Southern Homespun:  
Articles in Civil War Era Newspapers

Dallas Herald, February 8, 1860, p. 1, c. 6

Homespun Parties.

                Old Virginia seems thoroughly aroused to action, by the alarming encroachments of Northern fanatics and their insane teachings.  From being the most conservative State in the Union, one year ago, she has become the most prominent [fold in newspaper] of her rights and institutions.  "Anterior" to the Revolution the ladies and gentlemen of the old Dominion attended balls and parties, and received their most distinguished guests, dressed in homespun clothes, one of the means adopted to show to the Mother country that the colonies possessed within themselves all the elements of independence.  This simple circumstance was significant of a serious fact, and one to which, the stubborn Parliament was stupidly blind.—The signs of the times were visible throughout the land, but "seeing, they saw not, and hearing, they heard not."  At this late day, the same spirit of encroachment that sought to burden and harass the colonies, is seen in the efforts made by Northern Abolitionists to interrupt the progress of the Southern States and their institutions.  There is now as much stubborn blindness in the North, as was then in the British Parliament.  The colonies then acted cautiously and by remonstrance; the South has followed the example; protest after protest has gone up from the Southern States; we have asked to be let alone; and our citizens are now taking the matter in hand, and are speaking by their actions.  The daughters of the Old Dominion have ever been patriotic,--since the days, in which Mrs.  Washington draped in homespun, received her highborn company, arrayed in fabrics manufactured at home and by her own hands partly.  We cut the following from the National Intelligencer.  It speaks for itself and is significant of a great and serious fact. 
                A HOMESPUN PARTY.—Under this heading we find the following in the Richmond  Whig: 
                "The movement towards Southern independence is progressing steadily.  The people of Virginia are in dead earnest about this matter.—While we gentlemen have contented ourselves, as yet, with meetings, speeches, &c., the ladies have begun to act.  Without noise they have commenced to give force and color to our resolutions—to put our theories into practice.  We had the pleasure, a few evenings ago, of attending a 'homespun party,' given by [a] patriotic lady of this city, whose excellent good sense prompted her to substitute deeds for words, and to inaugurate at once that system of self-dependence which has been the theme of innumerable public meetings held recently in every county of the State.  The party was decided[ly] a brilliant success.  More than a hundred ladies and gentlemen, belonging to the most respected families in the city, were present, all of whom were attired in part or in whole in garments made of Virginia fabrics, woven in Virginia looms.  It was strictly a Virginia cloth party." 
                At a public meeting held in Alexandria last week it was resolved— 
                "That, by way of giving a practical issue to this meeting, and as the first step towards the attainment of Southern commercial independence, the citizens of Alexandria here assembled pledge themselves to use and wear no article of apparel not manufactured in the State of Virginia; and to buy all our hats, caps, boots, shoes, and clothing at home and of home manufacture, and induce our wives and daughters to do the same; and that the directors of our several railroad companies be and are hereby respectfully requested to pursue the same policy with reference to all articles required by their respective roads." 
                In other cities and towns in Virginia "Homespun Clubs," the members of which pledge themselves to dress in no other than Virginia fabrics, are being organized.  

Dallas Herald, October 31, 1860, p. 2, c. 6  
List of Premiums Awarded by the Ellis County Agricultural and Mechanical Association, at the Third Annual Fair Thereof.  
To Mrs. J. E. Prince, on pair blankets                                                5 00  
To Mrs. Sarah Burgess, on fine jeans, 10 yards                                 5 00  
To Mrs. L. W. Connor, on negro jeans, 10 yds                                 2 50 
                                                on flannel                                          2 50 
                                                on woolen carpet                              5 00 
                                                on plaid linsey                                   2 50  

Dallas Herald, November 7, 1860, p. 3, c. 3  
Dallas County Agricultural and Mechanical Association.  
Second Annual Fair, Occupying 3 days.  
Mrs. R. L. McKamy, jeans                                                  $           3 00  
W. W. Wheat, linsey, plaid                                                                2 50  
W. W. Wheat, flannel, white                                                              2 50  
Mrs. W. T. Edmondson, blankets, pair                                              3 00  
Mrs. E. J. Hawpe, coverlet, wool                                                      3 00  
W. W. Wheat, carpeting, wool                                                          2 50  
Mrs. H. Thomas, carpeting, rag                                                         1 00  
Mrs. E. J. Hawpe, counterpane, cotton                                              1 00  

Dallas Herald, February 27, 1861, p. 4, c. 1 
                Woman at Work.—The matrons of Ellis county are aroused by the present aspect of affairs and have resolved to show their spirit, that they can imitate their grandmothers in days of yore, when oppression forced us from beneath the British yoke of bondage, almost as degrading as that of the servile masters of the North at present.  The women of Ellis have formed what they call "home spun societies."  They say that the immense sums of money sent on North, to purchase finery to decorate their persons, can and ought to be expended in encouraging home industry and home manufacturers.  Hence they propose to wear and use all such articles of Southern make as they can possible [sic] obtain, in prefence [sic] to the Northern articles, even though our home article be inferior.  As far as articles of dress go they propose to wear nothing manufactured at the North.  If this is adhered to and the societies become large, many a poor man's pocket will feel the weight of coin it never felt before.—Crockett Printer.
 

