasted affection of the owners for their negroes has suddenly turned into loathing and disgust.  Formerly, the universal language of pro-slaveryists was, how tenderly affectionate the whites are to their slaves!  Well, perhaps masters and mistresses did love their negroes, but was their love different in kind from that they indulged for their horses, mules, and pigs, or other property?  It was the love of property; but was it the love of human kind?
This same loving class now seem to be inspired with the most woful [sic] predictions regarding the future conditions of the poor helpless freedmen.  They seem filled to bursting with tears of commiseration for the luckless race that has been snatched so suddenly from the blissful condition of slavery and turned over to the dreadful fate of freedom!
What do to the freed Africans?  Why, do to them as you would have them do to you.  This is the treatment which One wiser than Solomon prescribes. But how apply this rule?  Apply it in the case of the liberated Africans the same as you apply it in the case of other people.  If the African desires work, and you can give it, employ him, and when his work is done pay him a fair and just valuation.  If he is in suffering, minister to him as you would to any other sufferer in the same necessity.  If you employ white laborers to better advantage, you are under no obligation to prefer the black.
If he needs instruction, withhold not.  Let him have all the education he has leisure and capacity to acquire, precisely as any one else.
You are not bound to make him your social companion, any more than you are bound to make social companions of others whom you choose to decline.
But you say, send the negroes out of the country!  The only practicable way to do this is to let them remain here long enough to earn the means for their transportation.  Four millions of people accustomed to the labors of the field, are of greater value to the country by their presence than by their absence.  Common sense, therefore, whispers, let them stay until lifted hence by the earnings of their own industry; that will be soon enough.
Ft. Smith, Jan. 15, 1864.                                                   Thrifton. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January16, 1864, p. 4, c. 1

Modern Economy of Time.

            The Scientific American thus shows how time has been economized by the application of machinery:
Cotton—One man can spin more cotton yarn now than four hundred men could have done in the same time in 1809, when Arkwright, the best cotton spinner, took out his first patent.
Flour.—One man can make as much flour in a day now as a hundred and fifty could a century ago.
Lace—One woman can now make as much lace in a day as a hundred women could a hundred years ago.
Sugar—It now requires as many days to refine sugar as it did months thirty years ago.
Looking-glasses—It once required 6 months to put quicksilver on a glass; now it needs only forty minutes.
Engines—The engine of a first rate ironclad frigate will perform as much work in a day as forty-two thousand horses. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 30, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
An intelligent reliable contraband by the name of Jacob Hill, made his appearance in town a few days since, direct from Bonham, Texas, where he was confined and ironed for some time.  They were compelled to recognize him as a soldier to some extent, as he belonged to the 1st Kan. Colored Volunteers.  He was captured near Schullyville, last fall, while on a scout.  He gives a very intelligent account of his confinement; first at Fort Washita, and then at Bonham, in Texas, and of the loyal citizens and rebel forces, &c. and of his final escape and journey of near 300 miles to this place by a very circuitous route.  He did not see a person this side of Red river.  The first three days and nights, he was on foot, but the last three, he transferred himself to the "mounted service."  He will do to travel, as he is about as sharp as they generally make them; though he is now unable to be out on account of being frosted, and from exposure. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 30, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Ordered to be Paid.

            The Secretary of War has ordered that Ordinance Sergeants Franklin Rounds and C. P. Swift, U.S.A., shall be paid off the same as other prisoners of war.  These veterans of nearly thirty years service in the regular army of the United States, were ordered by their respective commanding officers to remain at their posts, when the latter were abandoned in the spring of 1861.  Sergeant Rounds was stationed at Fort Arbuckle, and Sergeant Swift at this place.  They remained prisoners of war, until the re-occupation of this country by the Federal army.  Sergeant Rounds, was in the battle of San Jacinto, and nearly every important engagement in the Mexican war.—Sergeant Swift, born in the army, to which also his father belonged, commenced his military career in the old Florida war.  They have seen more service than ordinarily falls to the lot of man, and we think that it would be no more than an act of justice, to raise them to the rank of commissioned officers in the regular army.  We congratulate them on the comfortable pile of "greenbacks," which they will soon receive from Uncle Samuel's Disbursing Agent. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 30, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

U. S. General Hospital, Fort Smith.

            The General Hospital at this Post consists of six buildings, viz:  The St. Charles Hotel, Sutton Mansion, Rector Mansion, Prison, Small Pox, and Colored Wards, containing 240 patients.
The Hospital is under charge of Dr. J. E. Bennett, A. A. Surgeon, U.S.A., and three assistants, viz:  Drs. J. S. C. Rowland, J. L. Prentiss, A. A. Surgeons, U.S.A., and A. D. Tenney, Assistant Surgeon, 1st Colored Kansas Volunteers.
The prevailing diseases are Pneumonia and Small Pox.  There are also in Hospital some 40 cases of vaccination with syphilitic virus.  This unfortunate and detestable disease has spread among soldiers and citizens to the extent of between five and six hundred cases, presenting all the symptoms of true syphilis.
During the month of December, 263 patients were admitted, 17 died, 3 deserted, and 77 were returned to duty.  Whole number treated, 309; of these 64 were cases of Pneumonia, 34 Small Pox, and 39 spurious vaccination.  Two thighs were amputated, 1 tumour removed from posterior part of thigh, weighing 7 ounces, and 1 removal of left testis for sarcoma

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, January 30, 1864, p. 3, c. 1

Proceedings of the U. L. A.

            At a meeting of the Arkansas Council, No. 1, U. L. A., held Jan. 28th, 1864, the following report was received from the Committee on the Good of the Order, in relation to a communication from Lieut. Col. Calkins, District Provost Marshal, in reply to resolutions of this Council, referred to him through Head Quarters, District of the Frontier:
                                    Fort Smith, Ark., Jan. 28, 1864.
Col. Wm. R. Judson,
Comd'g District of the Frontier:
Sir—We have the honor to acknowledge the receipt through your Head Qrs., of the reply of Lieut. Col. E. A. Calkins, Dist. Provost Marshal, to certain resolutions passed by this Council on the 14th and 21st insts., and, without any preliminary introduction, briefly reply to a few points alluded to in said reply:
We will first state, in regard to the case of Mr. Lange having fifty or sixty stand of arms in his possession, "loaded, capped, and ready for use," that his statement to you as to how he became "possessed of them being satisfactory," we can explain and prove why he had them ready for use.
There was a conspiracy formed by certain parties in this place to rob the said Lange of a large sum of money, which coming to his knowledge, he prepared to defend himself by putting them in suitable condition for immediate use, by which means the robbers were deterred at that time, also on the second and third attempts; but on the fourth they were partially successful, as stated in said communication.
We are pleased to see the official from whom your communication emanates, manifest such great zeal in punishing robbers, and if he were disposed to extend the field of his operations, we think he could find a very rich one in which all the power of his official station could be displayed, and we would at the same time be pleased to co-operate with him, if the effort were properly directed.
He states, after the lengthy detail of the case of Mr. Lange, "I trust that the members of the council see, that had they possessed this information, they would have had less astonishment and indignation to express."
We will simply state that we know all the facts in regard to the subjects of the resolutions adopted by us.
We will pass over his innuendoes and insinuations, about "those who have so recently renewed their allegiance to the Government, and charge of petulance closely allied with personal spite," &c. and proceed to propound a few questions, which if answered satisfactorily, may go far to diminish our "astonishment and indignation."
Sir, is it not enough to excite our "astonishment and indignation," to see Union families turned out of houses and rebels put in by his orders?  the head of one of which is known to have been an original and most bitter rebel, and has now a son in the rebel army.
Is it not enough, to see a poor Union man, who had but a few bushels of corn to feed a team, on which he depended for the support of his family, have it taken from him, while there are rich and notorious rebels near by, with barns filled to overflowing, living in luxury and ease, unmolested?
Is it not enough, to witness a loyal citizen paying into the hands of one of the District Provost Marshal's employees, two hundred dollars, to get back the money, he (the Provost Marshal,) acknowledged to have in his possession?  Why keep the money?  What evidence can it be in convicting those who stole it?  Are the papers he alluded to not sufficient?
Is it not enough to excite our "astonishment and indignation," to know that several thousand dollars worth of contraband cotton has passed through this place by the sanction of the military authorities, which should have been confiscated for the use of the Government?
And in regard to that rebel women case:  does he not know that the husband of one of those creatures, whom he terms "ladies," fled from this place on the approach of our troops, to the rebel lines, where he still remains in their service?  Does he not know that the husband of another is a member of Fitzwilliams' band of cut-throats and outlaws?—That the brother of another remained here several weeks after the occupation of this place by our forces, and after getting all the necessary information, took a rebel mail and left for their lines?  And that another brother is a captain in the rebel army?  All of them are doing their utmost to add to the number of martyrs in the cause of Liberty and the Union—to stain their hands deeper, if possible, in the blood of our brothers and friends, and by whose hands and influence "our ranks have become so seriously thinned," in the words of his reply, and whose families are allowed to remain within our lines, in comfort and ease, thus allowing the male portion as good an opportunity as they could desire to continue the "thinning" process at will, and in such manner as they may choose.
Let him look around.  Can he not see their victims there in our midst, the families of murdered Union men, and others who have been robbed of all their effects, eking out a miserable existence in hovels and tents, suffering from the cold, half famished and unnoticed, while families of those who are responsible for all this, are favored and flattered, and their smiles courted in return?
Allow us to say, that we feel it our duty to call his attention to this subject, as an act of justice to those widows and fatherless children; and as an act of justice due to the memory of the noble dead, who have fallen in so many hard contested battlefields, as well as those who have fallen in the brush, or were hanged to a tree like felons, for advocating the claims of our glorious Government and Constitutional Liberty!
As regards our showing our loyalty by entering the Federal Army, we will inform him, that we have given up to the service of our country, many of our sons, brothers and friends, and that, should ever any of the traducers of the U. L. A. have reformed sufficiently to become members thereof, they perhaps would find among us a few who have fought their way also "from the Missouri to the Arkansas," and are likewise very anxious "to establish our flag south of the Arkansas."  But Sir, these slandered of Union men, have a well known object in view in thus ignoring the Union sentiment of the people.  Union men have a right to demand justice, and every consideration that can be extended to them, by those upon whom they would fain look as friends.  They cannot see the propriety of "conciliating," nor have they generally speaking, the means of doing so, for or against our Government.  It is extremely inconvenient for a certain class of people to find so strong a radical Union sentiment here, which will not submit to be trampled in the dust, and be silent when the best interests of the Government and people are attacked.
Upon motion, the above report of the Committee, was unanimously adopted by the Council.  It was further resolved to forward a copy thereof to the Commanding Officer of the District and also to the fort Smith New Era, for publication.
Done in open council, this 28th day of Jan., 1864.
                                    Arkansas Council, No. 1, U.L.A. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
Last Saturday the citizens of Fort Smith commenced organizing themselves into Independent Home Guard Companies.  The first company formed filled up rapidly to about ninety members, and elected E. Murphy, an old U. S. soldier, Captain, V. V. Milor 1st Lieut., and R. D. Lender 2d Lieut.
The organization of the second company did not progress quite as briskly and seemed to be scarcely one-third the strength of the former.  There are men enough here, however, to make up three or four full companies. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 6, 1864, p. 2,  c. 3
There have been several meetings of traitors held in rebel houses in this city of late, at which under cover of night, males and females have met, and exulted over their prospects of re-capturing this city—sending off letters to the rebel army, and entertaining spies.  The testimony against some of them is clear and unquestionable, and they will be made to feel the consequences ere long.  Let them be arrested irrespective of their sex!—Knoxville Whig.
Precisely our fix here in Fort Smith. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 6, 1864, p. 3, c. 1

Affairs in Texas.

            Two scouts, Messrs. Collins and Stanton, who had been sent into Texas from this place, last December, returned a few days ago, after many hair-breadth escapes from the grasp of their envenomed foes.  They report a terrible state of affairs in northern Texas, caused by the implacable fury of the rebels, who begin to perceive that the rebellion is doomed and their destruction is at hand.  They intend that our army shall find on their entrance into Texas, nothing but a mass of ruin and destruction, and are determined to exterminate every soul friendly to the Union.
May God preserve in this extremity the noble band who still remain true to their country; and may he frustrate the hellish designs of their oppressors.  Below we publish extracts from a Proclamation of Gen. Henry E. McCulloch, who commands in northern Texas.  The document speaks for itself.  It needs no comment.
"Many of our citizens may be misled by the belief that if the federal army overrun the country they will not be interrupted, if they stay at home and do not participate in the defence of the State.  If I may be permitted to judge their conduct in this State by that in Arkansas and Louisiana, where they have been so fortunate as to occupy a portion of the country, I assure you that your negroes will be taken from you—the men put into the army to fight against us—the able-bodied women and men, not too old to labor, will be put on your farms, to work under Yankee overseers; while the old men, women and children, who are not able to fight or work will be spurned, neglected and allowed to sicken and die for the want of food, upon the very farms where they once lived with plenty.  Horses, mules, wagons, carriages, &c., will be taken, and other property destroyed, and your houses burned—helpless women and children, turned loose in the world, penniless, and only one suit of clothes!  And, though a man here, and family there, may be spared for a short time, in order to make others believe they will be permitted to remain at home in security, the war is intended to free the slave race—subjugate and enslave the white race!—divest us of every species of property, and divide our lands with those who are the most active and brutal in bringing us into bondage.
*            *            *            It is now in our power to choose between liberty, under a free government of our own creation; or servitude, under Yankee taskmasters in conquered provinces, held by an armed soldiery.  Is there a Texian who will hesitate at the choice?  Will not every man in the land who can possibly stand a short campaign, come at once to the aid of our army?
*            *            *            Yes!  let us show that we are a united people, and determined to be free! that we will purchase liberty for ourselves and our children, or fall martyrs in our country's cause.  And while we resolve to be free ourselves, that every man must do his duty, in this trying hour; that we cannot, nor will not permit our people to be divided!  he who lives among us must be of us, and with us; that the test of loyalty will be the service of the man by his presence in the field, or voluntary and strong aid in fitting out for the field, and supporting the families of those who can and will go.  And if the enemy should drive us back and overrun a portion of our loved country, that no man—NO, NOT ONE—will be left behind our army, in possession of property and home./ as we are confident that a true man will not stay to fall into the hands of our invaders, and a doubtful one SHALL NOT!  This is the time for us to be united as one man, or make the line of separation final.  The time has come when we must take the ground that he who is not for us, is against us! and when men do not, by their works, show that they are true to the Confederate States, place them at once among our enemies, and TREAT THEM AS SUCH.
While my feelings revolt at the necessity for such a course, my judgment points to it as the only safe one for us, as we cannot expect to war successfully with our public enemies, while domestic and covert ones are doing all they can against us in our midst." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 6, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
                                                                    For the New Era.
Mr. Editor:
As a gay and fascinating young Officer was riding down Garrison Avenue the other day, he discovered a wagon, the occupant of which, a young lady from the country, was diligently engaged in selling apples to a crowd assembled around her.  Riding up, he politely inquired the price.
"Four bits a dozen, sir," was the reply.
"Pshaw," exclaimed he, "you ought to be sent to the guard house for asking such exorbitant prices."
Selecting three or four of the finest apples, the lady presented them to our hero with the remark:
"Thank you, for your kind wishes; please accept these as a return."
Taken rather aback, he apologized for his seeming rudeness, and asked if there was anything he could do, to assure her of his good intentions.
"Yes," said she, "please ride along beside the wagon, and keep these soldiers from stealing my apples."
The idea of standing guard over an apple wagon, was not at all congenial to our hero's feelings, if we may be allowed to judge from the time his horse made into the Garrison.

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 6, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
The Richmond Dance of Death.—Five balls advertised, and flour one hundred and twenty-five dollars per barrel!  Who prates of famine and want?  Who is suffering for the necessaries of life?  Does not all go "merry as a marriage bell?"  If the skeleton comes in, put a ball ticket at five dollars into its bony fingers, a masquerade ball costume upon its back of bony links, and send the grim guest into the ball-room to the sound of cotillion music.—Richmond Examiner. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 20, 1864, p. 2, c. 2


                                                                                        Office Local Special Treasury Agent,
                                        Fort Smith, Ark., Feb. 11, 1864.
All persons occupying abandoned property, or having the same in their possession, in the cities of Fort Smith and Van Buren, will report, before the 16th instant, to this office, furnishing in writing a complete description, and the length of time they have been in possession of the same.
All property belonging to rebels, sold or transferred since July, 1862, is "Abandoned Property," and now under the exclusive control of Government.  Persons occupying, or in possession of such property, must report as above.  All rents on abandoned property, heretofore paid to the Provost Marshal, must hereafter be paid to the undersigned.
Officers and soldiers having captured or abandoned property in their possession, will invoice the same, with duplicate receipts thereof, to the undersigned, as prescribed in General Orders, No. 88, War Department, dated April 3d, 1863.
                                        J. B. Stockton,
                                        Local Special Treasury Agent.


            If a bomb shell had descended and burst in our midst, it could scarcely have startled with greater surprise more Union men and their families, than the appearance of the above circular.  We say Union men, because upon inquiring it will be found it is Union men principally whose interests are involved, and whose homes are threatened to be made desolate by the execution of this order.
We are among those once singular ones in this community, who believe our government to be founded upon the principles of eternal justice and equity, and that it is not the purpose of those who are called to guide our ship of State, to act with injustice or cruelty towards any, especially its loyal citizens.  And therefore, we believe upon a full and fair presentation of all the facts and particular circumstances with which we, as a people, have been surrounded, before the proper authorities, that this law or order will be greatly modified.  We will proceed to state briefly, some of the reasons why we so confidently entertain these views.
First—By an arbitrary power that could not, under rebel rule throughout the south, be resisted, Union men, or those acting for them, were compelled to do business with and receive in all money transactions, Confederate money.  No means of investment being open to them, but to pay it over for real estate, to those very men from whom they were compelled to receive it.  To keep this worthless trash, or destroy it would but render aid and comfort to the rebellion, and complete their own ruin.  Purchases of real estate in this portion o the South, were made by Union men in total ignorance of such a law or proclamation, forbidding the sale or transfer of property by rebels, and Union men here did not make such purchases in defiance of, or contempt of the Federal authority.  All correct information from the north was wholly suppressed or perverted, and the very existence of such a law or proclamation was known here but a very short time since, long after these purchases were made.
Again—the purchase of real estate from rebels, under the then existing circumstances, is strong presumptive evidence of the loyalty of such purchasers.  Having no expectation of or desire for the ultimate success of the rebellion, and as a consequence no confidence in Confederate currency, they were anxious to get rid of it.  In almost every solitary instance, rebels were the sellers and Union men the purchasers.
In the name of humanity and all that is sacred in common justice and fair dealing among men, we would ask what was the poor Union man to do with this money?  Surely not hoard it up as something precious, as many rebels here done to their sorrow!  Surely, the Union man with all the hardships and persecutions to which he was subjected in the South, should have, especially under the peculiar circumstances referred to, greater indulgence than in localities where offences were committed with a knowledge of and defiance of the Federal authority.  We cannot believe, upon a fair representation of all the facts, that a Union man will be refused the poor boon of retaining the shelter and home provided by him, as the result of long years of toil; that now, as he once more gazes upon the beloved emblem of his country's glory, the object of his warmest affections, every star and stripe in that glorious, long absent banner, proclaim, it cannot be!  The heaven-tuned voice of Liberty as it is wafted upon the wings of the wind, from the green-capped mountains of New Hampshire to the mouth of the St. Lawrence, and to the shores of the Pacific, thundering its mighty eloquence into the ears of the hardy sons of toil, along the verdant banks of this far-rolling Mississippi, and reverberating its sound among the heights of Vicksburg and Hudson, alike proclaim, it cannot be!
In conclusion, therefore, we would express the confident hope and expectation, that in a question so grave, so vitally important, involving the dearest interests and happiness of so large a class of our loyal citizens and their families, no precipitate action will be had, but that a thorough and patient inquiry into the surrounding circumstances will be made, befitting a question involving such interests. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 20, 1864, p. 1, c. 2


                                                                                                        Registrar's Office, Little Rock, Ark.,
                                                                    February 8, 1864.
By virtue of General Orders No. 2, dated at Headquarters, Department of Arkansas, February 2, 1864, the General in charge directs, that Commanders of Posts to whom the President's Proclamation of December 8, 1863, the books for registering Loyal citizens and other blanks appertaining to the subject, are sent, will use all due diligence in seeing that every citizen in their respective districts is properly informed upon all points of interest connected with said Proclamation, and that the oath be taken, and their names subscribed without delay.
All citizens are expected to subscribe their full name to the oath, and those who will not, are to be considered enemies, and will be treated as such.
No person will be permitted to vote at the coming election, except he shall have taken and subscribed to the oath as provided in the President's Proclamation.
Until further orders, Commanders of Posts will forward to this office, on the last day of each week, a report of the total number of subscribers, at date, in their respective districts, and any other information of interest they may be possessed of, relating to this subject.
By order of Brig. Gen'l Nathan Kimball.
                                                        E. D. Mason,
                                                        Ass't Adjutant General. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 20, 1864, p. 3, c. 1

The Farming Interest.

            Unless something is speedily done to induce our farmers to go to work and cultivate their land, the people in our part of the State will be exposed to great sufferings the coming season.  The state of affairs in the country is truly deplorable.  We learn from an officer lately returned from a trip to Roseville, that hardly one house out of three has any inmates, and of such, not one out of three has any male inhabitants.  He saw but two little patches of wheat, where formerly thousands of acres promised a plentiful harvest.  Even in our own immediate vicinity, but very, very few farms are being worked.  The reason of all this is very obvious.  Many of the finest farms belonging to rebels have been abandoned by their owners, and instead of being allowed to be taken possession of immediately by Union men, of whom there was a great number here, refugees from other parts of the State since the occupation of this place by Federal troops, they were allowed to go to ruin and waste, and the fences to be burnt.  Innumerable wagon loads of rails, were brought to this city last fall and winter; and it is only of late that these highly injurious proceedings have been stopped—and it was not rebel farms alone, that suffered in this manner; but to a considerable extent, those of Union men also.
But the main reason why farmers do not follow their usual occupation, is the great dread they have of bushwhackers, and bands of lawless persons infesting the country; and this fear is only too well founded.
It cannot be denied that there is scarcely a farm within a large circuit of this place, that has not been robbed more or less, and the general supposition is, that when our army moves southward at the opening of the next campaign, bushwhackers—those fiends in human shape, will become more daring than ever.  They ought to be taught a wholesome lesson, and none be taken prisoner.  They cannot be considered as enemies, entitled to the usages of civilized warfare; but as enemies of mankind and outlaws, and should receive a corresponding treatment. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 20, 1864, p. 3, c. 2

Interesting from Texas.