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Ga.], October 28, 1860, p. 3, c. 3  
[account of Fair in Atlanta, third day] 
                Not the least attractive feature of the day was the appearance on the Grounds, of a party of twenty-seven ladies, teachers and pupils of the "Spring Hill School," under the supervision of that gifted advocate of the development of Southern Agriculture, and actual independence in the Union, Rev. C. W. Howard, all attired in a substantial Check Homespun Dress, made fashionably full and flowing.  When this spirit of independence seizes upon the minds of our daughters and wives, divested of its fanaticism as manifested by the sterner sex, we may look for good practical results.
 

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Ga.], November 27, 1860, p. 3, c. 2  
New Fashion for Ladies.--We observed, while on a visit to a lady friend, a bonnet and dress of  Georgia linsey and cotton, designed for the daughter of one of our leading secessionists.  The dress is made in fashionable style, a la Gabrielle, and the bonnet is composed of white and black Georgia cotton, covered with a net-work of black cotton, the streamers ornamented with Palmetto trees and lone stars, embroidered in gold thread, while the feathers are formed of white and black worsted.  The entire work is domestic, as well as the material, and exhibits considerable ingenuity.  The idea illustrates the patriotism of the ladies and their earnest sympathy with the great Southern movement, while its execution affords convincing proof of how independent we can be of our Northern aggressors, when we have the will to undertake and the energy to achieve.--News Letter.  

Charleston Mercury, November 20, 1860, p. 1, c. 3

Good Example.

To the Editor of the Charleston Mercury: 
                We observed, while on visit to a lady friend, a bonnet and dress of Georgia linsey and cotton, designed for the daughter of one of our leading Secessionists.  The dress is made in fashionable style, a la Gabrielle, and the bonnet is composed of white and black Georgia cotton, covered with a net work of black cotton, the streamers ornamented with Palmetto trees and Lone Stars, embroidered in gold thread, while the feathers are formed of white and black worsted.  The entire work is domestic, as well as the material, and exhibits considerable ingenuity.  The idea illustrates the patriotism of the ladies, and their earnest sympathy with the great Southern movement, while its execution affords convincing proof of how independent we can be of our Northern aggressors, when we have the will to undertake, and the energy to achieve       
                                                                              HOME INDUSTRY.  

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Ga.], December 2, 1860, p. 2, c. 1  
Young Lady in Georgia Homespun.--In the street yesterday (says the Columbus Times of Friday last,) was observed one of our pretty young ladies attired in a dress of Georgia homespun and wearing the blue cockade.  The make of the dress and the style of the cloak, gave it the appearance of silk at a distance, and attracted the admiration of all.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Memphis, TN], December 5, 1860, p. 2, c. 3 
                The Georgia girls are appearing in homespun.  At the recent State fair, not the least attractive feature was the appearance on the grounds of a party of thirty-seven ladies, teachers and pupils of "Spring Hill school," attired in a substantial check homespun dress, made fashionably, full and flowing.  Thirty-seven blooming, bright-eyed southern lasses in cloth of southern manufacture, of which the staple was peculiar to their homes was, says a local paper, a sight worth seeing on a southern fair ground.

Bellville [TX]Countryman, January 16, 1861, p. 2, c. 1 
                A Society of Ladies has been formed in Ellis County, this State, who are pledged to wear only goods of  Southern manufacture.  It is called the "Home Spun Society."  

Natchez Daily Courier, January 19, 1861, p. 4, c. 1  
                There was a gay assembly at Masonic Hall on Tuesday evening, the eighth of January.  It was a "Calico Ball" given by the young men.  We looked in during the evening, and found a goodly number of votaries of the dance, threading its giddy mazes, to the discourse of good and enlivening music.  What we took especial notes of, was the improved appearance of the ladies in their "calico," far outvieing the more costly and extravagant toilet of silk and satin.  Never to our eyes did the fair creatures present so lovely an appearance.  
                This is a move in the right direction.  The idea could be well improved by having a party in which all, both male and female should be attired in homespun.  Who will start this ball.                                      
                                                Feliciana Democrat, Jan. 12.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Memphis, TN], January 30, 1861, p. 2, c. 6

The Homespun Party.

From the Milledgeville (Ga.) Union] 
                The ladies of this city, or at least a good many of them, had a homespun party at Newwell's hall, on last Thursday evening, which was decidedly the most pleasant affair that has occurred in the city for many years.  The ladies all wore homespun dresses, and their persons were tastefully and appropriately ornamented with native jewels and charms.  Many of the dresses, though of the plainest cotton fabric, were beautiful, and the wearers looked charming in them.  Dancing, conversation, promenading, etc., marked the earlier hours of the evening.  Towards midnight a fine collation was discussed, and the fun, frolic and flirtation was kept up till the "wee sma' hours ayant the twal," when the company broke up in the best good humor, delighted with the first experiment of a social gathering in plain and unpretending attire.  The animus of this party was decidedly secession, but we believe there was perfect union among the company.  Our space forbids a more detailed account of the party, and of the characters—but we believe, by universal consent the queenly form of Miss S. N. -----l, and the tasteful dress of Mrs. L----r were admitted to be worthy of the highest admiration, as was also the good humor and playfulness of the usually sober and dignified matron Mrs. N-----t, who though not so young as she once was, was earnestly solicited for the first dance by our gallant young mayor.  The party was a perfect success, and we hope to see it repeated in a short time.  The gentlemen were, most of them, dressed in character but they will be better prepared for the next party.  

Galveston Weekly News, February 5, 1861

THE WOMEN OF TEXAS

                The women of Texas, as a general rule, take as deep an interest as the men in the present momentous state of public affairs.  They have participated in the public meetings, prepared banners, and joined in the processions; and we have already published some well written and interesting contributions, in verse and prose, which establish the fact that they can wield the pen with terseness and vigor in the cause of patriotism, justice and constitutional liberty.  
                A lady writes us from San Antonio:  "Rather than that the South shall submit to Lincoln's administration, I will wear for the rest of my life home-spun or penitentiary goods, and shoes made by our negroes, and will dispense with aught but the most absolute necessaries."  This lady's grand uncle raised a regiment in Virginia, in the Revolutionary War, equipped it throughout and led it to battle; her grandfather was the ensign of the regiment; her father and three of his brothers--all Kentuckians--did good service in the war of 1812-1814--her brothers have fought well for the Republic of Texas, and since, in Mexico, for the United States.  
                We notice in our State exchanges numerous communications by ladies, all of the same strain, all for the South resisting Black Republican rule.  

Charleston Mercury, February 6, 1861, p. 4, c. 4 
                Homespun.--Two of Portsmouth's (Va.) fair daughters appeared in its streets Tuesday in homespun, and the general verdict was they looked charming.
 

Albany [Ga.] Patriot, March 21, 1861, p. 3. c. 1

Homespun Pic-Nic.

On Saturday last the young ladies of this city, gave what they termed a "Homespun Pic Nic," at the Blue Spring near this city.  We were not present, but learn that a great number of the fashion and beauty of the city were there, and several gentlemen and many of the young ladies dressed in plain but neat Homespun dresses.  This is praiseworthy.  Fashion and extravagance on the part of woman once destroyed the government of Rome.  It had risen to that degree that ordinary, but good men could not marry, for they had not the means to support the wife's extravagance.  Judging of the fashions for the past few years, we began to feel that the once government of the United States would fall from the same cause.  We therefore applaud the example set by our young ladies, and trust they will not abandon it.  We also learn that the dance went merrily on, and every kind of sweet meats furnished to suit the tastes of all.  

Austin State Gazette, March 21, 1861, p. 3, c. 1  
CALICO DRESS BALL.--There will be a calico dress ball at Buaas Hall on Tuesday next, the 26th inst.  We like this, and only wish it could be a home-spun dressed ball.  Every body should be present.  

[Chambersburg, PA] Semi-Weekly Dispatch, December 31, 1861, p. 3. c. 4

A Rebel Letter

                We are indebted to the kindness of Mr. David Piper, of this place, for the following letter, taken from the body of a Rebel soldier, of the 10th Alabama regiment, who was among the killed at Dranesville.  It confirms the statements we have frequently published of the great destitution prevailing at the South in the articles of food and clothing.  We publish it almost entire, although we have endeavored to make it somewhat more readable than the original. 
                                                                                                        Talladega, Ala., Nov. 5, 1861 
                Dear Son:-- . . . 
                There is nothing talked about here, but something to eat—that is, meat and coffee.  Almost half of the families in this part of the country are drinking rye coffee, for there is no coffee to get for love or money, nor won't be until Lincoln's blockade is torn up.  They have bursted [sic] them up at Charleston and New Orleans, and such a cry for wool to make clothes for the soldiers I never heard.  The ladies here are still hard at work for the soldiers.  I sewed last week for Captain Ed. Turner's company, and could hardly save enough wool to make clothes for the little children.  All the ladies in this country wear homespun—the rich as well as the poor.  There is nothing in the stores here, and it is nothing uncommon to see a lady at church with a homespun dress on. . . .  
                We hear almost everything that is done at your encampment.  Be certain to let me know if you want your blanket, for I wish to send it to you.  I have sent your envelopes, and also scraps of jeans to patch your pants with, in Tip's and Aleck's clothes, and have marked them to you.  Write to me whether your butter and ham spoilt or not, for I was in hope they would reach you safely, and thought they would be a good treat to you. 
                Write soon and often.  I must now close.         
                                                                                                                Your affectionate mother. 
                                                                                                                            SARAH GOVER.
To James A. Gover.  