            Last Tuesday, thirteen refugees from Texas arrived within our lines.  The party left Bonham, numbering 32 in all, on the 3d inst. an had got safely to within twenty miles of Sugar Loaf Mountain, south of here.  Being so near our lines, they apprehended no danger and were traveling leisurely, being scattered for a distance of about 400 yards along the road.—All at once they found themselves completely surrounded by an overwhelming force of Choctaws.  At the first fire, one of their number was killed.  The Texans then charged and the enemy fled; but as soon as they desisted from attacking, the treacherous Indians closed in again upon them from all sides.  After repeated fruitless charges the little band of patriots perceived they would be cut up one by one, unless they got out of reach of their enemies.  Collecting their remaining strength therefore, they broke through the deadly circle around them and made for Sugar Loaf Mountain, on the top of which they halted a few moments to form again.  Their pursuers being close at hand, they pushed rapidly on, not however, till they had heard the death shrieks of one of their wounded, who had there fallen into the hands of his merciless foes.—The superior mettle of their horses at last brought them out of reach of their enemies.
During the first charges upon the rebels, and the running fight that ensued, the severely wounded were cruelly butchered by the Indians, who disregarded all appeals for mercy.  Eight were taken unhurt, but there can scarcely be a doubt as to their ultimate doom.—May the day of retribution speedily come!
The leader of the refugees, Dr. Penwell, was taken prisoner 45 miles below Waldron, by some guerrillas.  Only thirteen out of their whole number arrived safely within our lines.
They represent the state of affairs in Texas as gloomy in the extreme.  Three-fourths or more of the people are praying day and night, in the words of our informant, for the advance of the Union army into Texas.
The only bulwarks against the total extermination of Union men and the destruction of their property, is the Union army of Gen. Boren, who, with about 1,200 or 1,600 men, have taken a strong position in the Journegan thicket, and has sent word to Gen. Henry McCulloch, that if he attempted to execute his threat expressed in his proclamation, he would retaliate by massacreing  every secessionist and apply the torch to their property.
Quantrile's [sic] men do as they please, killing whom they see fit and taking what they like.  The lately pulled off all the toe nails of an old man with bullet moulds, to make him give up his money.  Not succeeding by this species of infernality, they threatened to kill him, but the old man remained firm.  At last they executed their threat by blowing his brains out, but did not get the money.
Another act of fiendishness of theirs is, when they see a good-looking young woman at any house, they demand her in marriage.  If the father should refuse, he is killed and the lady taken by force.  But enough; the horrible deeds perpetrated by this band of devils is past description, and Eternal Justice alone can meet out to them their full due. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 27, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
Coming Back.—Captain John Ross, of Crawford county, with from six to eight men, came into Van Buren a few days ago, and surrendered himself and his men to our military authorities there. The Captain evidently had enough of rebellion. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, February 27, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
We are glad to see that no action has been taken by Capt. Stockton, the Treasury agent, to the injury or inconvenience of loyal men, who have purchased property from rebels, under the rebel rule, and we again express our firm belief that Congress, as soon as fully aware of the injurious working of the law, if strictly carried out, will modify it so as to satisfy Union men.
We have every reason to believe that Capt. Stockton, in the mean time, is disposed to discharge his important duties to the utmost satisfaction of all loyal citizens. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 5, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
679 Oaths of allegiance were registered this week up to our going to press, in less than five days.  The whole number thus far, amounts to 842.  At this rate over 1500 will be registered up to election day at this place alone. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 5, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
                                                    Head Quarters Dist. of the Frontier,
                                                                Department of Arkansas,
                                                    Fort Smith, Ark., March 4, 1864.
General Orders,     }
No. 4.       }
I.  Pursuant to Special Order No. 9, from Head Quarters District of the Frontier, Jan. 10th, 1864, a Board of officers convened at Fort Smith for the purpose of assessing damages for the destruction of property by officers and enlisted men of Companies "E," and "D," 14th Kansas Cavalry.
II.  The Board, after a careful examination of the facts in the case, find that Company "E," 14th Kansas Cavalry, destroyed a large amount of property, viz:  Board and Rail fence, Butcher Shop and tools; and assess the damages at $200.  And also that Co. "D," 14th Kansas Cavalry burned or destroyed 1000 rails, and assess the damages at $50.
III.  The assessment of damages by the Board is approved.
IV.  No Commissioned officer being in command of Co. "E," 14th Kansas Cavalry, at the time said property was destroyed, the amount of $400, damages assessed against said company as aforesaid, will be stopped against the pay by the proper officer.  And the amount of $50, damages assessed against Co. "D," 14th Kansas Cavalry, for destruction of property, will be stopped against the pay of Lieutenant S. L. Jennings, of said Co. and Reg't, by the proper officer, he being in command of said Co. "D," when the property was destroyed.
                                                                            John M. Thayer,
                                                                Brigadier General Commanding. 

                                                                                                    Head Quarters Dist. of the Frontier,
                                                                Department of Arkansas,
                                                    Fort Smith, Ark., March 4, 1864.
General Orders,     }
No. 5.       }
Stealing, pillaging, and burning fence rails must and shall be stopped.  It is demoralizing to the army, injurious to the government, and disastrous to peaceable citizens.  The farms must be tilled, and crops raised.
A commander is justified in taking that which is necessary to sustain his men and animals, but it must be done by his order only, and he must give receipts, and account for what he takes, so that loyal people may receive a just compensation.
If troops destroy fences, plunder houses, kill or take away stock, the value of the property taken or destroyed shall be stopped against such troops on their respective Pay Rolls.  Wagon Masters shall be held accountable for the conduct of the teamsters and all others under them, and if either are guilty of the outrages named, they shall be discharged from the service without pay.
If officers do not use all the means in their power to prevent these evils, stoppages of their pay shall be made against them for the value of the property taken or destroyed, equally with the men, in proportion to their salary; and furthermore, such officers will be recommended to Department Head Quarters for dismissal from the service.
In order to ascertain more fully who commit these outrages, every commander of an escort or of an expedition shall furnish to these Head Quarters in writing immediately on his return, a full and accurate account of each day's march, giving the date of the month, stating on whose plantation he camped at night, what depredations were committed, if any, what the property was brought in, if any, and what property was taken by his order, and will hand in his report in person.
Each officer will, before starting on an expedition, call at these Head Quarters and procure a copy of these orders.
By order of Brig. Gen'l Thayer,
                                                                            Wm. S. Whitten,
                                                                            Capt. & A. A. Gen. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 5, 1864, p. 4, c. 1

Flag Presentation.

            The following will speak for itself:
To the Members of Company "A", 6th Reg't Kansas Cavalry
We, the Ladies of Wyandotte county; your mothers, wives, daughters, sisters and friends, in consideration of your gallant and heroic services, present you with a Flag.  We send it as an evidence of our respect of your noble achievements; for laurels won on many hard fought battle fields, in the noble defence of our homes and our country.
You have one year more to serve before your term of enlistment expires, and we feel and know that you will serve that year as you have the two previous ones, with honor to your country, your families and your friends, and we trust and believe that you will not sheath your swords as long as a traitor pollutes American soil.  Let your battle cry be Liberty and Union forever.
                                                                Mrs. J. Bartles,
                                                                   "       Nanie J. Veale,
                                                                   "       Mary Johnson,
                                                                   "       R. M. Grey,
                                                                   "       Handford,
                                                                Miss N. Guthrie,
                                                                   "       Fannie Sorter,
                                                                            And many others. 

To the Ladies of Wyandott County:
We, the members of Co. "A," 6th Kansas Vol. Cavalry, do acknowledge to have been honored with a Flag—the symbol of our nationality—from your hands.  We shall ever be grateful for this token of your high appreciation of our humble services.  When we remember by whom it was donated it inspires us with renewed courage, and we resolve that we will not betray the trust reposed in us, and whilst under its folds our motto shall be ONWARD, to pursue the enemy unto death.  In this we but discharge the duties that we owe to our families, our country, and to Him who governs the destinies of our Nation.
When this fratricidal war shall have ended, then we shall be permitted, in peace, to return to our beloved homes, among the gentle hills and fertile prairies of Kansas.
                                                                Co. "A," 6th Kansas Cavalry.
In the field in Ark., Feb. 1864. 

            The flag is made of the finest of silk ribbon, with a beautiful gold fringe, and a cord and tassel of the same material.  In the field on one side, are the words, in gilt letters, "Presented by the ladies of Wyandott county, to Co. "A," 6th Reg't Kansas Vol. Cavalry."  And on the other side, "Dry Wood, Morristown, Newtonia, Fort Wagner, Cane Hill and Prairie Grove," to which should be added Honey Springs and Perryville.  And on the silver plate on the staff is inscribed, "Remember you are classed with the true and the brave."
The Flag was sent to Ozark, where Company "A" is now stationed. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 5, 1864, p. 4, c. 2

A Kiss in the Right Direction.

            At the Ladies' Fair recently held in Columbus, Ohio, a pretty Indiana girl was observed exerting her persuasive powers to their utmost tension, trying to induce a certain military gent, who ranks as a Captain, to buy a bead basket, or some other ornament she had in her possession.  As the gallant Captain had been gouged an unlimited number of times during the evening, he didn't see it; but thinking to startle the maiden, said jokingly, "Don't want to buy your trinkets, but I'll give you five dollars for a kiss."  The maiden reflected a moment—she was laboring in a noble cause, for a soldier's good—"surely, in such a case there's no harm," so in a twinkle of the eye, she said:  "Done, sir!" and as he expressed it, she gave him a whopper right on his cheek.  Military drew back, abashed.  The crowd saw it and laughed.  There was but one way of escape—he pulled out his somewhat depleted wallet and forked over a V.  He then rushed frantically up stairs and drowned his sorrow in a flowing bowl of oyster soup.  The maiden, in the meantime, maintained her accustomed tranquility, and yet survives, a fitting monument to woman's patriotic spirit. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 1, c. 2

The Amenities of War.

            Now and then a little human smile brightens war's grim visage, like a flash of sunshine in an angry day.  I remember one that I wish I could daguerreotype.  The amenities of battle are so few, how precious they become!  Let me give you that little "touch of nature that makes the whole world kin."  A few months ago the 3d Ohio, belonging to Streight's command, entered a town en route for Richmond, prisoners of war.  Worn down, famished, hearts heavy and haversacks light, they were herded, like dumb, driven cattle, to wear out the night.  A rebel regiment, the 54th Virginia, being encamped near by, many of its men came strolling about to see the sorry show of poor, supperless Yankees.  They did not stare long, but hastened away to camp, and came streaming back with coffee kettles, corn bread, and bacon, the best they had, and all they had; and straightway little fires began to twinkle, bacon was suffering the martyrdom of the gridiron, and the aroma of coffee rose like the fragrant cloud of a thank offering.  Loyal guests and rebel hosts were mingled; our hungry boys ate and were satisfied; and for that one night our common humanity stood acquitted of the heavy charge of total depravity with which it is blackened.  Night and our boys departed together.  The prisoners in due time were exchanged, and are now encamped within rifle-shot of Kelly's Ferry, on the banks of the Tennessee.  But often around the camp fires I have heard them talk of the 54th Virginia, that proved themselves so immeasurably better "than a brother afar off;" heard them wonder where they were, and discuss the chance of their ever meeting.  When they denounced the "Johnny Rebs," the name of one regiment, you may be sure, was tucked away in a snug place, quite out of range of hard words.
And now comes the sequel that makes a beautiful poem of the whole of it.  On the day of the storming of Mission Ridge, among the prisoners was the 54th Virginia, and on Friday it trailed away across the pontoon bridge and along the mountain road, nine miles to Kelly's Ferry.  Arrived there, it settled upon the banks, like wasps, awaiting the boat.  A week elapsed, and your correspondent followed suit.  The Major of the 3d Ohio welcomed me to the warm hospitalities of his quarters, and almost the first thing he said, was, "You should have been here last Friday; you missed the denouement of the beautiful little drama of ours, whose first act I have told you.  Will you believe, the 54th Virginia has been here!  Some of our boys were on duty at the landing when it arrived.  What regiment is this? they asked; and when the reply was given, they started for camp like quarter horses, and shouted, as they rushed in and out among the smoky cones of the Sibleys—the 54th Virginia is at the Ferry!  The camp swarmed in three minutes.  Treasures of coffee, bacon, sugar, beef, preserved peaches, every thing, were turned out in force, and you may believe they went laden with plenty, at the double quick to the Ferry.  The same old scene, and yet how strangely changed!  The twinkling fires, the grateful incense, the hungry captives; but guests and hosts had changed places; the star-lit folds floated aloft for the bonnie blue flag, a debt of honor was paid to the uttermost farthing.  If they had a triumph of arms at Chattanooga, hearts were trump at Kelly's Ferry.  And there it was that horrid war smiled a human smile, and a grateful, gentle light flickered for a moment on the point of the bayonet.  And yet should the 54th Virginia return to-morrow, with arms in their hands, to the Tennessee, the 3d Ohio would meet them on the bank, fight them foot to foot, and beat them back with rain so pitiless, the river would run red."—Taylor's Chattanooga Letter. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
                                            Camp on Petit Jean, Scott Co., Ark.,
                                                        March 17th, 1864.
Editor Era.—We were near Booneville, threshing wheat, on the 14th inst.  Did not attend the election, but understand there were 41 votes polled, all for the Constitution and the regular ticket.  The county is full of returned rebels—some are going forward and taking the oath, but many are in the bush robbing.  A large portion of the Union men will be compelled to leave their homes.  100 rebels passed within two miles of us on their way south, night before last, supposed to be from the north side of the river, and bound for the rebel army.                                                                                                               C.
We learn from reliable sources that a few night ago about 100 rebels crossed the Arkansas river, near Ozark, going south.  We presume this is the same gang mentioned in the above communication.
We also learn that numerous little bands of rebels from Missouri and the norther part of this State have crossed the river at various points within the last month, bound for Dixie.  That's just the place for them, and we can spare a few of like ilk from Fort Smith and vicinity, and advise them by all means to follow suit if they know what's good for them. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
We notice the return of our friend J. L. T. Learned, the efficient superintendent of the Government workshops.  He has come back to "settle" for good in Rackensack, having brought his family along.  That's what we like to see, and we hope to see thousands more of northern mechanics and farmers imitate his example and help build up Arkansas.  Now is the time to pitch in to get a good start.  Fort Smith, ere long, will take a "shute" like St. Louis and Chicago, and those who select their "corner lots" now, will not regret it five or ten years hence. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
                                                    Head Quarters Dist. of the Frontier,
                                                                Department of Arkansas,
                                                    Office District Provost Marshal,
                                                                Fort Smith, March 18, 1864.
I.  Hereafter no intoxicating liquors will be sold outside the following limits:  Bounded on North by Water Street, East by Mulberry St., South by Van Buren Avenue, and West by Garrison Avenue.
II.  Any person or persons disobeying the 1st paragraph of this Order, his or their stock will be seized and confiscated.
By order of Brig. Gen'l J. M. Thayer.
                                                                John Edwards,
                                                    Col. 18th Iowa & Dist. Prov. Marshal. 

                                                                                                    Head Quarters Dist. of the Frontier,
                                                                Department of Arkansas,
                                                    Office District Provost Marshal,
                                                                                        Fort Smith, March 18, 1864.
The Medical Director of the District having informed this office that he has detailed a Surgeon for the purpose of vaccinating soldiers and citizen's families, it is requested that all persons who have not already been properly vaccinated will report to Surgeon Prentiss, on Garrison Avenue, 1st door south of Rialto Saloon.
                                                                John Edwards,
                                                    Col. 18th Iowa & Dist. Prov. Marshal, 

                                                                                                    Head Quarters Dist. of the Frontier,
                                                                Medical Director's Office.
                                                                            March 18th, 1864.
The Medical Director respectfully calls your attention to the necessity of a rigid compliance with the following requirements in order to preserve your camps in a healthy condition:
1st.  A Medical officer accompanied by the Officer of the Day, shall make a daily sanitary inspection of the camps.
2d.  At each inspection they shall insist on a strict compliance with the following regulations:
I.  The camp shall be each day carefully policed, and all tents and clothing well aired and kept clean.
II.  The cooking shall be done at regular fixed hours, by companies, and not by small messes, and to be well done; to ascertain which the cooking of one meal each day, shall be done under the eye of the Inspecting officers.
*                      *                      *                      *                      *                      *
3d.  Every Medical officer is required to report promptly to this office any failure of officers or men to comply with the foregoing requirements.
                                                                Geo. H. Hubbard,
                                                    Surgeon, U. S. vol., Medical Director.
By order of Brig. Gen. J. M. Thayer.
                                                                C. G. Laurant,
                                                    Assistant Adjutant General. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 4, c. 1

Two Returning Soldiers Murdered.

            About sunset last Monday evening, two soldiers rode up to Andrew G. Young's, five miles out on the Sedalia road, and asked permission to stay all night with him; their request was granted.  About ten o'clock at night, five men suddenly came up to the house and knocked at the door, and aroused the family.  Before, however, the door was opened, they took the soldiers' two saddles and bridles, which they had placed upon the porch, and turned and walked out to the front yard fence; at this moment, one of the soldiers opened the door and remarked to them, "you have my saddle."  They replied, "Have we!  Who are you?"  He replied, "I am a soldier from Fort Smith."  "To what command do you belong?"  He replied, "To the 6th Kansas."  They then told him to come out and get his saddle.  He very soon went out to where they were.  When they enquired who else was in the house, he said another soldier who was returning home, having been discharged on account of his age and feeble health.
They then said, "We are Confederate soldiers, and we want such men as you."  They marched him back into the house, where the old man was, took him out of bed, rifled them of their money, crossed the hands of each before them and tied them securely, and marched them off.
They had not been gone more than thirty minutes when four shots were heard by the family at the house.
Mr. Young came to town very early next morning, and related what had transpired.  The commander of this post immediately sent out a company of men to search for the bodies, but they failed to make any discovery, and returned.  The neighbors, however, turned out on the day following, and about noon found them, about one and a half miles southwest of Mr. Young's house, in Colonel Smith's field, dead, and tied just as they were when they left the house. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
How the Rebels Brand.—Branding deserters, as performed at Castle Thunder, in Richmond, is described as a beautiful operation, and as humane as beautiful.  The culprit is fastened to a large table, with his face downward and a large "D" scarred upon his posteriors.  A plain bar of iron, about an inch in diameter, narrowed down a little at the point, is heated to incandescence, and used as a sign painter would use a brush in lettering, only in a very slow and bungling manner.  A greasy smoke with a sickening stench arises, accompanied with crackling sounds, and the groans of the victim as the hot iron sinks deep into the flesh.  On pretense of rendering the mark of disgrace plain and indelible, but in reality to torture the unfortunate culprit, the hot iron is drawn many times through the wound, making it larger and deeper, until the victim, unable to endure the excruciation longer, faints, and is carried away.  The operation is always performed by old Pard, the executioner of Kellogg, the greatest demon in human form outside of Pluto's realms. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
African Cooks.—General Orders, No. 390, dated War Department, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, December 8, 1863, is revoked by order of the Secretary of War.  The employment of persons of African descent, male or female, as cooks or nurses, will be permitted in all United States general hospitals.  When so employed they will receive ten dollars per month, and one ration.  They will be paid by the nearest medical disbursing officer, on rolls similar to those used in the payment of men of the hospital corps. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 4, c. 2
The Rochester Democrat records the following remarkable fact:
Hon. Ezra Cornel, of Ithaca, having conceived the idea that the ladies of the Hospital Aid Society of that village could progress better in their noble work of sewing for the benefit of the soldiers if they would talk less, accordingly offered to contribute fifty dollars to the society if twelve ladies could be found who would sew all day without speaking.  The task was entered upon by fifteen self-sacrificing women of that village, and fourteen of them actually accomplished this very difficult feat of self-denial, although tempted in various ways by a large number of visitors and interlopers.  One of the number failed in the undertaking. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 19, 1864, p. 4, c. 3
The camels imported for the Government six years ago, and since kept near the Tejon reservation, on the plains, have increased from fifteen to thirty-seven.  They are now removed to Benicia California.  They can easily travel fifty miles a day; but they are not allowed to do more than thirty.  One of them has carried four bales of wool or cotton. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 26, 1864, p. 1, c. 1

The African Color Sergeant.

Glares the volcano breath,
Breaks the red sea of death,
From Wagner's yawning hold,
On the besiegers bold.
Twice vain the wild attack,
Inch by inch, sadly, flow,
Fights the torn remnants back,
Face to the foe. 

Yet free the colors wave,
Borne by yon Afric brave,
In the fierce storm wind higher;
But, ah! one flashing fire:--
He sinks! the banner falls
From the faint mangled limb,
And droop to mocking walls
Those star-folds dim! 

Stay, stay the taunting laugh!
See! now he lifts the staff,
Clenched in his close set teeth,
Crawls from dead heaps beneath,
Crowned with his starry robe,
Till he the ranks has found:
"Comrades, the dear old flag
Ne'er touched the ground." 

O dead so pure, so grand,
Sydney might clasp thy hand!
O brother! black thy skin,
But white the pearl within!
Man who to lift thy race
Worthy, thrice worthy art,
Clasps the, in warm embrace,
A nation's heart! 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 26, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

The Onward Movement.

            Quite suddenly, though not unexpectedly, an order for the troops of this District to make an advance southward, was given in the beginning of this week. This move opens the fourth, and we hope the last campaign, and is simultaneous with an advance from Little Rock in the same direction.
It is frequently very improper to make known publicly the movements of an army, but in this instance, we can scarcely be accused of committing a breach of propriety in giving publicity to this movement.  We are morally certain that the traitors in our midst have already taken steps to inform their friends in Dixie of what's coming.  We would only add that those persons may as well tell their kindred in Dixie that somebody will get hurt when our boys meet the rebel hosts.
We never saw a set of men so eager for the fray and anxious to put an end to this bloody war, by one great final blow.
Our army will be hailed with delight and received as deliverers, by vast numbers of oppressed and outraged loyal people.  Texas especially, where the most heinous system of cruelty is practiced upon the loyal people, will rejoice beyond expression at the prospect of speedy and final delivery from the most despotic rule a free people ever has been subjected to.
Gen'l Thayer, in command of the division about to take the field, has been tried on many a hard fought battlefield.  At the beginning of the war he raised the 1st Nebraska Infantry, which so distinguished itself by its bravery and efficiency, that a distinguished General remarked he would rather be the Colonel of the 1st Nebraska than a Major General.
Fort Donelson, Belmont, Shiloh, Post of Arkansas, Vicksburg and Jackson bear abundant testimony to the eminent services of Gen'l Thayer, and the closing struggle will give further proof of his high qualifications as a soldier and commander.  During his administration here, he has won the unlimited confidence, respect and admiration of every loyal man by his manly bearing, even handed justice, by his giving protection to all worthy of it, and raising and fostering the loyal sentiment among the people.  The blessings and good wishes of all good men will follow him.
The 18th Iowa took up their line of march on the 22d, followed next day by the 12th Kansas.  On the 24th the 1st Ark. Inft'y and 2d Kansas Colored marched out.  The 2d Kansas Cavalry had already gone in advance.  Other regiments in the District, stationed some distance from here, will meet the main command, making in all about 10,000 efficient troops, eager to meet the deadly foe and to restore peace to our distracted country.  The whole number of troops moving southward under the chief command of Major Gen'l Steele, cannot number less than 35,000 men, sufficient to wipe out and annihilate any rebel force that may be opposed to them. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 26, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
224 colored persons left here last Monday for Kansas. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 26, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
                                                                        For the New Era.
                                                            Fort Smith, Ark., March 25, 1864.
Ed. New Era:--Having returned a day or two ago from a scouting party to Scott county, to bring out Union families, etc., I will give you a little account of our trip.  The party, rank and file, numbered 35 men, commanded by Lieut. Joe Hutchison, of Company L, 2d Kans. Cav., than whom there is not a more discreet or vigilant officer in the Army of the Frontier.
We reached Waldron on the 19th, when the commanding officer soon ascertained that at least four small bands of guerrillas were hovering around.
After collecting about 20 teams, a large number of cattle and sheep, to say nothing of scores of women and children, we started back on the 21st inst.  Late in the evening we camped at the Gibson House, nine miles from Waldron, near the old steam mill, and while the teamsters were corralling the wagons and officers carefully posting their pickets, we were fired into by 12 or 15 bushwhackers.  They ran in from the north, on a picket held by Sergeant Henry Brasher, who promptly returned the fire.  The boys were soon firing into them from the yard, when Mr. Bushwhackers quickly retired, leaving two Enfield rifles and several articles of clothing on the ground.  Their tracks were marked with blood.
At 10 o'clock at night our pickets were again fired on, when our boys soon sprang to their posts, carbine and revolver in hand, ready to receive the bandits, but they soon disappeared.  Not one of our party was injured, though a number of shots were fired into the train.                                                                                        L. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 26, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
At Gettysburg 28,000 muskets were taken. It is stated that of these 24,000 were found to be loaded, 12,000 containing two loads, and 6,000 from three to ten loads each.  In many instances half a dozen balls were driven in on a single charge of powder.  In some cases the former possessor had reversed the usual order, placing the ball at the bottom of the barrel, and the powder on top. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 26, 1864, p. 4, c. 1

From Ozark.

                                                                                                                Post Ozark, March 18, '64.
Mr. Editor.—The election just passed, shows that some three hundred of the citizens of this town and vicinity have placed upon record their hostility to slavery and rebellion.  Most of the voters were old men, whose associations and prejudices were, of course, at one time with the south.  The intelligence they manifested in conversing upon the subject, and the moral courage they exhibited in crowding to the polls, excited my surprise and challenged my admiration.  The election yesterday, in its moral and national consequences upon the great issue now pending, was fraught with more interest than any battle yet fought, or likely to be fought, in Arkansas or Missouri.  I shall always be proud that I, humble as I am, have even in my poor way, formed some part of a Federal regiment that guarded the polls and insured to loyal men a peaceable employment of the elective franchise.  The authorities here have done their duty well, in affording every facility possible for a full and fair expression of the will of the people.
Bushwackers [sic] have, until the 14th K. V. C. came to Ozark, had everything their own way here.  Our appearance was hailed with great joy by many who have suffered from their devilish exactions.  They have not annoyed us a great deal.  Some ten days since, Lt. Huff of company F, in charge of a forage train, had one wagon and seven men captured within three or four miles of town.  The wagon had met with some accident and stopped to remedy it; when the bushwhackers, some twenty in number, appeared suddenly in their midst, and as they were all dressed in our uniform, well armed and mounted, they surprised the guard and made all resistance useless by presenting their pistols cocked to the breasts of our boys.  They did them no harm except to rob them of their arms and some of their clothing.  They neither asked or exacted pledge or parole, and familiarly shook hands with our boys on parting with them.  The wagon was recovered and brought into town.
The robbers were under Lieut. Ogden, a rebel well known in these parts.  Col. Brown sent out a pursuing party under Major Hill, who had an exciting chase after them, and had not night overtaken the Major, some of these daring marauders would have had their last ride on the occasion.  Since this occurrence we have been playing these gentlemen of the brush a "lively tune" to dance to.  Details have been scouring the woods and hollows in their frequented haunts.  Four have been killed; most of the balance thinking discretion the better part of valor, on last Tuesday night, crossed the Arkansas river at Wells' ford, some five miles above here.  They were commanded by Lieut. Ogden, were some 60 or 70 in number, and are now, no doubt, well on their way to Pap Price, at Washington, Ark.  Joy go with them!  More anon.
                                                            Carl Collins. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, March 26, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
                                                            For the New Era.
Mr. Editor:--I have lately been in several portions of western Arkansas and have been cheered by the indications of loyalty and confidence in the government.  The conviction prevails that there is no hope for secession for the country; that slavery was its life and support, and when it dies rebellion ceases.  This is a day of triumph for this State.  The sovereign people have assumed their legitimate powers and privileges, and boldly cast off the fetters that have too long bound both black and white.  The fourteenth of March, 1864, will be a historical day—a day of victory, to which the coming generation will refer with delight.  It needs no gift of prophecy to foretell the coming of a brighter day.  Already it begins to dawn, and in its light the present enemies of the government will appear hateful and be abhorred.  Words reproaching such men will be among the utterances of childhood.  At no very distant day free schools will shed their salutary influences over this country and every man's child may enjoy its privileges.  Nothing is more noticeable than the desire of the people to obtain reading matter, especially that which is unadulterated by proslavery sentiments.  Your paper is eagerly sought for, read and re-read, till each copy shows evident marks of age and usage; and from my observations in several places, I assure you that it has had no small part in advancing the State to its present status of freedom.  I notice the traitors do not relish the dish you prepare for them from week to week.  It needs no better eulogy.  Its enlargement would be very desirable, yet a small paper well filled with the right kind of matter is preferable to a large one poorly supplied.

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 2, 1864, p. 1, c. 3
Tired of Waiting.—A Chicago girl, tired of waiting for the young men who don't "propose"—probably on account of the expense—takes advantage of the season, and speaks out boldly over her own name in the Chicago Tribune, as follows:
"This is leap year.  I'll wait no longer.  So here I am, twenty-one years old, healthy, prepossessing, medium size, full chest, educated, prudent, large sparkling eyes, long black flowing hair, and as full of fun as a chestnut is full of meat, born to make some many happy, and want a home.  Does anybody want me?" 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

Interesting from Texas.

            Through the kindness of Lieut. Pratt, 14th Kansas Cavalry, we had the privilege of perusing a letter written by an old gentleman just escaped from Texas, to his son here in the army.  Among other items it gives an account of the organization of the Union forces under Henry Boren, last year.  When Gen. Henry McCulloch got wind of it, he sent word to Boren, to come out from his stronghold (the Journegan thicket,) and join the rebel army.  Boren thanked him for this offer and told Mc. he was doing very well where he was.  McCoullough [sic] sent another order to Boren to come out, or he would send Quantrill and Parsons after him.  Boren told him to "go to hell, and send Quantrill.  He wished no better fun than to kill that great scoundrel."  McCullough then tried what virtue there was in persuasion and offered a compromise.  He agreed with Boren to let him go to the frontier to fight the Indians and not employ him against Federal troops.  He was to give all of Borens men a furlough for fifteen days and furnish them with arms and ammunition.  At the expiration of the stipulated time, such great numbers of men flocked to Boren, that McCullough began to be alarmed and sent troops out in every direction to intercept Boren's men, and all who were caught, were pressed into the rebel army.  Those who refused, were imprisoned, heavily ironed and not a few suffered death.  Boren, however, still has a strong force defying all attempts of the rebels to due [sic] him.
The letter mentions quite a number of the writers friends who have been hanged and shot for the crime of being Union men.  The rebels, among other acts of fiendishness, deposited the corpses of some of these martyrs at the door of the wife of Capt. Hart, who was hung here about a year ago.  They would not suffer any one to take it away although the body was in a state of decomposition.  After some days they buried it in a shallow hole close to the house.  By these and other means equally cruel, they annoyed the poor woman so much that she was compelled to leave.
We would remark on this occasion, that the memory of her murdered husband has been basely assailed lately, right here among us by those who are still as much rebels at heart as they were when they exulted in the murder of the hero.  Capt. Hart was a man of the highest respectability in Texas, owning some 40 slaves, but who preferred his country to slavery.  He was, and is still represented by rebels here, as having been a low negro thief, and the murderer of innocent men.  He was hung ostensibly for killing Col. Carrol, a deed which he never committed, and if he had, it would have been a patriotic and righteous act, Carroll having deserved a thousand deaths for the leading part he took in the ruin of his country. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 2, 1864, p. 3, c. 4

Our Situation.

            The army lately stationed at and near this place has taken the field.  The troops left here will be fully able to hold this post against any raiding party that may venture to attack us.  But how is it in the country?
It is but too probable that the infernal species of warfare of bushwhacking will be carried on to a great extent almost everywhere south of the Arkansas river.  Small parties of bandits will elude the vigilance of our troops and make the country very unsafe, killing and plundering where and whenever they can.  This was the case in Scott county immediately after the command that had wintered there, evacuated Waldron.
A large body of these knights of the brush, numbering over one hundred, made their appearance a few days ago in Hodges prairie, only about twenty miles distant, killed three union men, took six or seven prisoners, and notified the families to leave within ten days.  As soon as the leaves are out, these outlaws will become bolder, and unless speedily summarily dealt with, will make the whole country untenable by loyal people.  How can this be prevented and the country rendered safe?  We know of no better plan than to encourage the formation of home guards, and employing them in conjunction with the army in hunting down these fiends.  The regular troops alone who are mostly from distant parts of our country, and are not acquainted either with the people or the terrain, cannot be as efficient as if guided and aided by those who know every foot of the country and every man in it.  Then bushwhackers would find it very difficult to remain in their hiding places or get aid and comfort from their friends and sympathisers. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
We witnessed the following incident in our streets one day this week:
Three white soldiers met two colored men, also wearing Uncle Sam's uniform and going in an opposite direction.  When about ten paces apart the white soldiers, with oaths and curses, ordered their dark skinned brethren to take off their caps, putting their hands on their revolvers at the same time.  The darkies took off their caps as they were ordered and did not replace them till they had passed their "masters."  Had it not been for the federal uniforms these white soldiers wore, we would have set them down at once as rebels.  Their actions certainly worked them out as such.
It is the inhuman practice of the enemies of our government to treat colored soldiers not according to the usages of civilized warfare, but as the Spartans treated the Helotes or the Romans their slaves.
A white soldier who treats an African soldier with disrespect, contempt or violence on account of his being in the army, is an enemy to the government and that measure of the government which tended so much to cripple the resources of the rebels while it correspondingly augmented our own strength. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 2, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
                                                                                For the New Era.
                                                        Fort Smith, Ark., March 28, '64.
Mr. Editor:--
In your issue of March 20th, alluding to the election, you speak of the precinct of Jenny Lind as having been polled by soldiers of the 2d Kansas.  It is true, they were, the most of them, soldiers of the 2d Kansas; but you should have added at the same time, they were recruits from the State of Arkansas.  Out of the 108 votes polled there, only six were formerly from the State of Kansas, as soldiers of the 2d Reg't, and they having their families here, and residing in the State over six months, according to the Statute Laws of Arkansas, were entitled to vote.
In order to correct the erroneous impression which might be inferred from your issue of the 20th, that Kansas soldiers assisted at the polls to bring Arkansas back to the Union, you will do me a kindness to give publicity to this statement.
                                                                Very respectfully, Yours,
                                                                            Chas. C. Reed,
                                                                Commis'nr of Elect'n, Jenny Lind. 

            In reply to this, we will say that no inference could be drawn from our remarks, that the soldiers who voted at Jenny Lind were not citizens of this State.  We certainly did not mean to impugn their right to vote, and had no idea that any but bona fide citizens of Arkansas voted there.  But it now appears from t e statement of the Commissioner himself that six out of the 108 of the voters were citizens of Kansas, who thought, in common with the Commissioner and Judges, that they were entitled to vote, because their wives were with them.
Now the parties, we doubt not, really thought they were citizens of this State; but such is not the fact.  We have stated on a former occasion and will state again, for the benefit of all concerned, and on the authority of common sense and the best legal authority, that no citizen of any State can become a citizen of another State while he is in the army of the United States.  His wife and children have nothing to do with the case.  A single man has the same rights and privileges as one with a family.  The case is too plain to deserve further comment. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

The Situation.
Bushwhackers at Work.

            Before ever the leaves are out and spring has fairly set in, the bloody, hellish mode of warfare, bushwhacking, has commenced in good earnest.
No sooner was the Army of the Frontier well on its way southward—and the country between it and the Arkansas river swarms with bushwhackers.
Many murders have already been committed within the last few days, and not a single loyal man is safe for a moment outside of garrisoned towns.  One of the most brutal of the late murders was that of Squire Barnard, a respectable, inoffensive old farmer, living about 8 miles south of this place.  He was called to his door at night and shot through the breast, the ball passing through both lungs.  Mr. Snider, one of our Representatives, who is living but a few hundred yards from Mr. Barnard's, would have met the same fate but for his being in town that night.  We also learn that Mr. Oliver and his son, on James' Fork was killed one day this week.  It is useless to disguise the fact, that unless the proper and necessary steps are speedily taken, the Union men in the country will be exterminated or driven from their homes.

Status of Union Men.

            The latter class of men are just now in no very enviable position.  After enduring for years the most cruel suspense, injury, oppression, and in hundreds of cases—death itself for their unswerving adherence to their country and rightful Government—where do they find themselves?  At best, only on a level with foul mouthed, bloodthirsty rebels.  On a level, in point of law, with those very persons who once were so clamorous for the extermination of every "d____d abolitionist," "Black Republican," "Yankee," "Lincolnite," and what all they used to call them.  We say at best, but in fact Union men do not even now enjoy the same immunities as rebels do.
We will not enlarge upon the favors some particular individuals of the latter kind, were, and are receiving from some few shoulder straps who are moving entirely in rebel atmospheres and who, to screen their own guilty practices, pretend to believe that all that were living in the south were rebels; we will only allude to the decided advantage the disloyal portion of the community have over the straight out Union men.
The former have the privilege of taking the oath of allegiance and securing thereby all the rights and protection loyal men enjoy.  They may have insulted, outraged and even put to death Union men, for the sole crime of being such,--all is covered up, obliterated, forgiven and forgotten.  Now we wish it distinctly understood, that we are perfectly willing to give the right hand of fellowship to any and every honest man, who from birth, education, and the total absence of enlightening influences—and such was, unfortunately, only too often the case, under the severe slave code—was a conscientious secessionist.  Such men have, upon becoming acquainted with the true nature of this conflict, uniformly come promptly forward, taken the oath in good faith and showed their zeal for the good cause they espoused, by cheerfully voting for the abolition of slavery and the establishing of a new order of things.  The number of this class of men is, however, small.

Amnesty Proclamation.

            But that a true Union man can ever associate with and live on terms or amity, peace and good will with those whose hands are stained with the blood of murdered patriots and brethren—it matters not whether they have taken the oath of allegiance or not—it can never be, NEVER, NEVER, in spite of a thousand Amnesty Proclamations.
As regards the latter, we had some hope on its first appearance, of accomplishing some good.  The glorious success of our arms had demonstrated beyond a doubt, that the entire suppression of the rebellion was only a question of time, and by holding out a pardon to the masses of the army and people of the rebel states, there was some probability that the measure would greatly tend to facilitate the reduction of the remaining part of rebeldom.
Such were the sagacious motives, added to a spirit of magnanimity, well befitting the head of a powerful nation and honorable to himself, which induced Mr. Lincoln to issue his famous Proclamation.  It cannot be denied, that when it was issued there was some prospect of its doing a great amount of good.  Experience has proved since that, at least in Arkansas, the measure was, is and will be productive of vastly more evil than good.  The same holds undoubtedly true every where else in the south.  The Amnesty should by all means be greatly modified or revoked altogether, and this should be urged on the President by his friends.  It is a man's friends only that will tell him the truth and advise him of a step taken in the wrong direction.  It is said by his enemies that Mr. Lincoln issued the Amnesty Proclamation in order to conciliate the rebels and gain their vote at the next election.  WE hold this to be a piece of gross injustice to Mr. Lincoln, without the least foundation of truth and utterly at variance with his whole past course of action.  His integrity, honesty and fidelity to the great trust imposed upon him, are among the strongest reasons of the great preference shown for him by the nation, over every other man, thus far, and he will undoubtedly always hold that estimation in the hearts of his countrymen.
We hope to see this matter taken up by the loyal press South and the friends of Mr. Lincoln generally, so as to insure a speedy remedy of the increasing evil. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Clarksville Attacked.

            The following telegram was received here on Wednesday:
                                                                            Clarksville, April 6th.
Col. Judson, Com'g Dist. of Frontier.
We have more or less fighting every day.  Lost two men of the 2nd Ark. Inft., one of the 11th Colored hung, one of the 1st Ark. Cavalry mortally wounded.  Killed 22 bushwhackers.  Send me one more company of cavalry and I will clean out the country in ten days.  I am confined to my bed.  Capt. H. H. Johnson is attending to the duties.
                                                                            G. M. Waugh,
                                                                            Lieut. Col. Commanding.
Part of the gallant command at Clarksville went in pursuit of the outlaws and, coming suddenly upon their camp, killed three, wounded about twelve and captured nineteen horses with their equipments and all the camp furniture.
It seems that our colored soldiers are to be treated by these bandittis with the same cruelty and barbarity as they have been treated elsewhere.  They should be given distinctly to understand, that to be captured is certain, cruel death, and that neither to take nor give quarter is the only alternative remaining to them.  There should be no such thing, hereafter, as a bushwhacker taken prisoner. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

Attack on Roseville.

            The following dispatch was received by Col. Judson late at night on the 4th inst.:
                                                                    Roseville, Ark.,       }
                                                        April 4th, 1864, 9 ½ A.M.  }
Col. Judson, Comd'g Dist of Frontier:
The enemy attacked me at 8 o'clock this morning.  They were 450 strong.  I have succeeded in driving them.  I am looking for them every minute again.
Several of my men are wounded, please send me a Surgeon. We fought them about an hour.  I shall stay here as long as there is myself and another of the 2d Kansas alive.
The enemy have suffered severely.  Six of them have been found dead.
                                                        John Gardner,
                                                                    Commanding Post.
The marauders are said to have been commanded by young Titsworth and to have burned a considerable quantity of cotton.  The behavior of the troops, only two companies of the 2d and one of the 6th Kansas, was most excellent, and taught the wretches a severe lesson. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

More Bushwhacking.

            Judge Graves, of St. Louis county, Mo., was robbed of a large amount of money, and even his boots taken from his feet, in South Arkansas, near Charleston.
Five persons were engaged in the robbery, three of whom rode up armed with two guns each, slung across their shoulders, and also a brace of pistols.  They robbed him of his money and boots and then with violent oaths ordered him to get out of the carriage, in which he and his wife were seated, for the evident purpose of shooting him.  The Judge's wife threw herself between the robbers and her husband and begged his life.  This delay evidently saved him, for a Government train coming in sight, the robbers and would be murderers fled.
Last Tuesday evening a small party of our men, consisting of a scout, Sergt. Morrow of co. I, 1st Ark. Inft., and eight men, came suddenly upon a body of guerrillas, numbering 45, three miles below Charleston.  The bushwhackers seemed to be well apprised of the presence of our men before the latter suspected any enemy near.  In the fight that ensued, Sergt. Morrow and A. Carden, a citizen, were killed.  The rebels were commanded by the notorious Stone and B. Reed, a son of old Jesse Reed, was also among them. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 4

Fruits of the Amnesty Proclamation.

            Capt. Ross of Van Buren, who had only lately returned from the rebel army, taken the oath and joined the 3rd Wisconsin cavalry with seven men that had come with him, deserted with nine men, two more than he originally brought in, after getting, of course, a complete outfit of arms, clothing, etc.  This same good loyal Captain Ross had been a most outrageous secessionist, had shot men down in the street, and been as wicked a rebel as they generally get to be.  But he took the oath and therefore was all right.  Some poor union man has had ample proof, ere this, of the loyalty of Capt. Ross, and many a brave truehearted Union soldier will miserably perish through the criminal desire of some officer to fill up the ranks of his company or regiment, regardless of the character or antecedents of the persons offering their services.  This is but one instance out of a great many that have occurred within the last six months.
This is a sore evil and has greatly damaged the reputation of our army.  There are bad unscrupulous persons in every aggregation of men, in or out of the army.  Thieves, pick pockets and other scoundrels may even be found among a worshiping congregation.  But the practice of enlisting all and every one in our army without inquiring whether they are worthy to wear our country's uniform—even rebels out of the guard house, as has been done until very lately, has seriously injured the service and the country.  Many, many precious lives have been sacrificed by parties of men being surprised by rebels, completely dressed and equipped in Federal uniform and accoutrements, obtained mostly from deserters.
Then the immense amount of stealing, pillaging and plundering of Union men by federal soldiers was principally done by rebels who, to save their lives in many instances, sought protection by joining our army and so found an excellent opportunity, again to oppress those whom they had formerly served in the same manner when dressed in rebel gray.
We remember when some loyal citizens at one time remonstrated with the commanding officer of a certain regiment against the practice of enlisting indiscriminately rebels and loyal men alike, they were told to mind their own business and that he knew his very well.  The sequel has shown how well he knew it.
To our shame be it said, that within 15 or 20 miles of Fort Smith, no less than 50 families abandoned their homesteads and went North, being unable to stand the impositions and exactions of these rebels scattered through our regiments and who injure the reputation of our troops materially.  Let the blame rest where it ought.  The truth must be told and this is no time to withhold it.
According to a late order of the War department this injurious and disgraceful practice of enlisting persons of untried loyalty is strictly forbidden.  It is a great pity this sound policy was not adopted long ago.  The rebel soldiers will desert all the more readily if they are sure they will not have to enter the federal army immediately. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
The party of Col. Cloud, which left here last Sunday, was attacked a few miles this side of Roseville by an overwhelming force of rebels.  They kept the bandits at bay, however, till they got to Roseville.
The delegates to the Legislature and a number of others of our citizens, en route for Little Rock, are still at Roseville, waiting a safe opportunity to proceed on their way. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
Dr. Fairchild, 6th Kansas Cav., who left here last Tuesday with an escort for Roseville, to take care of the wounded has very likely been either killed or taken prisoner.  The party was attacked some miles this side of Roseville by a strong force of rebels and when they got to Roseville Dr. and nine men were missing, and have not since been heard from. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
Fitzwilliams, with his band of cutthroats, is hovering about within a few hours ride of town.  The friends and relatives of this son of infernal regions and his followers are no doubt anxious to see him.  So are we—with ropes around their necks. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
Dr. Bowman, a noted rebel, escaped from the guard a few days ago. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
Information has been received of the approach of Cooper, Cabell and Standwatie through the Indian Nations.  At last accounts they were at Briertown, on the Canadian. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
The following will be perused with interest by many of our readers.  It shows how much the oath of allegiance makes some people loyal.  That there are many persons in our vicinity who are "quite as strong rebels after taking it as they ever have been," no one will doubt for a moment:
"General Orders, No. 10.—William E. Woodruff, a citizen of Little Rock, while under the protection of the Government of the United States, having written a letter to go South, of which the following are extracts, will be put outside of these lines with his family before the 10th inst., in order that they may secure protection from those with whom they so deeply sympathize.
"The property belonging to said woodruff will be seized and held for military uses, and subject to the orders of the United States Government."
"The Provost Marshal General is charged with the execution of this order.
"Extracts from letter of Wm. E. Woodruff to Dr. Isaac Folsom, Surgeon C. S. A., Washington, Arkansas, dated at Little Rock, Arkansas, Feb. 26, 1864:
*                      *                      *                      *                      *                      *
We had quite a scene in our family on Monday night, and for the next day or two—nothing more or less than a runaway marriage—but not one of our daughters.  The parties were Lieutenant _____ and Miss _____, who had been boarding in our family since a week before our city fell into the hands of the "Yanks," of course Mrs. W. and myself, as well as our daughters, felt a good deal of indignation, and altho' they have cooled down considerably, still they are not quite reconciled.
The principal objection raised against him (the Lieutenant) by the lady's friends is his being an U. S. officer.  It is certainly a very strong one with me, and I trust will be with my daughters; indeed, I have no fear on that score.
*                      *                      *                      *                      *                      *
The "screws" have received several turns that were not very agreeable to us who are wedded to the South by interest as well as sympathy.  The last one, however, is a "stumper" to most of us, as none can make necessary purchases at the store without producing evidence of having taken the "oath of allegiance" Old Abe's Government.  "I have held off for about a week."  I had hoped to avoid it, by making purchases through other less fastidious parties.  But I fear I shall be obliged to take it, or be cut off from getting rents for my property, which, with a few boarders, is the only resource I have to support my family.  I shall probably take it to-morrow.  If I do it will be a matter of necessity—not of choice—and I shall be quite as strong a rebel after taking it as I ever have been.
P.S. Feb. 28th.—Well, "the deed am done," and I am now a loyal citizen of the United States—if the taking of the oath of allegiance can make me one.  I took it on yesterday, as my only alternative to keep me from starving.
Please place me right on the subject with my friends South.  Tell them I am not less a sympathizer with them than heretofore, but feel mortified and chagrined at the necessity that compelled me to do an act that my conscience revolted at.  The next order, I presume, will be one requiring all who have not taken the oath to come up and take it, or go beyond the lines."
By order of Major General F. Steele.
                                                                            W. D. Green,
                                                                            Assistant Adjutant General. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 4, c. 1

General Butler's Correspondence with
a School Teacher.