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Ga.], July 11, 1861, p.2, c. 2 
                Flannel for the Soldiers.--Some time ago, a proposition was made through the Sun, for the ladies of the country to manufacture flannel for the volunteers in service.  Yesterday, Mr. Whitten, of Russell county, brought in a specimen, for the inspection of the "Ladies' Society," which was manufactured by the ladies of his family for the purpose recommended.  The specimen was exhibited to us, and shows that, with a little practice in the weaving, an article of flannel may be produced which will answer the desired purpose.  Mr. Whitten's family are commended for their promptness in trying the experiment suggest by our correspondent, and demonstrating that it can be made successful.--Columbus Sun.  

San Antonio Ledger, July 19, 1861, [contributed--no page or column] 
                A Young Lady in Homespun.--A gay and fashionable young lady attracted the attention on the Fair ground yesterday, because of a most handsome, and neatly fitting copperas homespun dress, which she wore, and seemed justly proud.  She is wealthy of a fine family, and for her dress, which really was among the handsomest of any kind on the ground, she certainly deserves a grand premium, and we insist upon the Agricultural Society awarding her one. 
                We heard a number of ladies wish for a dress like it, but whether they wished it because of the style of goods, or because they discovered it to be so popular we will not say.  But most assuredly we were delighted to see this one Southern lady rigged out in home made cloth.  Southern manufacture, and we predict that in a short time it will be all the go.  The North will then learn that our Southern ladies can dress neatly and look sweetly without calling upon them for fine silks and muslins or Northern manufactured goods of any kind.  Southern independence is our motto.  By this dissolution of the Union the North has everything to lose, and the South nothing.--Atlanta Locomotive.

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Ga.], July 20, 1861, p. 3, c. 2 
                Winter Clothing for Our Soldiers.--The question of supplying our troops with winter clothing is beginning to attract considerable attention.--It is now evident that the South must depend mainly on herself for clothing material during this war.  Her magnificent crops will supply a large surplus of breadstuffs and food, above the demand for consumption at home.  But the blockade of our ports may continue up to the season when our volunteers in the field will require heavy woolen goods to protect them against the inclemency of winter. 
                Every loom in the Confederate States ought to be busy, to supply this necessary demand.  We should not suffer the shame and disgrace of seeing these brave men subjected to suffering, from want of foresight, energy and patriotism, on the part of those who remain at home.  We can work for our country as well at the plow handle and the loom as in the tented field.  Our woolen factories are too few to depend upon them for the fabrics that will be necessary to supply the demands that are now near at hand.
  
                Every private loom and every fair hand that can direct should not ply with unceasing care until we are satisfied that there is not a soldier unclad among our gallant men.  It is an act of patriotism, which may be done, in main part, by our fair countrywomen, that we are sure they will not neglect, when their attention is properly directed to it.  The efficiency, nay, the safety of our army may depend upon it.  The lady who furnishes the largest quantity of jeans and linseys for service, this year, is entitled to a gold medal, commemorating her patriotism.  We would suggest that such a testimonial be offered, by the merchants of our city, to the lady who brings to the market the largest quantity of serviceable goods for winter clothing.  On no account ought this matter to be neglected by those who have the material and the machinery.--Nashville Union.  