                                                                                                    Locustville, Accomac Co., Va.,    }
                                                                March 10, 1864.              }
Gen. B. F. Butler:
Sir:  My school has been closed since Christmas, because, as I understood, the oath required of us, I could not conscientiously take it.  Having heard since then, that one of your officers explains the oath as meaning, simply, that we consent to the acts of the United States Government, and pledge passive obedience to the same, I take the liberty of addressing this to you, to ascertain if you so construe the oath.  I cannot understand how a woman can "support, protect and defend the Union," except by speaking or writing in favor of the present war, which I could never do, because my sympathies are with the South.  If by those words you understand merely passive submission, I am ready to take the oath, and abide by it sacredly.
                                                    Very respectfully,
                                                                Mary S. Graves. 

                                                                                                    Headquarters, 18th Army Corps,     }
                                                                            Dep't of Virginia & N. Carolina,       }
                                                    Fortress Monroe, March 14, '64.     }
My Dear Madam:  I am truly sorry that any Union officer of mine has attempted to fritter away the effect of the oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States, and to inform you that it means nothing more than passive obedience to the same.         
That officer is surely mistaken.  The oath of allegiance means fealty, pledge of faith to, love, affection and reverence for, the Government, all comprised in the word patriotism, in its highest and truest sense, which every true American feels for his or her Government.
You say:  "I cannot understand how a woman can support, protect and defend the Union, except by speaking or writing in favor of the present war, which I could never do, because my sympathies are with the South."
That last phrase, madam, shows why you cannot understand "how a woman can support, protect and defend the Union."
Were you loyal at heart you would at once understand.  The Southern women who are rebels understand well "how to support, protect and defend" the Confederacy, "without either speaking or writing."  Some of them act as spies, some smuggle quinine in their underclothes, some smuggle information through the lines in their dresses, some tend sick soldiers for the Confederacy, some get up subscriptions for rebel gunboats.
Perhaps it may all be comprised in the phrase, "where there is a will there is a way."
Now, then, you could "support, protect and defend the Union," by teaching the scholars of your school to love and reverence the Government, to be proud of their country, to glory in its flag, and to be true to its Constitution.  But, as you don't understand that yourself, you can't teach it to them, and, therefore, I am glad to learn from your letter that your school has been closed since Christmas, and with my consent, until you change your sentiments and are a loyal woman in heart, it never shall be opened.
I would advise you, madam, forthwith to go where your "sympathies" are.  I am only doubtful whether it is my duty to send you.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                                                            B. F. Butler,
                                                                            Major General Commanding.
To Mrs. Mary S. Graves, Locustville, Accomac County, Virginia. 

            It would be well to inquire how many school teachers in Fort Smith have taken the prescribed oath of allegiance. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 9, 1864, p. 4, c. 2
The following are extracts of letters, written by the better halves of some followers of Pap Price.  They need no comment.  Says one:
"Yoo had best kum home fur all the good yoo ar doin follerin that ole fool Price about, he never did hev no cense enny how an his follerers hev less.  you better a grate site be looken ater yore wife and childern."
Here's the other:
"I speckt yu almoste must hev dide this winter the kold hes bin orfuller then i ever see in mi life befour, and previsions is mity scace, i jest wish yu wood cum hom and tend tu raisin yore off spring, prevision ant heer tu be gott, i spin fur evry mouthful me and yore innercent baibs git to eat, noboddy wont tak Confed munny no moar fur nuthin, now ike ile jest giv yoo a peese of mi mind and that is fur yu tu kum hoam an tend yore famly befour they starv, yu jest let the seceshers fite it out if they want tu, i hev rit tu yu fore times and aint herd but wonst i shuddent wunder ef yu wos kiled now at this time uv riten, evry boddy is goin over tu the feds, Yu jest kum hoam, they all taik the oath and git komesarise rite of tu etc, ef al the fules thats left thair familise an fitin wud kum hoam then pese wood kum rite off." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 23, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

More Murders.

            Dr. Kane and several assistants, engaged in repairing the telegraph lines between this place and Dardanelle, were captured by guerillas about a week ago, shot, and then had their throats cut from ear to ear.
Mr. Hart, of Scott county, a very respectable farmer and good Union man, who left his home on the withdrawal of the troops from Waldron and moved for safety, about 5 miles from this place, was taken out of his bed last Sunday night and killed, being shot five times.  The murderers represented themselves as belonging to Fitzwilliams' band of bushwhackers, but this is generally discredited.  It is to be hoped that perpetrators of this foul deed will be speedily ferreted out. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 23, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Didn't Get It.

            A commissary train of seventy-five wagons arrived safely from Dardanelle, day before yesterday.
The gentlemen of the brush, to the number of five or six hundred, came within two miles of it about 25 miles this side of Dardanelle, casting wistful glances at the rich stores of Uncle Sam, destined for his brave boys.
The train remained in a well corralled camp for two days, until reinforcements from Dardanelle arrived.  It must have been a rather tantalizing sight to these hungry gentry to have so rich a prize before them and unable to get it into their clutches. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 23, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

The General Hospital at this Place.

            We made it our business to be present at an inspection of the General Hospital, located at what was formerly known as the Sutton House, Belle Grove Seminary, and St. Charles Hotel.
Dr. Stacey, Assistant Medical Director, has charge of all the establishments, and under his excellent management and control these places of suffering and woe have been made a cheerful and pleasant as possible.
Scrupulous cleanliness and order prevails every where, so that the most fastidious lady could not be offended by walking through the establishment.  Owing to the difficulty in obtaining transportation, the iron bedsteads destined for the hospital have not arrived yet, but will be forwarded, to the number of 300, from Little Rock, on the first rise of the river.
There are in all, about 250 patients, of whom 120 are accommodated in large, well-floored, comfortable, Hospital tents.  The kitchen, cellar, and store rooms might be taken by many a housekeeper for a model of order and neatness.
The colored patients are in the old St. Charles Hotel.  This building is greatly inferior to the other two for hospital purposes, but the best that could be had.  Dr. Wood, Surgeon in charge, who politely showed us over the establishment, is making every effort to render his colored patients as comfortable as possible.
In the basement of the building is an oven in which excellent bread is baked for the three hospitals.
We were much gratified with what we witnessed on the occasion, and think it would amply repay anybody, especially our lady friends, to drop in and see how the sick and disabled defenders of our homes and country are taken care of and provided for. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 23, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

A Nuisance.

            The stench to which a person's olfactory organs are treated in walking almost anywhere about town, is most disgusting.  The weather is pleasant now and will soon be very warm.  If something is not speedily done to improve the sanitary condition of the place, we may reasonably expect considerable sickness this summer, if not an epidemic.
An ounce of preventative is worth a pound of cure. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 23, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
Ozark Occupied by Rebels.—We learn from reliable sources that about 200 rebels are in and about Ozark, treating Union families most outrageously, and playing havoc and destruction generally.
They will soon, however, have to dance to a different tune. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 30, 1864, p. 3, c. 2

How They Keep the Oath of Allegiance.

            Last week a forage train was attacked by guerrillas about 10 miles below Roseville.  The rascals rode into the camp dressed in Federal uniform and were quite sociable for a little while, till they commenced driving off the mules, when our boys found out what sort of company they had to deal with.  A fight ensued in which 3 of our men were wounded' 1 mortally, and in which the leader of the rebels was killed.  In his pockets was found his (rebel) commission and his Oath of Allegiance to the United States; a journal of each day's occurrences and $75.00 in rebel money.—The fellow's name was Cook. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, April 30, 1864, p. 3, c. 3

                                                                                            Office Ass't Provost Marshal,            }
                                            Fort Smith, Ark., April 26th, 1864.   }
Special Order,    }
No. 2     }
1.  All owners or occupants of houses and lots in this city, are required to clean their premises and sinks, or privies belonging to or adjacent to the same.  All carrion or offal, will be removed to the streets or alleys adjacent.  Notice will be left at this office, when parties have no means of removing it beyond the city limits and the police party will remove it.
II.  Any person failing to comply with the above order within five days, and every week thereafter, will be subject to arrest and a fine of not less than five dollars; to be paid by labor on the streets under guard, at the option of the Provost Marshal.
By order of
                                    C. O. Judson,
                                    Capt. & Dist. Provost Marshal.
L. Hensel,
Lieut. & Ass't Provost Marshal. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 7, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

From the Front.

            For the past week we have heard rumors of an engagement between a foraging party sent out by Gen. Steele, and the rebels under Fagan in which the former were defeated.  But they have been so conflicting and, apparently, so exaggerated that there was no getting at the truth of it.  We learn, however, from Lieut. Leland, Q. M. of the 2nd brigade, who was present, and is reliable, that Gen. Steele in going into Camden on the 14th of April had a skirmish with the rebels.  The next day he ordered Col. Williams out foraging with the 1st Kansas Colored, 200 cavalry of the 2nd, 6th and 14th Kansas, and two guns.  Gen. Thayer fearing that the escort was too light, ordered the 18th Iowa to accompany it.  Eight or ten miles from Camden, on the morning of the 16th, while loading the train, they were attacked by Fagan with 8000 men.  The fight was desperate.  The negroes were surrounded but fought until their ammunition was gone, when some of the officers surrendered and gave up their revolvers, the rebels taking them and blowing their brains out.  At this the negroes rallied and with bayonet and clubbed guns fought their way out losing about 200 men.  The 18th Iowa lost 60 men and a few of the cavalry are missing.  The whole train was taken.
It is stated that the firing was heard at Camden but Gen. Steele would not reinforce Col. W. although he had 12,000 men at his command.  After the fight an officer rode up to Gen. Steele's head quarters and said, "Great God!  why didn't you send us reinforcements?"
On the 24th, another train left Camden for Pine Bluffs for supplies, with an escort of 1000 infantry, consisting of detachments of the 77th Ohio, 36th Iowa, and 40th Ind.  Lt. Col. Drake of the 36th in command.  When near Saline river they were attacked in front and from the right by 6000 rebels under Cabell and Marmaduke and but 250 escaped.  The 77th Ohio stacked arms and surrendered.  Col. Drake was killed.
Gen. Steele sent word to Col. Drake that the rebs were in his vicinity, to look out, but did not send reinforcements.
Lt. L. states that the troops were allowed but two wagons to the regiment for transportation and that both officers and men had to carry knapsacks and blankets.  They were out of rations, and the 12th Kansas were living on two ears of corn to the man a day. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 7, 1864, p. 2, c. 4

From Little Rock.

                                                                                                                            Little Rock, Ark.,            }
                                                                            April 29th, 1864.            }
Friend Dell:--You have doubtless heard of the two trains being captured.  I saw the few men who escaped from the latter train, they had just got into Pine Bluff, the train was captured about 35 miles from Pine Bluff, it consisted of 195 government wagons, going for supplies, and some sutler wagons and 300 refugee wagons, and the negro recruits.  They were attacked by six or eight thousand rebels under Fagan, and the escort, 1,600, only about 200 of whom are known to have escaped, some 300 known to have been killed and wounded.  The left Steele with 5 days half rations.  The escort was as follows, 77th Ohio, 43d Indiana, 36th Iowa, two sections 2d Missouri Battery, part of the 7th Mo. Cav.
The first train was captured nine miles from Camden, it consisted of 184 forage teams escorted by the 18th Iowa, 1st Kansas Colored, one section Rabb's Battery, two howitzers, and part of the 2d, 6th, and 14th Kansas Cavalry, under command of Col. Williams.  They fought like demons, but were overpowered; the 18th Iowa lost over 60 killed, the 1st Colored about one third and 10 officers.  I saw men who were with Steele at the time, who said that he heard the firing all the time and did not send reinforcements.  Thayer had his cavalry saddled and ready to go but Steele did not or would not order it out, there is great blame attached to Steele, and I feel almost certain he is not the right man.  No flag of truce went out for three days and not till the rebels sent in and told him to send out and bury his dead niggers, and to send white men, as they would allow no negroes in their lines.  Wounded officers and men suffered and died for three days without attention.  I do not know how true it is, but I more than suspect that Steele is to blame.
Col. Williams had three or four horses killed under him, but he fought his way out and never surrendered a man.  The cavalry were nearly all taken or killed.  An officer told me he saw a man who was wounded taken out of the ambulance by the rebels and asked what command he belonged to, he told them the 18th Iowa, they called him a damned liar, and said he belonged to the 12th Kansas, brigaded with the negroes and knocked his brains out with the butt of a gun.
Some of the negroes who were wounded managed to get away, and crawled nine miles, to Camden.  After they shot all their ammunition away, they went at it with their bayonets and butts of their guns.  The officer above mentioned said he saw them fighting after they were down, and one he saw with his teeth in the calf of a rebels leg, where he held on till his brains were dashed out.
                                                                            Yours respectfully,
                                                                                        G. W. Sisson. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 7, 1864, p. 3, c. 1

From Texas.

            Judge J. W. Robbins, S. N. Farris, C. T. Farris and four others came in from Texas recently.  Mr. R. has furnished us the following interesting communication:
                                                Fort Smith, Ark.,     }
                                                May 4th, 1864.       }
Editor Era:--I wish to present to the public through your paper, something of the former and present condition of affairs in Texas. Having for the last seven years been a citizen of that State, and having relatives and many warm friends still living there, I feel it a duty incumbent upon me to try to present to the public an unvarnished statement of facts.
You are doubtless aware of the fact that Texas never did go out of the Union by a majority of the voting people of that State; but was declared out by a Convention composed of delegates elected by boys and rebels.  The proceedings of that convention was not ratified by a majority of the voting people of the State.
After the State was declared out of the Union, the Union men remained quietly at home thinking and hoping that the rebellion would soon be crushed out; but while indulging in the fond delusion of hope, the rebel authority stretched forth her hand of tyranny over the State and caused the Union men to tremble and sink beneath a military despotism.  Many of the Union men have been compelled to leave their homes and conceal themselves in the recesses of the mountains to save their lives, yet they were not safe.  They were hunted down with the blood hounds, and at the hour of midnight, when darkness and silence pervaded their camps, they were crawled upon by the inhuman rebels and shot while asleep.
Many a Union man's house has been made desolate, his wife deprived of an affectionate husband, a child of a kind parent.  For what?  Because he was a horse thief, a murderer, or dishonest man?  No!  But because he is loyal to the United States Government, the best government ever made by men—the government that our fore fathers fought bled and died to sustain.  The Union men time and again have attempted to organize, but owing to some imprudent act by some traitor or thoughtless one, they have been discovered and murdered in the most horrible manner.  Notwithstanding all the dangers they have and are now encountering, they yet stand firm and true to the cause; and look forward to a day not far distant when they will again be freemen, and the rebels will tremble and quake in their raw hide shoes at the approach of their footsteps.  Many of the rebels are beginning to despond and look upon their cause as gone, and the so called Southern Confederacy as having made a complete failure.  Many of the rebels denounce the Administration, conscript and tax laws.
In accordance with the late conscription act, all persons between the ages of forty-five and fifty years are being forced into the service.  They are not organized into new regiments, but are merged into old ones to fill up the vacancies caused by desertion.  The deserters are coming home daily and are embodying on the frontier.  I know of some regiments that have lost at least half of their men in the last few months.  The men that are sent home to arrest and take the deserters back to their command frequently join them, and all go to the brush together.
The tax in kind, bears heavy on the farming populations.  They first levied one tenth on the gross crop, and before it was collected they levied one fifth more on the gross crop, and the same on all pork and beef slaughtered; and then an ad valorem tax of five per cent. on all property, monies, notes and bonds.  The merchant and trader pays a county and State tax of 25 per cent. on the hundred dollars of first cost, and also a Confederate tax, fifty dollars occupation tax, ten per cen. on all goods, stock, &c., ten percent. on gross sales, and ten per cent. on net profit.
The funding bill is also another great source of dissatisfaction among the rebels, they look upon it as a total repudiation of the rebel currency.  Many of the rebels are refusing to sell their stock for their own make of currency.  The currency is depreciating very rapidly.  I have known some sales of the treasury notes made at one cent in gold to the dollar.  A great many Union men are leaving their homes and taking their stand with the Federal army.  I learned a few days before I left home that Gen. Banks had organized three Texas regiments, and had two more half full.  The rebel force in Northwest Texas is very small and almost disorganized, and it appears to me that a very small force could move into that section and establish a post, and hold the country.  The Union men will rally to the Stars and Stripes, when she is planted on Texas soil.  Army supplies are abundant and why do we delay, why not move at once and relieve the good men of Northwest Texas.  While we are living here in ease and luxury many a good man's heart's blood is being drawn for his Union proclivities.
Texas, as a State, is beautiful and fertile; her soil is rich and productive, the prairies abound with luxuriant grass, and are covered with herds of stock of different kinds.  Although she is yet in her infancy, her inhabitants are numerous and intelligent, not equalled by any State in the Union of her age.  You find men there from every country and every State, men who have been educated in the older States, and knowing the many resources of Texas and the advantages to be obtained by locating in a new country, went and pitched their tents among the red man of the forest.  Although the Indians have been troublesome for the last seven years and committed many depredations, yet the brave frontiersman stood firm and held his position in the wilderness.
Such are the loyal men of Texas.  Such are the men who have stood firm and suffered privations and hardships that language cannot express, caused by the reign of mobocracy and tyranny.  And they now appeal to the Government of the United States for immediate relief on the Northwestern border of Texas.
                                                                            J. W. Robbins. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 7, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
S. N. and E. T. Farris, who were employed as scouts by Gen. McNeil and sent into Texas in February, returned a few days ago and made the following report to Col. Judson:
                                                                Fort Smith, Ark., May 2d, 1864.
We have the honor to submit the following statement as a true picture of the condition of Texas in general, but more especially of North-west Texas.  We having been citizens for several years previous to the rebellion, and having seen the rising of that despotism that darkened her soil and threatened destruction to every loyal citizen of the State, feel ourselves competent to pass an opinion upon the condition of affairs in that portion of the United States.  Many, yes we say thousands of loyal men had to take refuge in the mountains, in the ravines and on the plains, to escape from the hands of that tyranny that has invested the State since the commencement of this rebellion.  We do not propose to enter into, neither do we intend to describe the horrible punishments both various and numerous, heaped upon the loyal citizens of Texas.  A man would certainly run a risk of losing his reputation for veracity if he should tell the half of what is true.  It is enough to say that we believe from our extensive acquaintance in that State, that two thirds of the people are Union, and always have been, and that the State never did go out of the Union by the vote of the majority of the people, but was carried out by strategem and fraud and held by force.  some of the most prominent and leading men of the State are good Union Men.—It may seem strange to some to say, that a large majority of the slaveholders of North-west Texas are the best Union men in the State, but so it is; some of their fathers were soldiers in the Revolutionary war, and they say, "take our negroes and give us the government of our fathers; the government for which Washington fought and freemen died."  The inhuman rebels (it is not proper to call them human) have lost all feelings of humanity; have committed deeds that the savage of the forest would blush to own.  The Union men of that State have held out against many great trials, persecutions and trials, seemingly with untiring confidence that they would get relief from the federal army.—Many of them have lost their lives; most of them their property; yet they stand firm and unshaken; many a father and mother mourn the loss of sons; many a widow that of her husband; many a child that of its parent; fathers have been shot for giving his own sons a meal of victuals; the wife's feet have been tortured to make her reveal where her husband was secreted in the brush.  The Union people are looking with anxious hope for the day, when the American flag will again float over the soil of Texas.  How long will they have to wait?  And what is the cause they cannot get relief?  We ask to know the cause of the delay in sending them relief?  We believe that two thousand men can march successfully into North-west Texas, establish a Post and hold the country.  The Union men will rally by scores on the approach of the federal army.—There are now embodied on the frontier, between eight hundred and one thousand men.  Last year being a good crop year, the supplies are abundant in the way of wheat, corn, salt and beef.  An invading army need take no commissary train with them, for the necessaries of life are to be had in the greatest abundance, and we give it as our opinion that now is the most favorable time to move on North-west Texas, there has ever been.
Your obedient servants,
                                                                            S. N. & E. T. Farris,
                                                                                        Fort Smith Scouts. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 14, 1864, p. 1, c. 1

Last of the Camel Speculation.

            The lot of Government camels, thirty-nine in number, which have been kept in Southern California ever since the reign of James Buchanan, were sold at auction at Benecia last week at from $39 to $55 each, in greenbacks.  These animals, on the road to Benicia from Los Angeles, stampeded nearly every horse and mule team they met, and after their sale at Benicia, stampeded all the four legged living stock in the place, running up a pretty handsome bill of damages.  The original cost of the animals, landed in America, was some $5,000 each, and the cost of bringing them from Los Angeles, for sale, was only about three times as much as they realized under the hammer.  Most of them are to be taken to Nevada Territory, we believe.  The sale of these animals was a grand mistake, in our opinion.  No horse could be made to stand a charge from them, and had they been put in the van of the Army of the Potomac, they would long since have stampeded Stuart's cavalry, and taken Richmond.  As of Roderick Dhu, it might be said with truth of the leader of the flock:  "One blast upon his bugle horn were worth a thousand men," any time when the enemy's cavalry were about.—Alta Cal. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 14, 1864, p. 1, c. 3

The Red River Disaster—Further Testimony.

                                                                                                                Springfield, Ill., April 25, 1864.
I have been shown a letter from a prominent officer in the 13th army corps, the use of whose name would obviously be improper, giving in the strongest light the criminal blunder which cost us our recent repulse on the Red river, and laying the undivided responsibility on General Banks. . . The letter is written to a brother officer and discusses very freely the feeling in the army.  The repulse is confessed to have been a very costly one, both in men and material, though there is no demoralization.  Every account apparently agrees in the location of the blame.

Retreat of Chicago Mercantile Battery.
[Testimony of a Janesville boy.]

            We remained until our horses commenced to drop, when Captain White told us to limber up and make for the rear, as we could not do a thing more without support.  So we limbered up and started.  Just then Lieutenant Throop was mortally wounded, shot in the bowels.  We could not go a great way, however, as the wagon train, loaded with forage, blocked up the road and we had to go through the dense pine woods.  But we got our guns and caissons about two miles, the rebs right after us crying out, "halt and surrender you d____d Yankees."  It was not long before we got stuck fast, between about a dozen wagons, logs, and in a big mud hole.  Then the Captain told us to cut the traces and save ourselves.  Well, we started, leaving everything we had behind us except the clothes on our backs and what we had in our pockets.  It was a perfect rabble, a regular Bull Run; it was devil take the hindmost, sure enough.  Wagoners on mules, niggers, cavalry, artillery, men on foot and horseback, generals and officers of every rank, everlastingly getting to the rear or any other place of safety.  Gen. Ransom remained on the field by our guns trying to rally the men, until he was wounded and had to be taken to the rear.  The ammunition train was to the rear, and our infantry, what few there were, were entirely out.
Thus we went it about two miles from where we left our guns, when the 19th corps came up and formed in line of battle.  The rebels came on and they did pour the volleys into them from way back.  The checked them for a time, and as it was almost dark the rebels did not follow us.  Our forces fell back nine miles that night.  We saw General Smith.  He was very angry and swore terribly about the way things were conducted.  Well, his division came up, about eight thousand strong.  He massed his forces again and got everything ready to receive the rebels.  Oh, how glad the troops were to see some one fit to command.  The 3d division stacked their arms and swore they would not fight under Banks, but would stay by Smith as long as a man was left. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 14, 1864, p. 1, c. 4
A foolish young woman in Palmyra New York, last week married a young military officer whose acquaintance she made by corresponding with him while he was in the army.  A day or two after the wedding he decamped with a carriage and a pair of horses, but the officers of the law seized him at Canandaigua, ironed him, took him to prison, and left the imprudent bride in tears and sorrowful lamentation. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 14, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

The Rangers.

            Captain Turner's company of Rangers are doing good work, ferreting out and killing bushwhackers.  They are on the move all the time and render the government efficient service, as well as defend their own homes.  They are in earnest, and not only know how to hunt, fight and whip bushwhackers, but know how to treat them when they happen to take prisoners.
On the morning of the 5th inst., Sergt. Sails and I. Duncan, of Capt. Turner's company, were taken by the bushwhackers and after being kept for two or three hours Duncan was released, but Sails was stripped of all his clothing but his drawers and was then brutally shot.  He was a worthy young man, a good soldier, and his loss is deeply felt by the company.
On the night of the 6th, while camped near Smedley's Mill, Capt. Turner and 25 men were attacked by 54 bushwhackers, under Lafayette Glass.  The Rangers repulsed them twice, killing three of the rebels and wounding seven, among whom was Glass, who is mortally wounded.  Three of the Rangers were wounded, but not mortally. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 14, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
                                                                            For the New Era.
Mr. Editor.—In your paper of the 7th inst. in an article headed "From the Front," statements are made as having been derived from me which I think you must have obtained from some other source.  The positive statements as to the numbers of our own force or that of the enemy, that Gen. Steele would not reinforce Col. Williams, and that an officer rode up to Gen. Steele's headquarters and said "Great God!  why didn't you reinforce us?" or that Gen. Steele ordered out Col. Williams, etc., I did not say.  I do not wish to deny what I did say, but at the same time I do not wish to be made to say what I did not say, or in a different manner from what I said it.  Nearly the whole article seems to give a different impression from what my statements would fairly impart.  I accuse no one of involuntarily misstating what I said.  Several persons who came from the army with me were giving their particular views of the matters stated in that article which might be easily mixed up with what I said without any design to misstate me or any one else.
                                                                            Cyrus Leland,
                                                                1st Lt. and R. Q. M. 13th Kas. Vol.
That's decidedly refreshing.  It takes all the wind out of our last week's leader.  All we have to say is that we did not see Lt. L. but got our report from a gentleman that we have known for years, and know to be reliable.  He heard Lt. Leland make a statement of the affair in question, and reported it to us as was published last week. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 14, 1864, p. 4, c. 1

The Two Southern Mothers.

Heard ye not the din of battle,
Cannon's roar and musket's rattle,
Crash of sword and shriek of shell,
Victor's shot and vanquished yell? 

Saw you not yon scene of slaughter,
Human blood poured out like water;
Northern valor, southern pride,
Stern resolve on either side? 

Cheering on his flagging men,
Rallying to the charge again,
Comes a bullet charged with grief,
Strikes the brave Confederate chief. 

Down he falls amid the strife,
Horses tramping out his life;
Scarce can his retreating force
Find and save his mangled corpse. 

Home they bore him to his mother—
He was all she had—none other;
Woeful mother!  who can borrow
Words to paint her frantic sorrow? 

As she mourned her slaughtered brave,
Came and spake her aged slave,
Came, and spake with solemn brow:
"Misses, we is even now." 

"I had ten, and you had one,
Now we're even—all are gone;
Not one left to bury either—
Slave and mistress mourn together. 

"Every one of mine you sold
Now your own likes stark and cold;
To the just avenger bow—
Misses!  I forgive you now." 

Thus she spoke, that sable mother;
Shuddering, quailed and crouched the other;
Yea! although it tarry long,
Payment shall be made for wrong!
            --Continental Monthly. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 14, 1864, p. 3, c. 1

Tennessee and Some of Its People.

            An intelligent war correspondent, writing from Normandy, Tennessee, gives an exceedingly interesting account of things as he finds them there.  Everything in that region from a plow to a horse is greatly behind the age, and it carries back the Yankee at least a century.  Not one in ten of the whites can write their own names, and one man was found who had never seen the stars and stripes—though he knew his State flag as well as that of the Confederates.  The writer continues as follows: . . .
The use of tobacco by the native population here is astonishing even to a Northerner; especially when we see the other sex chew Navy Plug, smoke and rub snuff on their gums.  A boy from back in the country stayed with us one night, who called himself thirteen years old.  As we sat around the fire in the evening, he asked for a 'chew.'  After one had been given him, and he had placed it in the 'aching void,' we asked him how long he has used the article.  'Wal' said he 'I reckon as how I've used it at least ten years!'  Tobacco juice must have been mixed with his milk before he had teeth to manage a 'chew.'  Let no one hereafter call nicotine a poison." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 14, 1864, p. 4, c. 3

Touching Incident.

            After the battle at Bean Station, East Tennessee, the rebels were guilty of all manner of indignity toward the slain.  They stripped their bodies, and shot all persons who came near the battlefield to show any attention to the dead.  The body of a little drummer boy was left naked and exposed.  Near by, in a humble house, there were two little girls, the oldest but sixteen, who resolved to give the body a decent burial.  They gook the night for their task.  With hammer and nails in hand, and boards on their shoulders, they sought the place where the body of the dead drummer boy lay.  From their own scanty wardrobe, they clothed the body for the grave.  With their own hands they made a rude coffin, into which they reverently put the dead boy.
They dug the grave, and lowered the body into it and covered it over.  The noise of the hammering brought some of the rebels to the spot.  The sight was too much for them.  The stillness of the night—the story so eloquently told by the heroic labors of the little girls.  Not a word was spoken, no one interfered, and when the sacred rites of burial were performed, all separated, and the little drummer-boy sleeps undisturbed in his grave on the battlefield.  Such tenderness and heroism deserve to run along the line of coming generations with the story of the woman who broke the alabaster box on the feet of the Savior, and with her who of her penury cast her two mites into the treasury.—Louisville Journal. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 21, 1864, p. 2, c. 4

Noble Conduct.

            That our colored troops display excellent fighting qualities has been established beyond a doubt; but that they can also be possessed of considerable esprit de corps, a little incident at the crossing of the Saline swamp and river ably [?] demonstrates.
"Pete," a colored man, is attached to Headquarters of the 1st Ark. Inft., and during the whole campaign showed much soldierly pluck.  When in that dreadful Saline bottom the wagons had to be destroyed for want of animals, and almost every particle of baggage had to be destroyed, the large fine flag which the ladies of Van Buren had presented to the 1st Ark. Inft. was threatened to share a like fate.  Pete couldn't stand this, but rolled it up and carried it on his back all the way to Little Rock and from there to this place, rather dispensing with some necessary article himself than abandon the "flag."  Hurrah for Pete! 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 28, 1864, p. 2, c. 3


            Last Sunday evening as Capt. Gibbons, of the Rangers, and two of his men were returning to their camp on Mazard prairie, from this place, they encountered a band of 30 or 40 desperadoes who fired upon them from the brush, mortally wounding the Captain in the breast and head.  An ambulance was sent out and brought him in to the Hospital at this place during the night, where he died on Wednesday morning.
The country south of this place seems to be infested by daring outlaws, many of them having gone to the "brush" since the opening of spring, and some of them even in Government employ.  One of their leaders being frequently seen on the streets of this place last fall and winter, claiming to be in the service of the Provost Marshal (Lieut. Col. Calkins) as a detective.  It is about time this practice of giving men of doubtful loyalty employment had ceased.  A large proportion of the "bushwhackers" killed of late, have had their protection papers on their persons. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 28, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
During the past week about 100 wagons belonging to refugees have crossed the river at this place on their way to Kansas, in search of peace and quietude, which they are not permitted to enjoy in the country south of this on account of the ravages of bushwhackers, or to avoid utter destruction for want of food next winter, as there will be but little raised outside of the influence of the different Forts we occupy. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 28, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
The steamer Sunny South left this place for Fort Gibson last Wednesday, in Government employ, loaded principally with Indian and sutler goods, belonging to McDonald & Fuller, who have a contract to furnish goods to the Indians up there. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 28, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
We have noticed that for several days families have been coming in from the country, many of them in a very destitute condition, and belonging to soldiers in the 1st Ark. Inft.  It seems to be the policy of the bushwhackers to clear the country of all Union families, especially of those who have men in the service, by all manner of outrages, even to the destruction of the children's clothes, burning their houses, etc.  This course may give security to the outlaws for a short time, but will eventually depopulate and lay waste the whole country if persisted in.  Our soldiers, if we are not mistaken, will not permit any families of rebels to remain so that a large portion of this State will become like the border counties of Missouri where bushwhacking has been encouraged—a complete wilderness. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 28, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
Ass't Surgeon Lindsay, 12th Kan. Vol's, was in the custody of the rebels for several days after the fight at Poison Springs, having went out under a flag of truce to take care of our wounded left on the field.  They escorted him through their camps, and from what we learn, had rather a pleasant time with Gen. Maxey, but had some warm words with the Col. of a Choctaw reg't, on the propriety of using soldiers of A. D.  The Dr. told them, that with all their seeming repugnance to the use of such troops, they could strip them on the field and wear their clothes etc.  After the battle of Jenkins' Ferry, the Dr. had very arduous duties to perform—being the only surgeon for two regiments and a battery; but now looks fine and hearty as though he had never seen the Elephant. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, May 28, 1864, p. 3, c. 3

Commanding Gen'ls Orders.

                                                                                                        Head Quarters Dist. of the Frontier,
                                                        Department of Arkansas,
                                                        Fort Smith, May 25th, 1864.
General Orders,     }
No. 31.     }
I.  All regimental and Company Officers must amp with their respective commands.  It is especially enjoined upon all officers to remain at their posts of duty.  If the number of officers met with in town, from day to day, does not materially diminish, stringent orders will be issued prohibiting any from leaving their camps, except by written permission of their brigade commanders.  The grog shop is no place for an officer.  It is hoped that this hint will be sufficient.
II.  No soldier will be permitted to visit the town, except with a written pass signed by his Company and Regimental commander; and none will be permitted to leave their camps after sunset.  Any one found outside of camp in violation of this order, will be arrested and put to work on the fortifications.
III.  All relieved guards and pickets may discharge their pieces at 9 o'clock, A. M., of each day, under the direction of the Officer of the Guard, who must be present with them.  Commanding Officers may cause other parties having pieces loaded, to discharge them at the same time and place, and the firing must be by volleys.  Firing at all other times is strictly forbidden.  Any soldier, teamster or employee of Government, who shall discharge his piece in violation of this order, shall have one dollar stopped from his pay for every such offence, and shall be set to work on the fortifications for three successive days.
It must be understood that the discharge of a fire arm, except at the time above named is a most heinous offence, and all commanders must use every means in their power to suppress the evil.
IV.  These orders are not to fall as dead letters; but are to be rigidly enforced, and Brigade commanders will take immediate measures to have them executed.
They will be read at the head of every Company and Regiment for three successive days, so that none can plead ignorance of them.
V.  The Provost Marshal will ascertain and report to these Head Quarters if any officers are quartered in town in violation of these orders.
By Command of Brig. Gen. Thayer.
                                                                            T. J. Anderson,
                                                                            Assistant Adjutant General. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 4, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

From Texas.

            We have conversed with Mr. N. T. Nix, of Jack county, Texas, who arrived here a few days since, in company with four others.  He states that a large party of Union men was to have assembled on the Western Frontier last month for the purpose of making their way north, but the rebel authorities hearing of the move, frustrated it by sending Bourland's reg't to the vicinity of the place of rendezvous, compelling them to disperse, some going towards El Paso and Eagle Pass, and others back to the settlements—a few working their way through to our lines.  When he left the rebels were actively engaged in scouting the country, chasing the Union men from the woods with hounds, and in many instances executing them summarily, according to orders, in case of persons endeavoring to avoid the conscription or escaping to our lines; all able-bodied persons between the ages of 16 and 65 being compelled to go into the army or be considered deserters.  Bourland's and McCord's regiments, with 1200 militia under Major Quayle, are on the Western Frontier, 1,500 of the latter are also stationed at Bonham, under Brig. General Throckmorton, all under the command of McCulloch.  Col. Parson's regiment being detailed to patrol the country, and suppress any demonstrations of opposition on the part of the citizens, who are only quieted and kept under by military influence.  The force at Boggy Depot consists of four regiments of Indians, and one regiment and one battalion of whites, one regiment under Col. Walker is at Dokesville, all other troops that they could spare being sent to Shreveport, La.  The crops look well and promise a fine harvest next fall, with considerable of the old one still on hand. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 4, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
                                                                            For the New Era.

Fort Smith Hospital.

            Mr. Editor:--We had the pleasure a few days since of visiting the Hospital in Fort Smith, which is under the superintendence of Dr. Swasey, the present Medical Director of this District.  The Dr. is highly spoken of by all, both in and out of the Hospital, as an affable, prudent and efficient officer.  Just the man for such a place.
There are about two hundred and sixty sick men in charge; and most of whom looked hopeful and convalescent.  Besides these are the colored men, whose number I did not learn.  Only a small proportion is suffering from wounds, owing to the fact that no general engagement has taken place recently in this region.  I noticed several had cases of Erysipelas, also of Chronic Diarrhea, the latter, however, has not yet become fatal nor very prevalent.
Everything about the rooms has the air of cleanliness, and you are impressed with the fact that the utmost diligence and care are bestowed that circumstances will permit.  The attendants are carefully selected and in reference to their adaptation to their work.  One great lack is the ministrations of the ladies, as seen in other hospitals.  In this place their attention seems to be bestowed on other objects than sick men.  Their presence and smiles carry no sunshine into these chambers of affliction and death.  Officers do not visit the sick as much as they ought, if they did, there might be more affection between them and soldiers—though perhaps less enterprising gallantry with the fair ones.  There has not an agent of the Sanitary or Christian Commissions visited this place to our knowledge.  This is to be regretted, while the friends of our cause in the north are giving liberally of their means to meet the wants of the sick soldier, it would be very grateful to us and no doubt to them for us in this Division to share, especially in this enervating climate, the good things their hands have prepared.  We need reading matter greatly, yet there is but a scanty supply.  The attention of these benevolent societies should at once be called to these facts, and efforts made to obtain a supply.
As far as we could discover, the moral condition of the Hospital is good—only in a single instance did we hear a bad word, but found a considerable number disposed to pray, and all anxious to get something to read.

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 4, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
From Monday morning up to Wednesday evening last, 1,200 refugees had crossed the river on their way north.  Many of them are the families of soldiers, and of Union men who lost their lives during the progress of the rebellion, and through the vicissitudes of war, are exiled from their once happy and comfortable homes, and made objects of charity for the benevolent and humane of other States.  There is a large proportion of them women and children, in a very destitute condition.  A few are colored, but most of this class are sent to the confiscated plantations on the Mississippi river. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 4, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
Lady Volunteers.—The ladies in the different parts of the country are "beating up" volunteers among their own sex, the understanding being that they are to take the place of clerks and others who volunteer for the "hundred day's service."  The ladies agree to accept $13 per month and rations, (soldiers' pay,) the salaries of those who volunteer being continued as usual, less the amount paid to the lady volunteers, and the situations of the former being assured to them on their return. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 11, 1864, p. 1, c. 4
The ladies' movement for the curtailment of foreign luxuries, in order to stop the efflux of gold, is rapidly extending itself.  At a fashionable party at the mansion of one of the wealthiest merchants in Thirty fourth street, near Lexington avenue, a neatly printed 'pledge' was handed around among the ladies to sign, thus committing them against buying, for the present, any more silk, satins, velvets, laces, or other foreign luxuries.  Of course every body signed it, and when the assemblage was dispersing, the hostess announced that at her next entertainment her guests would be expected to come, the ladies in calico, and the gentlemen in satinet and corduroy. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 11, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

Our Paper.

            The readers of the Era can't rightly appreciate the difficulties we have to contend with to keep it gong in the absence of the Editor.  But we intend to keep it running as well and as long as the circumstances will admit, whether we ever have a paper, mail, or a telegraph line from which to obtain items of news.  We have other duties to perform, so that were we well qualified, we have but little time to devote to the editorial columns.
The Era was the first Unconditional Union paper published in the State, and as such has been sustained by that class of citizens and soldiers.  Though no effort has been made to increase its circulation abroad, we have seldom been able to supply the demand, being restricted for want of paper to 800 copies per week, for the last few issues.  We have also to use paper of a smaller size.  Mr. Dell will bring a supply with him on his return. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 11, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Rogers & Judson still continue to furnish their numerous customers with the choicest of Ice Cream.  They are whole souled gentlemen, and know how to "dish it up" in good style. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 11, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
We learn from reliable sources that Russel Reneau, of Grand Prairie, well known in western Arkansas as a Minister of the M. E. Church South, whose influence has had much to do in bringing about the present state of things, has gone to the brush,--being determined to show that he can practice the doctrine he preaches.  This reverend rebel advocated a war of extermination until the Federal army came to Fort Smith.  Since that time, under the guise of a Union man, he has been playing a double part, and laying plans for his future course of action, which is to be assassination of union men, destruction of their property and the expulsion from the country of their families.  He is author of "History of the Devil," and seems to be following in the footsteps of his hero.
Rev. G. C. McWilliams of Ozark, once an influential minister of the M. E. Church, has also taken to the brush.
Judge Filligan, also of Ozark, has joined the assassins.  Others of like standing are taking the same course.  That sacred office is no bar to a participation in the crimes of secession.  All the persons above spoken of have taken the oath. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 11, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
[Summary:  Official Report of Major R. G. Ward, Commanding 1st Kansas Colored Vol. at the Battle of Poison Springs] 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 18, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Capt. Turner and two of his men belonging to the Home Guard were killed and three wounded, a few days since, in the vicinity of Greenwood, by a party of bushwhackers who were dressed in our uniforms.  They succeeded in throwing Capt. Turner off his guard by professing to be Federal soldiers belonging to the 4th Ark. Cav. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 18, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
We are under obligations to Lieut. Woodring, in charge of the Telegraph Office at this place, for the only telegrams that have passed over the wire for the last fortnight.  The bushwhackers amuse themselves by cutting the wires and hauling them into the woods a little faster than they can be put up. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 18, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Escape of Lieut. Hayes.

            The Carrie Jacobs came up from Little Rock, Thursday, heavily loaded.  Among the passengers was Lieut. John Hayes of the 2nd Kansas Colored, who escaped from the rebels at Princeton, the night of the 6th inst.  His father, Lt. col. of the 12th Kansas, being dangerously wounded, John remained with him until he was out of danger, when knowing that all the prisoners were to be taken to Tyler, Texas, the next morning, escaped from a window of the church, where they were quartered, and crawled past the guard within eight feet of his beat.  Five others, four belonging to the 50th Indiana, and one to the 33rd Iowa, followed him, and together they started for the north.  They traveled most all night, but in the morning found they had made only 8 miles from Princeton, it being so cloudy that they wandered in all directions.  After two days and nights tramp they crossed the Saline near Jenkins ferry, having traveled 22 miles in that time.  It was with difficulty that the boys evaded the rebs, as Gen. Fagan's cavalry were between Princeton and Little Rock, scouting the country.  But by keeping a rear guard and Lieut. Hayes going in advance, and using signals whenever there was danger, arrived the morning of the 5th day out, as they thought, nearly out of danger, within 15 miles of Little Rock, where the Lieut. stopped for something to eat, leaving the boys outside.  Finding nothing in the eating line, he procured a pitcher of buttermilk and took out, and thinking they were having a "good thing," they were making a little more than their usual noise when a rebel scout came out of the brush and hearing them talking, retreated back a few rods and stopped as if deliberating what course to pursue.  Being entirely unarmed and not liking the idea of being again taken, and that by one man, the boys slipped up to within a few paces of him, and rising slowly with their canes pointed in his direction, the scout, sinking his spurs into his horse's sides made good time in the opposite direction.  The boys, though foot-sore, hungry and worn out, with their constant travel, could not help taking a heart laugh over the success of their ruse, and went on their way, arriving at Little Rock that afternoon.  They had started with but two days provisions in their haversacks and done without the rest of the time, or until they were near Little Rock.  They were very much fatigued, having traveled in their five days trip three times the distance that it would have been could they have taken a direct course.
Lieut. H. reports the rest of the boys in good health and says that Capt. Armstrong and Lieut. Hitchcock, who were reported killed in the battle of Poison Springs, are alive and unharmed.  Three of the 1st Kansas Colored who were wounded are in the hands of the rebels.  Nine of the 2nd Kansas Colored, who were wounded at Jenkins Ferry were killed while in the hospital by a rebel soldier.  The rebel was afterwards taken to Camden and tried, and it was reported by rebel soldiers, and also by his wife, that he was hung for the crime.
The rebel Medical Director in his official report of the battle of Jenkins Ferry states that they had 207 killed on the field and 904 wounded, many of whom died for want of proper nourishment, having nothing to eat but corn bread and beef.
The rebel officers and men said they had a different kind of men to fight at the Saline from what were under Banks.
When Lieut. Hayes left the rebs, his father and Dr. Stuckslager were, as they said, "running the regimental mess," the Colonel being to do double duty at the table and making up for absent members.  He is in good health and spirits—his leg healed over, and he sent word to the boys that he would be with them as soon as possible, and remain with them while they were a regiment. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 18, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

Return of Lieut. Sinks.