Charleston Mercury, July 27, 1861, p. 1, c. 4 
                Winter Clothing for Our Soldiers.--The question of supplying our troops with winter clothing is beginning to attract considerable attention.  It is now evident that the South must depend mainly on herself for clothing material during the war.  Her magnificent crops will supply a large surplus of breadstuff and food above the demand for consumption at home.  But the blockade of our ports may continue up to the season when our volunteers in the field will require heavy woolen goods to protect them against the inclemency of winter. 
                Every loom in the Confederate States ought to be busy to supply this necessary demand.  We should not suffer the shame and disgrace of seeing these brave men subjected to suffering from want of foresight, energy and patriotism on the part of those who remain at home.  We can work for our country as well at the plow-handle and at the loom as in the tented field.  Our woolen factories are too few to depend upon them for the fabrics that will be necessary to supply the demands that are now near at hand. 
                Every private loom and every fair hand that can direct should now ply with unceasing care until we are satisfied that there is not a soldier unclad among our gallant men.  It is an act of patriotism, which may be done, in main part, by our fair countrywomen, that we are sure they will not neglect, when their attention is properly directed to it.  The efficiency, nay, the safety of our army may depend upon it.  The lady who furnishes the largest quantity of jeans and linseys for service, this year, is entitled to a gold medal commemorating her patriotism.  We would suggest that such a testimonial be offered by the merchants of our city, to the lady who brings to the market the largest quantity of serviceable goods for winter clothing.  On no account ought this matter to be neglected by those who have the material and the machinery.--Nashville Union.  

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Ga.], July 30, 1861, p. 2, c. 2

A Georgia Woman.

                                                                                            Culverton, Hancock Co.,  Ga., July 27. 
                Editor Chronicle & Sentinel:--I read various accounts in the papers of what the ladies are doing for our soldiers.  I should like to furnish an instance for your paper which I think quite as good if not better than any I have seen. 
                Miss Mary Ezzol, a member of the Soldiers' Aid Society of this place, has, within the last six weeks, spun, wove, cut, made and brought into the society, eleven pair of pants for the soldiers, worth at least two dollars each.  The cloth of which they are made is what the ladies call Brown Dimity, and is as nice an article as anybody can make with the distaff and loom.  Now when it is remembered that this lady has an invalid mother and sister to support, and not a soul to help her, we think it will be hard to find one to excel her.--But this is not all.  She has a little farm which she cultivates with her own hands, and she says when she "lays it by" she will be ready for a musket and a place in the ranks of the Confederate army.  She has heard that General Scott sent word to Secretary Toombs that he would be down South in time to gather the coming crops, and she invites him to come and gather hers.  As an inducement she keeps a good double-barrel shot gun well loaded, the contents of which she will give him or any one he may send.  Let the foe who would press Georgia's soil with his foot beware--the Nancy Harts are not all dead yet. 
                                                                                                       B.  

The Southern Watchman [Athens, Ga.], August 21, 1861, p. 3, c. 4

Ladies, Take Notice.

I have on hand a nice lot of Linen Bird-Eye Diapers--fine Bleached Homespun--solid colored Brilliants--10-4 Sheetings--full width Table Cloth Damask, and many other articles, as cheap as they ever were, for cash.  
(Aug. 21)                                                                                               I. M. Kenney.  
                                                                                                             Wm. N. White.  

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], August 25, 1861, p. 3, c. 1

Something We Like.

                On yesterday we had the pleasure of "showing up" The Franklin Printing establishment to a party of ladies--among them Miss T., the daughter of an old friend--dressed in beautiful checked homespun; white, blue, copperas, and "Turkey Red" colors were beautifully woven into the fabric.  It really was refreshing.  Then it fit right.  It was not only spun and wove, but cut and fit by the accomplished wearer, who has just completed a collegiate education. 
                We hope every young lady in Georgia will follow this example.  Let the abominable Yankee pianos be laid aside, and give us some more of the music from that old time-honored but now almost obsolete instrument with _two_  ??ings--one about fourteen feet long, and the other lengthened at pleasure with the lady's ?? _hand_.  It does not make the variety of sounds that a high squeaking Yankee piano does; but the strains are a gentle humming, indicative of thrift, contentment, and independence, and has a soothing cheering effect upon the husband.  These old rusty instruments are called Spinning Wheels--Let them be brushed up made to ???g. 
                Let us have more homespun dresses--enough at least to destroy the novelty; and let us have more good warm jeans for gentlemen, and for our soldiers to wear this winter.  

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], September 27, 1861, p. 2, c. 1-2

Ladies' Relief Society.

                                                                                                                September 24th 1861.  
. . . The Ladies of the "Society are to have a "Fair," next Tuesday evening, and hope for the sake of the cause prompting it, to have a full attendance.  Tickets for admission 25cts.  The ladies will appear in southern homespun.  

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], September 28, 1861, p. 2, c. 1-2.

A Word to the Ladies.

                God bless them!  We always love to write, or talk, to and about the dear creatures. 
                The men love you all--this you know.  They have told you so a thousand times. 
                But these are war times, and we must give up romancing for a while.  We desire a short business chat with you this morning--have but a few moments to spare from our constant labor--you have no idea how hard we work.  Then to the point.  Don't be excited, we are not courting. 
                We want you with a ready hand and a willing heart to help your husbands, fathers and brothers protect our sunny homes from an invading foe, who are waging a cruel and relentless war upon our sacred rights--seeking to deprive us of all that men hold dear--liberty of person, rights of property, and peace at home. 
                We do not expect you to shoulder a gun.  Oh, no!  not yet; but you can be very useful, nevertheless.  You can work.  You can card and spin; you can weave; you can cook; you can wash, (your Sunday clothes, at least); you can iron; you can "clean up" your house; you can knit, sew, quilt, and we could not, in a month, think of the thousand and one useful things you can do, which you never dreamed of when you were at boarding school. . . .  

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Ga.], September 29, 1861, p. 2, c. 2

Nothing to Wear.

                We do not intend to refer now to the destitute condition of our Flora Macflimseys--we have no disposition to allude to the feminine toilet with all its mysteries and peculialities [sic]--but to the straits to which from the lack of exterior habiliments, the sterner sex may be reduced by the war. .
.  
                As to clothing--coats, vests and pants--unless we get importations speedily from Europe, our stock of broadcloths will be minus.  If we are fastidious as to the texture and cut of our garments, the embargo may worry us; but if we are content, as we should be, to wear good substantial homespun, such as our factories are daily turning out, this deprivation of Northern-made clothing will not be reckoned among the serious ills of life.  During the warm weather, we have noticed complete suits of simple ticking--it makes a man look streaked, but he needn't feel so.  Bellville Factory goods are very serviceable, and some of our citizens have worn entire suits (even to the cap) of this species of goods.  Our soldier's uniforms are all from cloths of our own manufacture.  The blockade won't hurt us in this respect, if we are not too finical. . .                

Natchez Daily Courier, October 2, 1861, p. 1, c. 3  
Ladies in Homespun.  Many beautiful damsels were seen yesterday on King street, in suits of homespun.  We trust the example will be followed, and if our fair ladies know how much pleasure it afforded to the volunteers and to all good citizens, it would be generally and universally followed.                                                                                                            Charleston Courier.

Natchez Daily Courier, October 16, 1861, p. 1, c. 2  
To the surprise of the Trustees, as well as of the strangers present, the graduating classes, at the last commencement of the Mary Sharp Female College, Tenn., read their essays in home made cotton dress, a pledge of these young ladies to make them selves all that the present condition of country may require her daughters to be.  

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], November 3, 1861, p. 3, c. 1

A Spicy Letter.

                Messrs. Editors:  I noticed in your paper of the 1st inst., (we take the "Confederacy") an article about hoops, and some of your suggestions thereon. . . .  
                You certainly don't know how costly homespun is these war times; and then you don't know how heavy seventy-five or a hundred yards of goods are, to carry around one's waist; and the old fashion of stuffing about with cotton is ridiculous. 
                I can't write all I feel upon this subject; but if it does snow this winter, (and I hope it will) and you ever ride that little black Indian pony near the College, he will have to make better time than usual, or one Southern editor will get snow-balled, certain, hoops or no hoops. 
                Now, if you have any sense of justice, you will publish this piece, and not burn it, like another smartie.  You can do just as you please; it won't hurt. 
                                                                                                                                Jennie Freedom.  

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], November 8, 1861, p. 2, c. 1

                                                                                                Milledgeville, Monday, Oct. 5, 1861  
[going to the state legislature] 
                Nearly all of the members had on clean shirts.  Some of them had new clothes; most of them were dressed in Georgia jeans--blue, black and brown.  

Natchez Daily Courier, November 13, 1861, p. 1, c. 1  
Patriotic.  The ladies of Louisville Winston county, Miss., have spun, wove and made up full suits for the "Winston Guards," now in Virginia.  

Charleston Mercury, December 17, 1861, p. 1, c. 1 
                A new kind of cloth is noticed in the western papers, made of cotton and cow's hair spun together.  It is heavy and strong--well calculated for warmth and wear--a very good substitute for wool, and, if lined, a good substitute for blankets.  

Austin State Gazette, December 21, 1861, p. 3, c. 2  
HOMESPUN.--We are much pleased to find that many papers have entered the list in favor of homespun.  During the embargo under the administration of Mr. Madison, the richest and finest ladies in the country vied with each other who could produce the handsomest homespun dresses.  Old pieces of silk were picked, carded, spun, wove and made into dresses.  Many of them equaled the finest silks and cambrics.  Fourth of July celebrations were held where both the ladies and gentlemen all dressed in homespun.  But these happy days of purity and virtue are past--extravagance in dress, and almost everything else--idleness and profligacy has usurped the place of prudence and industry.  God send that our wives and daughters, could be induced to imitate the customs of the days of Martha Washington--then, indeed, they would be helpmates for men, instead of drawbacks.  If we were entitled to wear the "robe," we should incessantly urge the people to reform! reform!! reform!!!  