            The many friends of Lieut. Sinks, 2d Ind. Battery, will be glad to hear of his safe return from the land of "Dixie."  He took charge of one section of the 1st Mo. Battery at the fight near Marks' Mills on the 24th of April last, where he was wounded and captured after losing all but seven of his men out of 32.  After being captured all the prisoners that were able, numbering 1243, including 40 officers, were started for the mouth of the Moro, 55 miles distant, which they made during that night and next day by 3 o'clock, P.M.; here learning of our evacuation of Camden, they were marched there, where they arrived on the 1st of May.  The next day Kirby Smith returned from Jenkins' Ferry with the force he had brought up from Shreveport, on his way back there.  The Missouri troops were sorely disappointed as they expected to make a victorious march direct home, and confess they were badly used up at Jenkins' Ferry.  The prisoners were all marched to the camp, within five miles of Shreveport, where on the night of the 6th of May, Lieut. S., Lieut. Adams, Q. M. 50th Ind., Lieut. Ellsworth, 1st Ind. Cav., and Lieut. McCarty, 5th Kan. Cav., made their escape and took to the woods, and after traveling for 15 days and nights as well as they could, swimming rivers, etc., they arrived safely at Pine Bluff.
The Lieutenant and three other officers usually messed together, and one day were furnished a basket of provisions by a lady.  After emptying the basket, they found in its bottom, a fine pair of pistols and ammunition to suit. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 18, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
Nearly 600 Texans have enlisted in the army of the Frontier, yet out of this number, to our knowledge, not one has deserted or proved recreant to the interests of the Government.  This is saying a great deal for Texas loyalty, but it is true that the State has, from the beginning, contained as large and uncompromising an element of loyalty as any seceded State. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 18, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
Our attention has been called of late, by citizens, to the filthy condition of many parts of the city; among the most prominent sources of which is the cavalry camps and wagon yards which are surrounded by dwelling houses and hospitals.  There is danger of these places being the cause of disease and death to both citizens and soldiers. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 18, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
Mrs. Matt Ward, widow of the murderer of Butler, the Louisville school teacher, has been ordered by Gen. Buford to leave the District of Eastern Arkansas within five days.  She has been playing doubleface with rebels and federals, and violated her oath of allegiance.  More mischief is occasioned by the petticoated perjuries of that section than our generals have any idea of.  They generally regard their oaths as lightly as they do their reputations.—Exchange. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 1


            Last Thursday the acting Post Chaplain, Rev. J. B. McAfee, concluded to have a pair of rebel women removed from town, in accordance with General Orders removing refugees.  But on Mr. Keenan going up to carry out the orders, he was violently abused by the women, who confessed they were rebels, and had done all they could for the rebel cause in furnishing them such articles as they could, and acting the spy, and declared they intended to do so as long as they had a chance, and if they thought they had any Union blood in them they would let it out.
On searching the house there was about 80 pounds of lead and other ammunition, two guns and other contraband articles found.  They were shipped to Little Rock, with a request to the Provost Marshal there to have them caged. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Mr. P., a citizen of Newton Co., arrived here a few days since with his wife and three other ladies on foot, and in very destitute circumstances.  It seems they had been repeatedly robbed by the bushwhackers.  They had traded off all the available property they had for something to subsist on, and when this was consumed, they had to leave, as they were not permitted to raise anything more.  The husband of one of the ladies, who is sixty-five years of age having been killed, and Mr. P. having to keep concealed to save his life they set out for this place, a distance of 100 miles, carrying everything they had on their backs.  Mr. P. was disguised with his wife's clothing, which he changed at Van Buren. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Last Sunday a party of fiends in human shape dashed up within a few miles of this place and killed three union men, A. Paden, Thos. Paden, and Geo. H. Hill, in cold blood.  These murders are endorsed by the rebel authorities, and considered a great prop to the rebellion many of the leaders holding commissions in their army or other prominent positions.  The principles of bushwhacking being so universally inculcated in the beginning of the war we in reality look at the rebellion, in the point of criminality as but a bushwhacking warfare on a grant scale. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Bushwhacked.—Patrick McKenzie, living about 8 miles S. E. of this place, was bushwhacked last Thursday.  Like many others here, he had taken the oath some time since, and treated as a loyal man, though several union men here remember him as one of the first to advocate secession, and having ironed and otherwise mistreated several persons when taking them to Little Rock, as prisoners, for the crime of being loyal to the Union. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
The Memphis Bulletin of the 14th, inst., states that a large train of wagons belonging to refugees from Lanesport, Arkansas, was attacked by guerillas near the northern line of this State.  75 men and four women were killed, and all the wagons robbed and burned, leaving the remaining women and children in great destitution.  Most of them had assembled at Lanesport while our troops were posted there, but when our forces evacuated the country, they attempted to go through to St. Louis by land and thus met their sad fate. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, June 25, 1864, p. 4, c. 1

Jenny and Jamie.

            Jenny in full array,
Jamie so far away;
Jenny in silken attire,
Jamie in much and mire;
Jenny with full and plenty to eat,
Jamie without a morsel of meat.
Jennie must needs have diamonds to wear,
Laces and feathers, and gems for her hair;
Jamie's clothing all tattered and torn,
His luckless boots so cut up and worn,
That he thinks with dismay,
On the fast coming day,
When "upper" and "sole" will both give way.
Oh, Jenny! just think
That we're now on the brink
Of a struggle most mighty and fearful;
And that soon Jamie's head
May lie midst the dead,
On a field so pitifully drearful. 

Then give up your diamonds, your silks and your laces;
Throw by all your follies, and cease all your races
After fashion and dress;
And strive to think less
Of what you will buy;
And more how you'll try
To bear your own share,
In this sorrow and care,
That darkens our nation once blest;
And fervently pray
That bright peace soon may
Shine on Jamie, and all the rest. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
We notice that the exodus of citizens from this State continues unabated, usually consisting of farmers from the country, many of whom have been in easy circumstances heretofore, though not slave owners, for the latter are farther down south with their friends, the rebels, or have become galvanized sufficient to pass for fair Union men among those who are disposed to view them as heretofore, not entirely responsible for the existing state of affairs in the country, or who believe in easy conversions to loyalty, and can't see that they are so, only to save their property and get to remain at home.  Though the emigrants are of the laboring class and in most cases owners of real estate, are now leaving it, and are in many instances utterly impoverished, so that they have to be forwarded by public conveyance. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 2, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
Camp Saunders is a wild, romantic post situated on the North bank of the Cumberland river, about twenty miles above Nashville. . . .The stories of the ignorance and poverty of the "poor white trash of the South," the victims of slavery—are not too highly colored.  I have seen poor white children here clothed literally in cast off sack cloth of the coarsest quality.  The farms here are all great plantations, containing from one to two thousand acres each, and around these in miserable cabins the poor whites vegetate.  Pass one of these wretched houses, and you will see a row of tow-headed children in rags and dirt, and a pale, poor woman, with a pipe in her mouth, staring at you.  And yet these poor whites are intense "nigger" haters and will fight to the death for the system that works their own ruin.  Poor creatures, they know not what they do. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
A Poor Time for Dogs.—The District Provost Marshal has ordered all the dogs killed that are not kept off the streets.  That's right.  The guard have a big job before them, and were busy at work yesterday making music in all directions, if the howling of dogs can be called music.  Better have the howling in the day time than the infernal noise we hear most every night.  If you have a good dog, keep him up; of a worthless pup, be sure and let him run or kill him yourself and save the guard the trouble and yourself the expense of having it done. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

The Fourth

            Passed off as pleasantly as could have been expected, and reminded us forcibly of the days of our childhood, when war, strife, and treason were unknown to us as a nation; when all the militia were called out, and fully as much parade was made as there was here last Monday.  It was something unusual for this place.  For years, this day of all others that our Fathers gave us to be glad in, has been forgotten, and instead of an outburst of patriotic feeling as there should have been it has been permitted to pass away in silence, and if remembered by the rebels only to remind them of the damning deeds they have been guilty of, and caused them to hide their cursed heads.
The day was ushered in by the sound of the National salute, which also reminded us of the condition of our Nation, for while some of the shots resounded in the hills around, others came with a report barely loud enough to reach our ear, and we could not help thinking they were for the rebel States.
From "early morn till dewy eve" the wound of the band, bugle, fife and drum kept the air vibrating, and occasionally a noisy group gave us to understand that the "unseen but noisy spirits" were at work.
And year after year, as the day comes round, may it always be remembered and celebrated by the loyal people of Arkansas. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 2


            A sad accident occurred on the morning of the 4th of July, at Fort No. 4, while firing the National salute.
As Mr. Ford, the gunner, was withdrawing the rammer, there was a premature discharge of the piece, which tore Mr. F's left hand off and the thumb and finger of the right hand, besides otherwise injuring him.
The incident was caused by bad powder and the chamber of the gun being in such a condition that it could not be thoroughly cleaned.  There is no blame attached to any person.
Mr. Ford belongs to Co. H, 13th Kan. Infantry, and the occurrence marred the enjoyment of the day to his company.—He is being well taken care of, is doing fine and it is believed he will recover. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

First Kansas Colored.

            We were pleased to witness the performance of this fine regiment when on parade last Monday.  Organized under the most unfavorable auspices, and for months after its organization not being paid or hardly recognized as a regiment, it has proved itself worthy of all praise, and is most truly, as has been said of it, among the best regiments in the field.  No troops have done harder marching, endured more fatigue, or withstood and beaten back any more determined assaults, than the First Colored.  We have noticed it when on parade, several times, and always find the same precision made in the movements, and the same ready obedience to orders given, showing not only the drill and good discipline that it has received, but the aptness with which the black man learns.  Col. Williams may well be proud of his regiment. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

The Fourth of July at Fort
Smith, Arkansas.

            In pursuance of arrangements previously made by a committee of citizens, a large concourse of people met on the 4th inst., in commemoration of the birth of the American Nationality.
Francis H. Wolfe, Mayor of the city of Fort Smith, was called to the Chair as the presiding officer; Hon. J. R. Smoot, of the Arkansas Legislature, was chosen Vice President, and V. V. Milor, Sheriff of Sebastian co. was appointed Secretary.
Appropriate prayer was made by Rev. Francis Springer, Post Chaplain, U.S.A.
Chaplain Springer was then called on to read the Declaration of Independence, which was listened to with the most earnest attention by the vast assembly of citizens and soldiers.  The manifest interest exhibited by the great gathering of listeners—including a well proportioned representation of ladies—showed that this venerated State paper of 1776, has a strong and cherished abiding in the hearts of the people of Western Arkansas.
After the reading of the Declaration, the President of the meeting offered some suitable remarks, to the effect that it had never been carried into practice until President Lincoln put forth his proclamation of freedom to the enslaved children of Africa.
A brief patriotic address was then made by an aged citizen, a refugee at this Post and familiarly known by the respectful appellation of Father Douglas, a man of Revolutionary ancestors and a soldier in the war of 1812.
Succeeding the address of Father Douglas, came the speech of the occasion, a pertinent, patriotic, and stirring address by L. W. Hover, a Lieutenant in the 12th Kansas Inft.  The speech of Lieut. Hover was decidedly and directly to the point, especially in the way of apt and forcible illustrations of the iniquitous institution of slavery, and of the enormous and damning turpitude of the slaveholders' rebellion.  This scathing and ardent outburst of radical and uncompromising hostility to rebels and rebel sympathisers, was frequently interrupted by the vociferous and unanimous approval of the great assembly.
Next in order came a fervid outpouring of patriotism from the eloquent lips of Capt. Duff, of the 6th Kansas Cavalry.
Capt. Duff was followed by Hon. Chas. Milor, a member in the Senatorial branch of the late General Assembly of Arkansas.  The speech of Senator Milor, in its earnest purpose of adhesion to and support of the Federal Union, was fully equal to the speeches which had preceded.
At proper intervals in the progress of the exercises, the excellent Brass Band of the 13th Kansas Inft. discoursed fine music, which added greatly to the interest of the occasion.
As the meeting was an affair of the Arkansians, Arkansas soldiers, not on military duty, were in full attendance.  The 1st Arkansas Infantry, under command of their earnest and devoted Colonel, E. J. Searle, marched from their camp to the place of celebration in fine style of martial array and with their regimental band at the head of the column.
At the close of the varied and interesting services, the crowd quietly dispersed. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 9, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
                                                         Head Quarters Dist. of the Frontier,
                                                        Department of Arkansas,
                                                        Fort Smith, Ark., July 8th, 1864.
Capt. C. O. Judson, Dist. Provost Marshal:
Sir:--I have within the last few days noticed several persons in the streets in a state of intoxication.
You will therefore cause every liquor saloon, and every place where liquor is sold at retail, to be immediately closed, and to be kept closed until further orders from these Head Quarters and in case of any disregard of this order, you will cause the liquors in such case to be seized.
You will also increase the patrol guard about the town, and see that perfect order prevails.
Very respectfully Yours,
                                                        M. Thayer,
                                                        Brig. Gen. Comd'g. 

                                                                                                                Office Dist. Provost Marshal,   }
                                                    Fort Smith, Ark., July 8, 1864.            }
Lieut. Bannister, Ass't Provost Marshal:
You will visit all saloons where liquor is sold and read this order to them and close said saloons forthwith.
                                    C. O. Judson,
                                    Capt. & Dist. Provost Marshal. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
A Texas Regiment.—Judge Robins, who came to this place from Texas, last Spring, is in Kansas, and has been authorized to raise a regiment of Texans.  He has two companies enrolled. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 23, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Black Scholars.

            It is highly interesting to witness the eagerness with which many of the colored soldiers avail themselves of the opportunity to improve their minds, since no iniquitous laws prevent them from exercising the talents which their Creator has endowed them with.  They may be seen on post with their spelling book, reader, or arithmetic stuck inside their belts, and as soon as they are relieved, eagerly pursue their course of study with a zeal and perseverance, that will carry success with it.
There never was a more monstrous and blasphemous lie uttered than the favorite doctrine of the slaveocrats, that the "nigger" was not a man, and incapable of rising above his present condition.  Sordid avarice and the basest selfishness were the parents of this horrible doctrine.  It is about exploded. 

 FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 23, 1864, p. 4, c. 2
The two cent pieces will soon be in circulation, bearing on one side, "United States of America, 2 cents;" on the reverse, a shield and the words, "God our trust."  This is the first one of our National coins which recognizes the existence of God in either legend or device. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 30, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

Rebel Attack on Our Outposts.

            Last Wednesday, July 27th, about sunrise a strong force of rebels under General Gano, consisting of the 30th, and part of the 31st regiments Texas Cavalry, Col. Well's battalion, and Folsom's and Walker's regiments of Choctaws of cooper's brigade, in all, about two thousand men, made an attack on a battalion of the 6th Kansas cavalry, numbering about 200 men and commanded by Maj. Mefford of that regiment on Mazard prairie, about seven miles from town.
Our men fought most heroically against overwhelming odds, retreating slowly towards gown and contending every inch of ground.  They were however, at least completely surrounded and overpowered and a number taken prisoners, among whom were Maj. Mefford and Lieut. De Friese.  Ten of our men were killed, 15 wounded; the rest fought their way through.
The rebels lost 12 killed and 20 wounded.
[list of federal killed and wounded]
As soon as the news of the attack reached Headquarters, Col. Judson, 6th Kans. Cav., hastened to the scene of action with a mounted force, but found that the enemy had left an hour and a half before his arrival.  He pursued him five miles across the mountain, ascertaining that he had nothing except the prisoners and what could be carried on horses.  The Colonel then halted and sent five scouts forward until they came up with the enemy's rear, which they reached about 3 o'clock, p.m., near the crossing of the Poteau, about ten miles from the camp.  The colonel then returned to the camp and found that the enemy had burned about three fourths of the camp and had left in a great hurry, leaving large quantities of Quartermaster's stores and transportation unharmed. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, July 30, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
A dead mule belonging to a Memphis citizen, was being hauled out of the lines the other day when a bayonet thrust revealed the fact that the carcass contained 60,000 percussion caps, a quantity of ammunition, and other contraband articles, which some rebel sympathizer had taken this means of smuggling. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 6, 1864, p. 1, c. 1-3

Execution of Bushwhackers.

            On the 29th ult., A. J. Copeland, James H. Rowden, John Norwood and William Carey suffered the extreme penalty of the law for murder and the violation of the civilized rules of warfare.  These men were tried by a military commission and found guilty of the above named crimes.
In April last, in company with twenty or more accomplices, they murdered eight Federal soldiers of the 1st Ark. Cav., who were herding horses near Fayetteville, Ark.  They approached our men dressed in the uniform of U. S. soldiers, and pretending to belong to the 14th Kans. Cav., completely throwing them off their guard.  That point gained, they suddenly and without a moment's warning fired upon them, and killing eight out of ten.
A Union citizen, named John Brown, was also killed by the miscreants at his own house about the same time.
When the sentence of death was first read to the culprits they seemed to be indifferent, one of them remarking, with an air of bravado, "Well, all right."  As the time for their execution drew near, however, they began somewhat to realize their awful situation, and requested the services of a spiritual adviser; and Rev. Francis Springer assumed that duty.
During the ministrations of several weeks of this reverend gentleman they showed symptoms of considerable contrition though at first they seemed to be aware of scarce any consciousness of the awfulness of the crimes which they had committed.  They began to feel that they had been in their previous career the enemies of God and man, and confessed that "they had been pretty bad boys."  So callous and hardened were they at first that what they had done they considered as first rate fun.
The condemned were all very young men, their average age not exceeding nineteen years.
Carey, the youngest, was a most desperate case, and gave to his spiritual adviser a partial history of his wicked career.  He is said to have killed twenty-one men.  They had all been once in the confederate army, but at the time of their capture were levying war upon their own hook, that is had become outlaws.
Early in the morning of their last day on earth the prisoners were visited by the chaplain, and impressive religious services were held.  Soon after the close of this interview the irons were taken off the culprits.  They were then brought forth from the prison and placed in custody of the guard detailed for the occasion.  In a few moments more they were in the wagons each one seated on his coffin.  Chaplain Springer was with two of the condemned in the first wagon, and Chaplains Wilson and McAfee with the other two in the second wagon.
The solemn procession was then formed, the Provost Marshal of the District, Capt. C. O. Judson, 6th Kans. Cav., with his staff, taking the lead.  Then came the music and the firing party, consisting of 64 men of the 13th Kans. Inf't., the two wagons with the culprits and chaplains, and lastly the guard.  A large number of citizens and soldiers lined the streets through which the procession moved.
The unfortunate but guilty men evidently tried to be firm and composed on the march, except Norwood, who repeatedly gave signs of grief by weeping and inaudible prayer.  The expression of their countenances, in spite of endeavors to be self-possessed, was that of sadness and despair.
On reaching the place of execution, south of town and just outside of the rifle pits, the prisoners were arranged in a line, each one by the side of his coffin.  Three sides of a hollow square of infantry had previously been formed to keep the multitude of spectators at a proper distance, leaving the aide next to the prisoners open.
The Judge Advocate of the District, Lieut. Whicher, then read to them the charges and findings of the military commission, after which the condemned kneeled down with the chaplains, and Rev. Mr. Springer offered a short and appropriate prayer.  At the conclusion of it the officers and others about the condemned shook hands with them and, bidding them a final farewell, retired, except the Judge Advocate, who remained till their eyes were bandaged and hands tied.  By this time all of the unfortunate men showed signs of intense mental distress.  Carey and Copeland prayed audibly and with great force.  Norwood started a hymn, and was still singing, in a low voice, when the death volley sent his soul into eternity.  Carey, on shaking hands with the Judge Advocate, remarked, "Judge, I hope to meet you in Heaven."  At length all the preparations were completed, and in another moment or two forty-eight muskets were pointed at the culprits.  One moment more and the simultaneous discharge of forty-eight guns four lifeless bodies lay stretched on the ground.
The whole terrible scene, from beginning to end, was conducted with the propriety due to a transaction so awful; but to the detail entrusted with the fatal shooting a special word is due.  The entire detail, consisting of sixty-four men of the 13th Kans. Inf., was commanded by Capt. Frankhouse.  Forty-eight were in line about twenty-five feet from the doomed men.  One half of the guns were charged with ball and the other half with blank cartridges.  The remaining sixteen men were held as a reserve in case of failure in the first discharge; but the volley of forty-eight guns was simultaneous and complete.  Death ensued almost instantaneously—no lingering agonies remained to torture the doomed and distress the beholders.  The most painful reflection awakened by the sad ceremony was that selfish, faithless and traitorous citizens should have stirred up a strife that precipitates into the vortex of crime, ignominy and ruin so many of the young men of our once peaceful, prosperous and happy country. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 6, 1864, p. 1, c. 3-4

Interesting Account of the
Fate of our Wounded and
Prisoners Down South.