Dallas Herald, December 25, 1861, p. 2, c. 3 
                A great deal is said in our exchanges about "speculators," "extortioners," "blood-suckers," "vampires," "shylocks," &c.—about the people rising en masse and regulating the prices of merchandise and many other things, with which we have nothing to do.  If the prices do not suit them, they need not buy,--and as far as Texans are concerned, they can eat jerked beef and corn-dodgers, a very wholesome diet, drink milk, sassafras tea, or mustang wine, wear homespun clothes, and as our winters are short, wait patiently till summer, then lie in the shade and eat water-melons.  A few years ago, the pioneers of this State had no more luxuries than they have now,--in fact, not half so many, and yet there was but little grumbling and a great deal more reliance on self.  If the merchants ask a heavy per centage on their goods, the people need not give it, unless they choose to do so, and as to "hard times," it is all stuff, compared with what our forefathers suffered, and what any brave people can suffer, in defense of their homes and their liberties. 
                When a people can get nothing to eat and really "nothing to wear," then they may talk and grumble about hard times.   As Mrs. Partington says, "nothing despises us as much," as to hear complaints of "hard times" in Texas, when the crops have been good, and thousands of cattle roam the prairies.  Hard times are only the nightmares that affect the lazy or the sluggish.

Washington [Ark.] Telegraph, January 29, 1862  
To our lady friends in the country, we would earnestly recommend the propriety of industriously pursuing the manufacture of cloth.  The winter is now more than half gone and the time for making jeans is pretty well over, but as summer comes on, we will want summer cloth for clothing.  Let any one examine the stores, and they will see that the goods are all gone suitable for clothing.  We have worked energetically, gloriously for our soldiers, but they will need summer clothing, and we must work just as though we never expected peace.  Those of us who have stayed at home have been wearing our old clothes and letting all the new "truck" go to the soldiers, but the old coats and pants are almost gone, and we will have to have some new ones.  So let all the ladies go to work.  If they make more than they need for the "dear ones" at home, send it to town and sell it; the purchasers will be plenty, and every yard will be consumed.
 

Charleston Mercury, February 7, 1862 , p. 4, c. 1

Homespun  

The air is balmy with the breath  
Of the early coming Spring,  
And yet the sweet South breeze to me  
No other thought can bring  
Than of the arms that clasped me fondly to his breast,  
As through my tears I saw him, clad in his homespun dress.  

I saw him in the winding ranks;  
The sun it glittering played,  
Like a halo of glory round his head  
And upon his trusty blade.  
I envied the steed that bore him, and the comrade at his side,  
And prayed that God would guard him, whatever might betide.  

Oh! sun, and dew, and storm, and rain,  
I prithee gently fall,  
And may the guardian angel's wing  
Avert the deadly ball;  
That glory won,  
And duty done,  
I once again may press  
The hand of him I dearly love, clad in his homespun dress.  

Charleston Mercury, February 28, 1862, p. 4, c. 5 
                A ball is to come off in Raleigh, N. C., to-night.  The ladies are all to be dressed in homespun, the gentlemen are to wear homespun also, and wooden shoes.  

Charleston Mercury, March 5, 1862, p. 1, c. 6 
                Vice-President Stephens was sworn into office, dressed in silk clothes, woven by the Misses Elizabeth and Sallie Sharp, of Tallaferro county, Georgia.
 

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], March 6, 1862, p. 3, c. 1

Country Brown Jeans Wanted.

                I wish to purchase for the "Confederate Continentals," 500 yards best brown Jeans, delivered immediately at my store; also, for same, 500 yards Georgia Plains and 100 pair cotton and woolen Socks.  
mar6-2t                                                                                                   A. K. Seago.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, March 18, 1862, p. 3, c. 4 
                Improved Spinning Wheel.—Mr. H. A. Cook, of this place, has presented us with one of his "Improved,  Dixie Spinning Wheels."  The improvement is in the spindle and can be used upon the old fashioned wheels. They spin three times as fast as the old spindles.  This is a timely and valuable invention.  Everybody should have one; as everybody who can should be spinning and weaving during the next winter.  The wheels can be had at the Foundry in this place. 
                                                                                                                [Athens Banner.
 

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Ga.], March 20, 1862, p. 3, c. 1 
                Home Manufactured Cloth.--Mr. E. H. Chamberlain, of Edgefield District,  S. C., has shown us two specimens of cloth manufactured by Mrs. Chamberlain, which are a novelty in their way.  One specimen is made, the warp of cotton, the filling of rabbit fur; the other of the same warp, the filling of coon fur.  Both fabrics are soft and flexible, handsome in appearance, and evidently durable.  A suite of such cloth would become any man.  We hope Mr. Chamberlain may find it profitable to manufacture this kind of cloth, that the people may have the benefit of it for garments. 
                When our hunters become aware that the fur of these animals can be turned to much good account, they will no doubt redouble their efforts to capture them.  