            We had the pleasure, a few days ago, of meeting again, Dr. C. R. Stuckslager, Surgeon 12th Kans. Inf't., lately returned from Dixie.
Dr. Stuckslager was taken prisoner at the battle of Jenkin's Ferry, on the Saline river, April 30th, while attending to his duties on the battle-field.
He states that our wounded—140 in all—were placed in empty buildings near the battle ground.  A few had to remain in the yard without shelter, exposed to the inclemency of the weather.
The enemy had robbed our wounded of watches, knapsacks, canteens, clothing, etc.  The Doctor's horse and overcoat were also taken.  The dead were stripped naked.  Three wounded negroes were shot dead in the hospital yard, two in one of the out-buildings and one had his arm pierced through by a sabre in the hands of a Confed. officer.  The Doctor was at first quite destitute of medical supplies, etc., and had to use cast-off garments scattered over the ground for bandages and dressings.  On the third day the rebel authorities furnished the necessary instruments, etc., to perform operations of a serious nature; but owing to the delay of several days, the wounds had become so unfavorable as to cause the death of twelve out of the twenty-five operated upon.  The most wretched diet—nothing but parched corn for the first three days—also contributed materially to produce these unfavorable results.  Afterwards the prisoners were furnished corn meal and bacon.  Several confederate surgeons kindly assisted in the operations.  soon after the battle they began to move our wounded to Princeton, and by May 9th all were moved down.
At this place a rebel soldier shot six wounded colored soldiers; five died instantly and one survived only a few days.  The perpetrator of the atrocious crime was arrested by order of Gen'l Parsons and sent to Camden.  With what result is not known.
Seventy-two of our sick and wounded, in charge of Asst. Surg. C. Ottilie, 9th Wisconsin Inf't., arrived at Princeton on May 10th, and were put in charge of Dr. Stuckslager.  The churches and other buildings were used as hospitals, and bunks and bedsacks filled with cotton were furnished which, compared with the soiled clothes and blankets stiff with gore and mud, was a grateful change to our poor men.
About the 1st of June the convalescents were removed to Camden.  On the 15th of June  Dr. Stuckslager went to Camden, leaving the remainder of the sick and wounded—29 in number—in charge of Dr. Ottilie.
At Camden, the Doctor found twenty-three men in the hospital who had been left behind on the evacuation of the place, in charge of Asst. Surg. Finlan, 2d Mo.l Artillery, an eighteen of the Poison spring wounded, in charge of Dr. Canfield, 1st Ark. Inf't, all of whom Dr. S. placed in charge of Dr. Finlan, with the necessary nurses, etc.
About this time the prisoners in the guard house, with part of the hospital attendants and convalescents, were sent to Tyler, Texas.
The hospital diet consisted almost wholly of corn meal, beef and bacon.  A little sugar was added sometimes.  Many of the patients became scorbutic for want of vegetables.
The supply of medicines furnished was very deficient in quality and quantity.  Neither candles nor soap were furnished.
At Jenkin's Ferry the Doctor's burial party interred thirty-eight of our men on the field, and a rebel sergeant, charged with the same duty, reported eighteen that he had buried, making fifty-six in all.  Of the two hundred and eighteen severely wounded (all those slightly wounded having been sent to Pine Bluff) eighty-four died.
The rebel medical director reported their loss of killed and wounded at 904.  Maj. Cabell told Dr. S. that they had buried over 200 on the battle-field (of their own dead.) Another rebel officer told the Doctor that in killed, wounded, and missing they lost 1024.
Personally our surgeons were treated with due courtesy by the officers.  The rebel surgeons treated them with uniform and marked respect.
Dr. Stuckslager returned to Little Rock on the 2d of July, and started back again next day with eleven wagons loaded with provisions and Sanitary supplies.  Among the articles sent to our brave men were thirty two barrels of flour, four barrels of pickles, etc., eight hundred pounds of coffee and one hundred and twenty pounds of tea, besides an abundant supply of dried vegetables, dried fruit, soap, candles, whisky, clothing of all description, medicines, etc.  Gen. Price would not allow the Doctor to stay long enough to distribute all the supplies.  He declared, however, emphatically that none of his officers should have any thing to do with them, and that they should all go to our men.  The Doctor had to leave the day after he arrived.  It was a sight worth seeing to witness the manner in which the boys pitched into the tea, coffee, etc., the first evening.  It was a luxury to them that may be imagined but not described. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

Attack of the Town—Repulse
of the Rebels.

            We had a lively time for a day or two in the beginning of the week.  On last Sunday morning, the 31st ult., the rebels appeared in considerable force some four miles south of the town, driving in our pickets.  A brisk fire of the skirmishers was kept up for some time, the rebels at the same time throwing shells from a couple of howitzers.  A part of the 2d Kan. battery, Capt. Smith, promptly took position about a mile in advance of Fort No. 2, supported by two companies of the 1st Kansas colored, and just in time to prevent the rebels from occupying the same hill.  The enemy had fired a number of shots before our guns were in position.  The fire from Capt. Smith's battery was splendid, killing in a few shots a considerable number of the enemy and all the battery horses but one.  The enemy retired with the utmost precipitation, taking with them three wagon loads of dead and wounded.  Five of their artillery horses were found dead and crippled with their harness on, on the field of action.
Rebel skirmishers kept up some firing from the dense thickets of Poteau Bottom but without doing any injury.  Some little firing was done during the night, but the rebels did not venture to make a serious attack.  Our whole loss on Sunday was one of the pickets killed, one wounded and one taken prisoner.
On Monday, the rebel skirmishers again fired occasionally from Poteau bottom, but without doing any injury.  A few shells dispersed them.
Col. W. R. Judson, 6th Kans. Cav., was wounded in the left leg by the fragment of a shell.  He did not leave his post, however, nor did it prevent him from attending to his duties since. This was the only accident on our side during the artillery fight.
Capt. Smith showed us a canteen, picked up on the battle-field, cut all to pieces by shot and covered with blood.  To judge from the appearance the owner of it must also have been terribly mangled.
Many of the Fort Smith rebels were among the assailants, and would, no doubt, have been highly gratified if they could have come in.
The Union families in the vicinity of the place suffered severely.  Many of their houses were burned down, and all plundered more or less.
The rebels were estimated at about 8,000.  They have fallen back some twenty miles, and are said to be fortifying at Rock creek, awaiting reinforcements and supplies.  Cooper is said to be in command. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

The Exodus in Arkansas.

            For months past there has been going on a constant emigration of the people of the State of Arkansas to other parts of the Union.  Since last spring, every steamboat, every train, which left Fort Smith or Little Rock, was filled to the utmost with men, women and children, who were compelled by the cruel ravages of savage warfare, to turn their backs upon their once happy, but now desolated homes.
Thousands upon thousands have gone and are still going and seeking to go, where they can live in peace even if it is in poverty.  And it is melancholy to reflect that it is the loyal portion of the people, who have held out hopefully for years in the expectation of seeing better times, that are now driven into exile.
There is no alternative left for them.—They cannot live in safety outside of the military posts, and within these, starvation stares them in the face.
The scenes of suffering and woe among these unfortunate people are truly distressing to behold, and would awaken the sympathies of any but fiends in human shape.  While our authorities treat even those who are known to be enemies with due regard to the dictates of humanity, and many rebel families within our own lines subsist directly or indirectly upon the bounty of Government, their friends and relatives are cruelly desolating the homes of Union families, kill or carry off the men, and show only too plainly that they are bent upon a war of extermination.
Last fall, upon the victorious advance of the Union army, and the forced retreat of the rebels to the line of Red River, the rebellion seemed and it was hoped to be forever crushed out in Arkansas and that at the close of another campaign the old Flag would wave over all the territory west of the Mississippi.  The rebels certainly were completely demoralized and every indication seemed to warrant the above conclusion.
The unfortunate and unexpected issue of Bank's campaign sadly marred these justly entertained expectations and infused new vigor and energy in the desperate cause of the rebellion in this trans-Mississippi District and the Army of the Arkansas, unable to cope again with an overwhelming superiority of numbers, instead of establishing a base of operations on Red River, was compelled to resume its old line on the Arkansas.
Recent developments have proved that the rebels, if not intending to retake this line, are at least determined to harass our troops by cutting off supplies etc., so as to make an evacuation necessary.  In this they will be most certainly foiled and at the proper time, another advance of our gallant army will soon rid Arkansas again of those who are bent upon her total destruction and ruin. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

Refugees Going North.

            Another party of about 1,500 persons are about to set out from this place to seek temporary or permanent homes in the Northern States.
Many, if not most of them are in destitute circumstances, having been utterly ruined by the war.  They belong of course to the loyal part of people for the secesh and their sympathizers have either gone south or stay in the country under a pretence of loyalty.  The late raid of the rebels near this place, has driven all those who lived in comparative security within ten or fifteen miles from town, within the lines of fortification, many escaping with little more than their lives.
Among those leaving are many leading Union men, who enjoyed the confidence and esteem of loyal men and who, with the wreck of the former competence, are compelled to start anew in life among strangers.  We bespeak a kindly welcome for them, among their co-patriots at the North. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

Returned from Captivity.

            Several of the men taken prisoners in the fight on the 27th ult., on Mazzard Prairie, have made their escape from their captors and came in a few days ago.  They belong to the 6th Kansas Cavalry.  They were in a very destitute condition, the rebels, according to their mode of warfare, having stripped them of most of their clothing.  One scanty meal a day was all the food they received.  This is no worse, however, than the rebels fare themselves. 
They confirm the previous estimates made of the rebels, setting them down at ten thousand, with ten pieces of artillery. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
From Texas.—Information received lately from Texas, represent the condition of Union men horrible in the extreme.—They are hunted down like wild beasts and no mercy whatever is shown them. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 6, 1864, p. 4, c. 4
A Doughnut Match was one of the features of the "Fourth" celebration at Winsted, Conn.  Six doughnuts were suspended on pins, six feet from the ground, and the competitors, with hands tied, went at them.  The man that eat the first one took a prize of $3. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

The Refugee Train

            Left here last Monday.  It was the largest train that ever went North from this place and was composed of a better class of people than have gone heretofore.
It was a sad sight to us to see those who have been raised among the mountains and vallies of Arkansas leaving homes which they have made by long years of toil; and turning their faces to a strange land not knowing that ever another spot will be home to them, and as it were, having to begin life over again.  This is but one of the results of the war which has been forced upon the Nation by a Slave Aristocracy.
These refugees will for the most part become citizens of the new North-western States, adding to them wealth and prosperity, and making for themselves homes where they can follow the industrial arts, agriculture, &c., in peace and quietude.
Arkansas, situated as it is, will be a battle ground during the existence of the rebellion, and be in an unsettled state long after the war is at an end thus keeping many persons who desire to make this their future home from returning.
Truly, treason makes a fair field a desert. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
The editor left for St. Louis with his family, last Monday, where he will leave them during the coming Winter.  He will visit Washington City before he returns. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Rev. J. B. McAffee, Chaplain of the 2nd Kansas Col'd, went North with the refugee train.  For the last two months this gentleman has been spending his whole time in the interests of these poor people.  Giving up his own comfort he has worked day after day rendering them essential service.  Too much praise cannot be given him for his self-denial and unceasing labors for the Union refugees. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, August 20, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
No man ever yet saw an American who hated slavery, yet upheld the rebellion; and no one ever saw an American who justified and wished to perpetuate slavery who had not at least a sneaking tenderness for the rebel cause.  For all practical purposes, the rebellion and slavery are related as mother and child. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 3, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

Pickets Driven In.

            On Thursday morning, as the pickets were posted on the Texas road, they were attacked by three hundred Indians, killing Henry Hirsch, wounding a man by name of Root and taking Geo. Coulter prisoner, all belonging to Co. H, 2nd Kansas Cavalry.  They drove in the rest of the pickets, and coming one mile this way killed an old man who was making molasses at Mr. Frost's house.  Among the guerrillas were two Forkner [?] boys and James McLune [?], who are known to some of our citizens.  Root died yesterday morning.
The body of Hirsch was found the same day stripped and a little finger, upon which he usually wore a gold ring, cut off. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 3, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
Chaplain McAfee called on us yesterday.  He had charge of the refugees at Fort Smith for some time past.  He informs us that from the 22d of April to the 22d of May he issued 40,000 rations to those poor people, and from the 22d of May to the 22d of June, 49,000, issuing to none who were not in absolutely destitute of circumstances.  Up to the 7th of August he superintended the shipment of 4,329 refugees, about 2,600 of whom were sent to Kansas.
Mr. McAfee speaks in the highest terms of the treatment of these people by Col. Judson, whose kindness and humane conduct, he says, is deserving of all praise.—Fort Scott Monitor, Aug. 24th

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 3, 1864, p. 3, c. 1

The Death of Miss Breckinridge.

            A correspondent writes to the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, from Niagra [sic] Falls, as follows:
Ten years ago three of the most powerful nations of the world were engaged—two of them against the third—in a deadly conflict in a territory smaller than several of the States in the American Union.  such was the nature of the soil and the moisture of the climate, and especially such were the requirements of military routine and official circumlocutions, that the sick and wounded soldiers of the Allies were subject to unnecessary and grievous neglect and suffering.  So frightfully true was this at the commencement of the siege of Sebastapol, that the poor soldiers preferred the hardships and discomfort of the trenches and the camp to the horrors of the hospital.  And when the kindly heart, quick perception and resolute will of a single woman, cutting the knots of official tape, brought order out of confusion, system out of chaos, and devoted herself with the zealous tenderness of her woman's heart to the care and nursing of the sick and wounded soldiers, she was hailed as an angel of mercy, and her name and memory were at once canonized in the Christian heart of the world.
The war of the Allies in the Crimea had its single Florence Nightingale.  The war of the United States has a corps of them.  One of the latter has just fallen a martyr in this sacred vocation.  Miss Margaret E. Breckinridge, who recently died at Niagara Falls, was the daughter of the late Rev. John Breckrinridge, of Kentucky.  Her mother was the daughter of the late Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D., President of Princeton College.  Miss Breckinridge inherited the vigorous intellect, the quick perception, and the strong religious temperament for which the family has long been distinguished.  Her physical organization was slight and delicate in the extreme, but more than ordinary power was imparted to it by a strong mind, and a resolute will, and a dominant and devoted sense of duty.  Seldom has so frail a casket contained so rich a gem.
She entered the hospital service on the Mississippi, in Gen. Grant's department, in the winter of 1862.  Possessing a fine musical talent, which had been well cultivated, a comprehensive and tenacious memory, and being familiar from the years of her earliest instruction with the sacred truths and promises of the Bible, she soon became a special favorite with the hopelessly sick, the wounded and dying soldiers.  Ministering both to their physical and moral wants, when all hope of restoring the suffering body had perished, she strove to rekindle those better hopes which have their fruition beyond the grave.
She repeated and explained the loving invitations and comforting promises of her Divine Master, and then in the touching tones of her bird-like voice, sang to the departing spirit those sacred lyrics, which had been familiar to all of them in their early years, and to many of them through all the years of their lives.  And often did the last feeble pressure of the hand whose strength had departed, and the last serene and earnest look of the dying soldier's closing eye, express the gratitude which his tongue was too feeble to utter, and evince the consoling assurances which her ministrations have brought him.  To them she was indeed a "ministering spirit."
It was in the lowlands of the Mississippi that she was first attacked with one of those obstinate camp diseases which too often become chronic.  Leaving the department of the Mississippi, in order to recruit her wasted strength, she spent several months with friends in the East.  In May last she entered again upon hospital duty near Philadelphia, but was soon obliged to leave her post by an attack of erysipelas.  On partially recovering from this she came to Niagra [sic], for the two-fold purpose of sharing the sorrows of a relative who had recently been sorely afflicted by the death of an only brother upon the field of battle, and of recruiting her own health and strength so that she might return again to her labors of mercy.
She had even then within her system the seeds of that fatal typhoid fever peculiar to camps, which was soon developed in all its strength, and of which, complicated with other difficulties, she died on Wednesday, July 17th

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 3, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
Normain Doane, an Indiana soldier, has received a furlough from one of the Washington hospitals to visit his home and christen his twins—Abe and Andy.  His application for the furlough causes a laugh even amid the sternness of the War Department.
Dear Sir—The Union is saved.  Hurrah!  Make room in Abraham's bosom!  My wife has twins.  Both boys!
"Do please grant me a furlough for twenty or thirty days, to go to Fort Wayne, Ind., to christen 'em Abe and Andy; and besides, I would like to know if they look like me.
"I am not too sick now.  A few days at home will do me more good than six months in the hospital.  Should any references be required on patriotism and public services, Schulyler Colfax; on domestic relations, Mrs. Doane,
                                                        Very respectfully,
                                                                    Normain Doane,
                                            Private, signed Corporal, U. S. A.
"P.S.—The little presents necessary upon such occasions, need not be sent till after the 4th of March next, when Andy will be present also.                                     N.D." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 10, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
The effects of soldiers deceased at the hospital at this Post, will be sold at public auction to the highest bidder, on the grounds of the Belle Grove Hospital, on Monday, the 19th day of Sept. 1864. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 10, 1864, p. 3, c. 3

The Color-Bearer.

            A correspondent of the Chicago Post relates the following of the bravery and self-sacrifice of the color-bearer of the 27th Illinois.
In the bloody charge led by General Hooker against Kenesaw, the 27th regiment was pressing upon the rebel works, and when they approached very near them Michael Delaney, the color-bearer, rushed some ten paces forward of the regiment, and, holding aloft the starry banner of his country, shouted to his comrades to follow.  Just then a ball struck his left arm, inflicting a flesh wound, from which the blood trickled in profuse currents.
Still grasping the flat, and keeping it to the breeze, he drew his revolver, and rushing forward, leaped upon the works, waving his flag, and firing his pistol upon the foe.
Thus, standing upon the enemy's works, his pistol in hand, and his colors streaming over his head, the rebels approached him, one on each side, and thrust their bayonets into the sides of the hero martyr.  He felt the cold steel pierce to the very quick of his young life, yet he did not falter.  With the blood gushing from his wounds, he clasped the flag to his breast and bore it back in safety to his comrades, among whom he soon after bled to death.
Though no star or eagle decorated his shoulders, he is of the country's heroes, his name stamped upon theirs high on the roll of honor.  Though no sculptured marble may mark the spot of his lonely grave among the melancholy pines of Northern Georgia, his intrepid bravery entitle him to the homage of all who honor the flag so bravely bore and laid down his life to save.  The 27th Illinois suffered heavily, but behaved nobly, in this fierce and unequal contest of the 27th

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 10, 1864, p. 4, c. 2
We learn that the cities of Canada are full of cowards from the States—skedaddlers from the draft and rebel sympathizers.  A Canadian recently arrived here says the "natives to the manner born" there are crowded out of their situations in stores, workshops and offices by these skedaddlers who underbid them in salaries, and who indeed appear to be ready and willing to engage in almost any kind of dirty business in order to earn a livelihood.  The Canadians very generally despise the miserable cowards. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 10, 1864, p. 4, c. 2
The novelty of the season is the hay loader.  It is fastened to the hind axle, and as the wagon moves, straddling the winrow, it picks up the hay and throws it on the wagon, about as fast as two men can load it, and that is about as many as can load to advantage. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 17, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

Ho!  Ye Little Ones!

            Rev. Francis Springer, Post Chaplain at this place, proposes to take charge of all such orphan and friendless children as may be committed to his care.
He engages to find homes for them in good christian families, where the children will be properly fed, clothed, sent to school and reared if possible to virtue, respectability and honor.
Persons wishing to see the Chaplain on this subject, can call on him at his quarters near the residence of John Hendry's or at the Refugee Office on Garrison Avenue. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, September 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
Desperate Condition of the Rebels.—A Union officer, lately released from prison at Macon, Georgia, gives a vivid description of the desperate measures to which the rebels have resorted to reinforce Hood.  Besides conscripting everybody, they have put into the ranks all the unarmed employees, including every hospital stewards.  To supply the places of the latter, women have been conscripted; and every house in Macon has a certain number of sick and wounded billeted upon it. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 1, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

Attack on a Forage Train.

            On last Wednesday, a forage train, escorted by a detachment of the 14th Kansas cavalry, went out fourteen miles on the Little Rock road, and while gathering corn were attacked by four or five times their number of guerillas, and overpowered after fighting several hours, and obliged to retreat, leaving their dead and wagons on the ground.  Eight of the 14th were killed and Capt. Henry severely wounded.  Several of the boys are missing.
The dead, when found, were not only shot, but stabbed in different places and stripped of all clothing.  An old crazy pauper who was in a house near by was taken out and shot.
These fiends, who are Indians led on by white men, seem to have no other object in this struggle than the shedding of blood and the plunder of their victims, whom they strip of every article of clothing.  Even old crazy Bob, was robbed of his old pantaloons. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 1, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
Out of 1,950 children that died in the city of New York, during the month of August, less than 200 were of native-born parentage. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 1, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
End of the War.—The Richmond Dispatch thus facetiously gives its ideas of when the end of the war will arrive:
"We are asked fifty times a day, more or less, when we think the war will end.  As we have no right to think, in the absence of data to think upon, we are sometimes at a loss for an answer.  However, for the information of those who are particularly inquisitive and anxious upon the subject, we will relate a dream a friend of ours had on the duration of the war, which may throw some light on the subject.  He dreamed he awoke from a sleep of fifty years, and found himself upon the south side of the Rapidan.  He saw at a little distance from the spot where he awoke, a corporal with seventeen men and a wheelbarrow.  He approached, and asked the corporal what this little gathering meant.  "This," replied the corporal, "is the Army of Northern Virginia."  "Where are the Yankees," inquired our friend.  "They are on the other side of the river," replied the corporal.  "They have the advantage of us in numbers and transportation, as they have twenty-one men, and two wheelbarrows, but we expect to get the advantage in position, will whip them and then the war will end." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 1, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
A correspondent, from Mobile Bay, writes that all the men, women and children he saw around the bay were barefooted.  They did not seem to possess boots, shoes, or stockings. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 8, 1864, p. 1, c. 1

Desolation of the South.

            A lady, who has managed to return from what was once the wealthiest and most prosperous part of Alabama, makes the following statement concerning the condition and spirit of the Southern people:
The desolation of the Southern States beggars description.  Destitution and poverty have taken the place of opulence and prosperity.  Men that were worth hundreds of thousands are reduced to utter poverty.  As for the luxuries of life, formerly so abundant in the South, there are none.  Those formerly the wealthiest have nothing to sustain life but what the country affords, and not enough of that, for by impressment it is taken away from them for the army.
Their garments, even their shoes, the families have to make themselves; they spin, weave and dye their cotton and homespun clothes, rich and poor.  Tea, coffee and sugar are not to be had; milk and water are their only beverages; Indian corn is their principal food.  The families are broken up and ruined.  You seldom meet with a male inhabitant, and if you do he is either infirm or a cripple.  A large portion of the male population are killed in battle, many more crippled for lifetime; many patriotic Union men died of a broken heart.  What remains are either in the army or in the employment of the Government.  Nevertheless press-gangs cross the country in all directions in search of men for the army.  All ties of social life are completely dissolved.
No courts of justice or equity are held—justice is meted out by the military.  Universities, colleges and schools are all suspended.  The country in many places resembles a wilderness.  Wherever the armies march, there everything is ruined—crops destroyed, fences burned, trees cut down, domestic animals killed, robbed or taken for the army. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 8, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

From Texas.

            Several families of refugees came in from Texas, yesterday.  They are the wives of Union men who are in the service, and were driven from their homes by the same class of rebels who now murmur at Gen. Sherman's order removing them from Atlanta.  They report that all the men that could be found have been conscripted, and that a great many are secreted in the hills and brush.  They were five weeks on the road.  Will the Copperheads make a note of this:  that while they are growling at the way their rebel friends are treated, these same gentry are oppressing the poor and defenceless families that are left in their midst.  We feed the families of the rebels and they in turn, starve ours. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 15, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

Another Lot of Refugees

            Came in last evening from Montague county, Texas.  Five weeks ago they left home with their teams, bedding, etc., and were unmolested until within eighty miles of this place.  There the inhuman rebels, who delight in acts of cruelty, commenced robbing them, but let them keep their teams until 30 miles out, when they were taken, and the poor women and little children, without sufficient clothing or provisions were compelled to come in on foot.  Compare this treatment of the Union families of Texas with the way our authorities treat those who are sent out of the lines.
With traitors of any kind, rebels in arms, female spies, or copperheads of the North we have no sympathy whatever, but we are glad that the rights of unoffending and defenseless women and children are respected wherever the Flag of our Union floats.
Friends, these Texas refugees are destitute.  Whenever you see Chaplain Springer remember that he represents them, and open your hearts and pocket-books. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 15, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

A Flag of Truce

Came in last Sunday evening, bringing with it several persons who were taken prisoners by the rebels.  Among them were Mrs. Mason and child who were taken with the train that was captured at Cabin creek a few weeks since.  Mrs. M. was coming to this place to see her husband, who has, for some time past, been sick in hospital.  She states that after the train was captured the rebels traveled constantly four days and nights, feeding and watering their mules but twice and not going into camp in that time.  They were very much afraid of being overtaken and kept their teams on the trot or lope the greater part of the time.  They traveled north-west for two days and were nine days getting to Cooper's camp.  All soldiers and teamsters taken were stripped of their clothing, hardly being allowed enough to cover themselves, and in this condition sent on to Tyler, Texas.
Mrs. M. remained in Cooper's camp seven days, and was well treated with the exception of having her trunk, containing all her clothing and other articles, taken from her. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 15, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

More Refugees.

            A large train of refugees left here the first part of the week for Kansas.  Among them were many of our best Union citizens, farmers and mechanics who remained here through the summer, hoping that they would be permitted to return to their homes and farms this fall; but the unsettled state of the country and scarcity of provisions make it necessary for them to winter in the North.  Many, when the troubles are over, will come back to Arkansas, but most of them will permanently settle in Kansas and the States of the North-west. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 15, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
Gone North.—Dr. Winans, Medical Purveyor of this District, and Dr. Stuckslager of the 12th Kansas, went North with the train.  Dr. W. will be absent for several weeks during which time Dr. Wood will act as Medical Purveyor. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 15, 1864, p. 4, c. 4
A Canadian newspaper, referring to the influx of sneaks from the States, says:  "They are coming, Father Abraham, five hundred thousand more, but unfortunately for you and for us, they are coming the wrong way." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 15, 1864, p. 4, c. 3

A Scene of Desolation in Georgia.

            A correspondent of the Boston Journal who has visited the region fought over in Georgia, writes as follows:
"Georgia, as seen from Chattanooga to Marietta—about one hundred and fifty miles—is totally swept of its male inhabitants.  In the still standing cottages (mostly near the depots,) and selling peaches, apples and pies around the cars, you see the lean, lank, yellow-skinned women of the lower class, with their towheaded children—a few boys under twelve and some unmanageable girls—all clad in the commonest of female or of homespun male garments; but never by any chance, excepting near the lines, and then very rarely, an able-bodied man.  Every able bodied Negro in the service of the army.  Georgia here is abandoned, excepting by its women.  All—every man—of the adult male population is in the Southern army.
I have seen in the letters of correspondents accounts of the fields of waving corn and wheat that would perish for want of men to cut them down.  These fields were said to exist on this route.  I did not see them, nor traces of them.  It is a lovely land, with its gentle undulations, gracefully receding toward the forest covered mountains; it is a well watered and fertile soil, capable of being made a paradise in point of beauty, and for fruitfulness another Egypt; but there has been comparatively a very small portion of the ground redeemed yet, and the cultivation that existed meagre, rude, and limited as it was, has disappeared before the desolating march of the two great armies.  Here and there you see patches of corn; but to call the country an uninhabited and uncultivated region, held by the military power, is the truest description to be given of it.
"All along the railroad you seldom lose sight of the great fact of the war.  The country is cut up with breastworks, and dotted over with rifle-pits.  Had the chivalry and 'poor white trash' united in doing as much work in ploughing and otherwise cultivating the fields as they have done in their vain but persistent attempts to stop the progress of civilization as represented by Sherman's army, Georgia, instead of being now way down in the list of wealthy States, would have run up like gold—suddenly and far.  But that would have been degrading themselves, while to ruin their State is ennobling!
All along the railroad you see the black embers and charred timbers, and chimneys standing alone, that show where houses have been burned down by Johnston's or our army.  The few little villages that there are on the road are utterly deserted.  You see large hotels, all open, with broken panes of glass, doors and blinds, (of these last a few only,) off their hinges, emptied of furniture from cellar to ceiling.  So of all the stores, excepting those occupied by our troops or the Sanitary Commission.
At every bridge, however small the stream it crosses, there is a block house or stockade, built or building, and a guard. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, October 22, 1864, p. 1, c. 1-3

From Texas.
Statement of a Former Resident.

[From the Rochester Democrat.]
Frank G. Radway left New York State in 1856, and went West to "try his fortune" in those new fields which enterprise was then marvelously developing, and where the artificial and unreal theft [?] had sprung up, which only the dreadful collapse of 1857 completely exposed.  When the revival came, Radway drifted to Texas, to try again.  There the rebellion caught him, and he has this summer, for the first time, found himself able to escape.
He planned his escape in 1862, and though aided by a reputation of loyalty to the South, and by the influence of powerful associations, he was only able to bring his plans to successful termination by two years labor and effort.  He says it is almost impossible for the loyal people of the South to escape, and thinks it can be hardly more difficult to safely penetrate the picket lines in front of Petersburg than to get from Texas into Mexico.  When he started from Houston, he was trebly armed with mandatory passes to all agents of "the Confederacy," from the provost marshals and Major General Magruder; yet he was seized by a prowling band of guerillas when he had got two hundred miles, his passes torn up, and he was hurried back within reach of the conscription, and thrown into the service.  His life was frequently threatened, and on his way he passed eight families of Germans who had tried to get away, and the eight fathers and mothers had been set up in line and shot, on being captured.  He now succeeded, by a rare and curious combination of circumstances, in being declared exempt from the army, where upon he purchased a cargo of cotton, sent it to run the blockade, and obtained a permit to leave the country to manage its sale, &c.  The vessel was captured, but he safely crossed the Rio Grande.
He represents the condition of the inhabitants as wretched in the extreme.  They have but one thought now, and that is how to get their bread from day to day.  There is untold suffering, and considerable absolute starvation—especially among the families of absent soldiers.  The men and women wear mainly the same clothing they possessed before the war, and many who were accounted wealthy in '50, are now in rags and barefoot.  Some cargoes recently ran the blockade, and now the young women of the State are learning to spin and weave.  Those who a little while ago looked down upon labor as menial and degrading, fit only to be performed by slaves, now apply to it in their extremity of suffering as the good angel that stands between them and destruction.
The people at home look forward with the utmost apprehension to possible return of their soldiers, in case the war shall be closed by victory or defeat.  It seems that the soldiers in service have a spite, or a "grudge" against the stay-at-homes, because those who are exempt by age have broken their promises by letting the soldier's families suffer, and because many non-exempts have evaded the conscription by procuring with their ample means sinecures for themselves, in the shape of some trifling office—an assistant provost marshal or quartermaster's berth—while they have been bearing the whole burden of the war.  These grievances they feel keenly, and have come to consider all the property at home as their own, because they have defended it.  After the capture of Vicksburg, two Texan regiments were paroled and returned to Houston.  On the first day they would enter the stores, and taking up an article, ask, "How much for this in gold?"  The price would be stated, whereupon they would pay in the worthless currency of Richmond, saying, "this is our gold."  They soon exhausted their small supply of this, when they went in bands through these stores, helping themselves to whatever they wanted, intimidating the proprietors and defying law.  The stores through all that region were closed until the departure of the men again.  Since that time the spirit of the soldiers has grown worse, and now, in letters they freely threaten the lives of the skulks at home who, while avoiding danger, have left the families of their defenders to starve.  The people of Texas would rather have the Northern army triumph, and take their chances with in its hands, than to see their own soldiers return among them.  Mr. Radway looks with astonishment on the confidence and affection which exist mutually between the Northern people and their soldiers, and the hearty welcome which always awaits the discharged veterans, when he reflects that the return of the Southern troops is anticipated with terror.
The conscription is now nominally universal, no male person below sixty, who can march and carry a musket, being exempt, and only those whose money will purchase a local military office escaping service.  Soldiers only are to be seen in any neighborhood; and a young man appearing in the streets ununiformed excites the liveliest curiosity and is not allowed to rest until he explains himself.  Mr. Radway was drafted twice, and conscripted once, but managed to escape service by one device or another—generally by claiming to belong to some of the exempt occupations as long as that plea was valid and respected.  He resolved never, in any event, to fire a shot at his loyal countrymen.  The whole South is scoured by bands of guerillas, consisting of the most vicious and desperate of soldiers, who drive deserters and citizens out of woods and swamps, into the army.  These roving bands are irresponsible, and frequently subject their victims to the most horrible tortures and death.  He wonders that any man in the North should complain of the mild measures of the draft.

Martial Law.

            This bugbear of the Copperheads is really the scourge of the South.  Every State there is under the most relentless martial law, and no man nor woman can travel a mile in any direction on a public conveyance without a military pass.  Mr. R. is surprised at the facility of public intercourse in New York, and still more astonished, he says, at the denunciations of the "martial law" which he does not see in operation.
The right to habeas corpus, under a military arrest, was suspended by the Confederate Congress in the early part of the war, and when a Texan is arrested now, he is thrown into jail, and no man dare ask for a trial.
The people never dare question the authorities.  They never oppose, nor discuss, nor even criticize.  If a man should denounce Jeff Davis as a tyrant on account of the conscription, or arbitrary arrests, he would be shot by the provost guard.  If he should undertake to harangue a crowd for the purpose of creating dissatisfaction with the Administration, the crowd would seize him in a minute and hang him as a traitor.  The Texans have long ago learned better than to find fault.
As the value of  Southern currency has depreciated, prices have risen until almost fabulous sums are [illegible]for everything.  Indeed, scarcely anything is to be had now at any price.  When the war began Mr. R. was in the dry goods business.  "The money," he says, "that I got for a cargo of goods in 1860 bought only a car load in 1861; and the proceeds of that only purchased a wagon load in the spring of 1862, and that same amount produces only a wheelbarrow load in the fall."  He says he made $50,000 in 1863, and was confounded when he ascertained that money had depreciated so rapidly that he was worth less at the end of the year than at the beginning.  He saw in April a pint of strawberries sold for $50, in Houston.  He paid $2,200 for a poor horse to ride to Mexico, and sold it at Monterey for $30.  He paid $800 for a Colt's revolver; I saw the bill of it.  His meals, at hotel, and cabins where he stopped while travelling through Texas, cost him just $10 each, and they consisted of cornbread and dried beef, with corn coffee.  Newspapers, half sheet, brown paper, are fifty cents apiece, so that the pay of a Southern soldier is $11 a month, will just buy one meal of victuals (?) [question mark and parenthesis in article] and two newspapers?  What wonder they mutiny?
The people are kept exceedingly ignorant, and Mr. R., though near to the best local sources of information, believed for three months that Vallandigham was elected Governor of Ohio.  Of course there was great rejoicing throughout the South as there is over every Democrat victory.  They hailed with delight the reported division and revolt of their friends in the North, and looked upon it as the last chance of success—all other auxillaries having failed.  Mr. R. says the people of Texas consider the hope of the rebellion about gone, and that a little more patience, endurance, and the resolution on the part of the loyal people of the North will scatter their armies and break the strength of the rebellion forever.  He is sure the Southern armies are diminishing their numbers day by day; there is not another man they can get; and if the Unionists knew how near is the end of the rebellion, they would not for a moment look back. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 5, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

The Second Brigade.

            Last Monday the colored troops were in all their glory.  The 2d Brigade was on review, and presented an appearance that made very loyal heart throb with pleasure, and every rebel that saw the "darks," tremble when he remembered that "God is just," and that it was for the perpetual enslavement of these black patriots that this rebellion was inaugurated.  Every man was in his place, and stepped with the music as if he felt the whole thing depended on himself.
The 1st and 2d colored are as well drilled as any regiments in the District, if not better than any, and their movements on Monday were a credit to the blacks as well as the noble men who command them.  The 11th and 54th are of more recent organization, but are well drilled and ready for double their number of rebs at any time.
It is but two years since the 1st colored was raised and then months passed before it was fully organized and its officers commissioned.  Then but few thought it possible for any good to come out of the movement, and the whole Copperhead fraternity and a good many weak kneed Republicans cried out against it.  "It was well enough to put them in the ditches with spades in their hands, but to arm and drill the nigger and thus make them the equals of white soldiers was outrageous," while at the same time the colored man is by far the superior of any copperhead or rebel.  They said the "nigger was a coward, wouldn't fight, and that a white man with a whip in his hand could run a dozen blacks though armed with the minnie."  How has it turned out?  Has any company of the 2d Brigade ever showed the least sign of cowardice though some of them have at different times been attacked by three times their numbers?  No!  and every man that saw them last Monday acknowledged to himself that they were more than a match for the same number of rebels in any open field fight.
Two years ago none but men of true moral as well as physical courage would accept positions in colored regiments.  All honor to the Officers of the 1st Colored, who, disregarding the sneers of the world, and risking their chances of being commissioned and the threats of assassination by the rebels if they were ever taken, went forward in the path of duty and won for themselves and their men an honorable positon in the grandest army in the world.
"Look out dar" rebels, when you come in contact with the 2d Brigade, for they're "gwyne to shoot." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 5, 1864, p. 3, c. 3

Religion Among Soldiers.

            the nobler endowments and qualities of human nature always lean in the direction of piety towards God.  The army is not so much a school of impiety as simply a revealer of it.  Some men of persistent and stubborn perversity may unite with the army for no other purpose, but, under pretense of the soldier, to act the rowdy and the ruffian; and others inexperienced or weak in virtue, may be led astray by the evil examples of the more adventurous and reckless of their companions in arms.  But in neither case can it be said with truth, that the despisers of virtue were made such by the necessary tendencies of the military profession.  Generally speaking, bad men in the army were bad men before they entered it.
On the other hand, there are numerous examples of high-minded honor and christian piety, among the men devoted to martial pursuits.  These, in the majority of cases, were religiously devout previous to their enrollment as soldiers; and instances are not wanting of christian soldiers becoming more christian during the period of their military service.  They have grown in possession and enjoyment of a richer experience in the renewed life.  Such, to some extent, at least, seems to be the tendency of many minds in the army at this post.  This tendency is evinced by the lively interest in religion, which, at present, is so wide spread among the soldiers.
A striking testimony to this religious bias, is the successful organization of the Army Church at this military station.—This association was begun only a few weeks ago, (organized on the 21st of September, last,) though of origin so recent, it already numbers its members by hundreds, and is still increasing.
The ground work of this christian organization is embraced in the teachings of the Savior, and the pledge of association in the following words:
"We hereby associate ourselves together under the name of an Army Church, accepting as the basis of our faith, practice and discipline, the teachings of Jesus Christ; and we pledge to each other mutual help in the attainment of the christian life and character, through faith in Him, and obedience to the truth; and we will endeavor, as we have opportunity, to do good to others."
Here in a single sentence not very long, and certainly very plain, are set forth the true aim and purpose of the genuine disciples of Christ.  A platform of christian fellowship so brief and so general, is at once expressive of mutual fraternal forbearance, liberality and confidence, and of an exalted and truly christian intention to cherish and disseminate the spirit of piety.
Volunteers in the noble service of their country, are here presented with an invitation to volunteer under the captaincy of the Prince of peace.  The watch-word of this army is, "By patient, continuance in well-doing, to seek for glory, honor, and immortality," in the assured confidence of the reward of "eternal life."

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 12, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Sixty-four citizens of Howard co., Mo., came in from Price within the last two or three days.  They claim to have been conscripted. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 19, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
The troops at this post are well fixed for winter having built for themselves comfortable quarters.  Many of their cabins are as good if not better than two-thirds of the houses in western Arkansas, outside of the towns. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, November 26, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

From Tyler, Texas.

                                                                                                                    Fort Smith, Nov. 24, 1864.
Editor New Era:
Sir:--As many of the readers of your paper have friends in the military prison Camp  Ford, near Tyler, Smith co., Texas, it may be interesting to some of them to know how they are treated, and as I am recently from there, I ask a place in your columns for the following:
The prison is an area of eight acres enclosed by logs set on end six feet high inside of which the men have erected rude cabins and temporary sheds which partly protect them from the weather.  There is a spring of good water inside and the men are seldom or never permitted to go without the enclosure.
Rations are issued to the prisoners every morning and consist of three articles:  One quart of meal, one and a quarter pounds of meat, and three-fourth ounces of salt to each man.  The meal is coarse and unsifted.  The beef is generally good.  There are no vegetables allowed and hundreds of the men have the scurvy.  The rations are insufficient, and to a Federal soldier are certainly a poor substitute for those allowed by his government.  If the commanding officer was so disposed he could do better for our men but they say anything is good enough for the d____d Yankees, and while their men had half rations of flour and bacon issued them we were issued our cracked corn and beef.
Wood is issued in small quantities scarcely sufficient for cooking purposes, and under the present commander the men are not permitted to go to the neighboring woods for any.  Owing to the inferior quantity of the rations and the want of medicines many brave fellows who have nobly fought for their country have died here, and many more will die if not soon exchanged.  The hospital which is outside the stockade is a rude, comfortless building, erected without a nail, and is continually falling down.  It does not turn the rain, neither is there a chimney to it, and the patients are compelled to lay without a fire, or a matress under them, and some who were weak and emaciated have died of cold.  The sick are allowed half rations of flour, bacon, and sugar, but are not supplied with proper medicines, consequently, some days, as many as five die.
Although two parties have been exchanged there are yet 2,600 remaining at Tyler and 500 at Camp Gross, 200 miles West of Tyler, and had not our government sent 1,200 suits of clothes, the men would have been naked.
Every party of prisoners taken to Tyler are robbed by the guards on the way, and some of the men who were captured with the train at Cabin Creek, came in without their pantaloons and boots.  Some who became foot sore and unable to travel had a rope tied around their necks and dragged along.  Private Selick of co. H, 2nd Kansas cav., was shot dead June 17th, on the way from Camden to Shreveport, because he could not travel as fast as the guards.  In the stockade men are shot down and during the four months that I remained there four men were shot and not the least notice taken of it.
Kansas troops are treated worse than any others and the party, 120 that were captured with Maj. Metford and Lieut DeFrieze were not permitted to have any shelter erected and were obliged with only six blankets among them to lay on the ground.
With all the hard things the men have to endure they are cheerful and have their jokes.  On one occasion the mill became out of repair and the Q. M. issued us corn in the cob, the reason being explained to the boys.  They said nothing about it the first day, but the second day seeing it was corn they gathered around the Q. M. and made him promise to bring hay and oats the next time.  The next day, however, they received their everlasting meal.  The men amuse themselves playing chess and other games, and there are three turning tables in full blast, to the great astonishment of the rebs.
In the month of July, under Col. Border's command a great many made their escape.  On the 28th of Sept. a tunnel 80 feet long was completed and 28 made their escape, but the guard detected it, and in the morning they started five bloodhounds on their trail and recaptured 11 of them.  One was severely torn.  Since then they have dug a ditch eight feet deep around the stockade and escapes are few.  The men are counted twice per day, and so particular are they that when a man dies the officer of the day has to examine the coffin before it is removed for burial.
M. F. Parker, 1st Sergt. Co. C, 6th Kans, and Private J. J. Jones, 5th Kans. and myself, succeeded in making our escape on the 27th of October.  Our outfit consisted of eight pounds of bread and four pounds of bacon and a blanket apiece.  We crossed Red River Nov. 7th, above the mouth of mill creek, and traveled North, near the Choctaw line and were getting along well until the night of the 17th of November, when in the neighborhood of  Waldron, we were recaptured by a company of bushwhackers and barely escaped being killed.  They told us they were bushwhackers, and that they killed and scalped every Kansan and Arkansan that fell into their hands, and that since the 1st of April they had killed sixty Federals.  They treated us well and after robbing us of our clothes told us they would not kill us, but would send us back to Tyler.  They took us back nine miles the following day and the next day would have turned us over to Miller, Captain of a similar company, but I happened to know the gentleman, and that if we were turned over to him it would be all over with us.  So I gave them the slip that night and succeeded in getting in here on Monday, 21st inst., being without anything to eat for three days.  Parker and Jones made their escape from the bushwhackers on the 19th and came in on the 22d.  We were 26 days on the road.  We lived on acorns, and corn when we could get it, but only found it at one place this side of Red river.  A bushel of corn is worth more than a bushel of Confederate money.  The country is depopulated for sixty miles south of Fort Smith.
                                                                    Robert Henderson. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 10, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
The following toast was recently proposed at a fireman's dinner, which was received with showers of applause:  "The Ladies—their eyes kindle the only flame against which there is no insurance." 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 17, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Texans Look Here—Information Wanted!

            When the present rebellion broke out, I was a resident of Titus county, State of Texas, and about the 26th of August, 1862, I, with several others, was ordered to be arrested on a charge of treason against the so-called Confederate States of America.  I left Texas and came to Springfield, Missouri, in company with the brave, unfortunate and lamented Captain Martin D. Hart, consequently I was compelled to leave my wife and little son behind, but I think she will avail herself of the opportunity of coming out under the late order of Henry McCulloch.  Her Christian name is Amanda Melvina.  Now, if this notice should chance to meet the eyes of any person who can, and will give me any information, by letter or otherwise, of where she is, will confer a favor on me, for which I will ever feel grateful; also, if they could give her information of this notice, I will be very thankful.  If she does get out and can reach Litchfield, Montgomery county, Illinois, she will find friends who will see that she does not suffer.  I have been in the United States service over two years.  My address:
                                                                    William Gaston.
Q.M. Sergt. Co. E 2 Bat. 6th Cav. Mo. Vol.
St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 26th, 1864. 

FORT SMITH NEW ERA, December 24, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

To the Union People of Scott County.

                                                                                                        Fort Smith, Ark., Dec. 16, 1864.
Last February I wrote to you from this place advising the women and children to remain at home as long as their provisions lasted.  I was then watching General Steele's forward movement the result of which was contrary to my anticipations.  I would now advise you to come out and go North as fast as possible.  You can not remain in a desolated, uncultivated country.  You must go to the rear of the Army and the bow of hope will light up your way as you go.
The political excitement in the United States consequent on the recurrence of a Presidential election have passed off vastly to the satisfaction of the Union people of this State.  The Union arms victorious at all points promises you speedy peace, but at present get you gone.  The fiat of the Guerrilla has gone forth that you cannot live in an atmosphere contaminated by his Sirocco breath.  The United States authorities will give you transportation to a land of peace, and I believe, so soon as the progress of events will admit and the State government is sufficiently matured to effect a loan, the State will transport you back to your homes.  The sun, moon and stars will look mournfully down on the charred remains of your homesteads, and over your picturesque and beautiful country the sparkling brooks will murmur past as of yore and the dear wild turkey will sport playfully over your green fields.  But as to you—in the land of the stranger you must ask shelter from the pelting storm.  I remain yours,
                                                                    Elijah Leming. 

[skips to January 21, 1865, from vol. 2, issue no. 9 to vol. 2, issue no. 10]