Austin State Gazette, March 29, 1862, p. 3, c. 2  
"A daughter of Old Virginia" talks like the noble woman that she is, in the following address to her sex: 
                                                                                                                For the Enquirer.

Women of the South.

                 What is our duty to our country?  Have we nothing to do in this great crisis?  Is the war nothing to us?  Have we no interests at stake?  Does the invasion of our land by a ruthless foe inflict no injury on us?  Does the treat of subjugation meet with no resentment from our bosoms?  Surely, surely, our liberties, our future hopes, our earthly happiness, our all is at stake.  And have we nothing to do?  Is there no call for exertion on our part?  Yes, there is a call.  Reason says, we must do something, and that quickly.  But what must we do?  . . .  
                We must go to work, too.  The sound of the loom and the hum of the spinning wheel must again be heard in our land.  We must work wool and flax and cotton willingly with our hands.  We have worshipped at the shrine of female vanity already too long.  Let us renounce it now and forever. . .  
                God grant the people of the South their rights and independence, is the daily prayer of 
                                                                                A DAUGHTER OF "OLD VIRGINIA."  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, April 1, 1862, p. 2, c. 8 
                Economy.—We were shown a few days since a sample of thread spun from cotton carded on a woollen factory at Mr. J. Summerour's, Amicolala.  It proves beyond question that cotton can be manufactured into rolls on wool cards so as to answer all the purposes of domestic use.  The rolls are sold at the mill at 20 cents per lb; and if cotton be bought below at 7 and 8 cents they would cost much less.  During the blockade we can get neither cards nor goods from abroad, nor thread from home only at a ruinous price, therefore every prudent house keeper will at once arrange to make their own cloth.  This is true independence, the results of which will shortly make us a great self-sustaining nation, and a wise, good and happy people.  

Charleston Mercury, April 10, 1862, p. 1, c. 1 
                Louisiana Cottonade.--We translate from L'Avant Courrier the following:    
                The Creole women of Attakapas have been making, for a long time, out of the cotton grown upon the soil, certain goods much esteemed in the markets of the South.  A woman can make twenty-five ells (an ell is a yard and a half) of cottonade a month, and this is worth three dollars an ell, which makes seventy-five dollars.  The expenses of fabrication are small.  Two years since a Tennessean brought into Attakas a certain number of machines to clean, card and spin the cotton.  There are now in this region about a hundred of these machines, capable of making 300 ells of cottonade a month.  The cottonade sells at a price reduced to one dollar and seventy-five cents an ell.  The machine imported from Tennessee does not occupy more than four or five square feet, and can be worked by two children.  

Savannah Republican, April 12, 1862, p. 1, c. 1 
                Louisiana Cottonade.—We translate from L'Avant Courrier the following: 
                The Creole women of Attakapas have been making, for a long time, out of the cotton grown upon the soil, certain goods much esteemed in the markets of the South.  A woman can make twenty-five ells (an ell is a yard and a half) of cottonade a month, and this is worth three dollars an ell, which makes seventy-five dollars.  The expenses of fabrication are small.  Two years since a Tennessean brought into Attakapas a certain number of machines to clean, card and spin the cotton.  There are now in this region about a hundred of these machines, capable of making 300 ells of cottonade a month.  The cottonade sells at a price reduced to one dollar and seventy five cents an ell.  The machine imported from Tennessee does not occupy more than four or five square feet, and can be worked by two children.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, April 15, 1862, p. 3, c. 1 
                Cotton Cards.—We have inadvertently neglected to call attention, editorially, to the important fact that Messrs. J. Ennis & Co., of this city, have in store a large lot of Cotton  Cards.  It is an important fact, for such cards have for months been in much demand, and it was almost impossible to procure them at any price.  It has been stated that they cannot be manufactured in the South, for the want of the right kind of wire.  The ingenuity and enterprise of our people will supply all such wants in time; but it is essential that they should have cotton cards now, when the raw material is uncommonly cheap and every process of its manufacture extravagantly high.  The cotton card, the spinning wheel and the hand loom, though they look very much like a return to primitive and "old fogy" customs, will act an essential part in working out our people's independence and prosperity.  

Chicago Daily Tribune, April 17, 1862, p. 3, c. 3  
Letters from Secessia.  Pictures and Writings of Rebel Life.  From the Camps of Island No. 10.  
                Our own correspondent with the expedition on the Mississippi, sends us a budget of letters from the captured rebel camps of Island No. 10.  They constitute graphic pictures of phases of Southern life under the rebellion, and we give them verbatim and liberatim without comment:  
                ... From another letter, dated Saline, La., Feb. 22, 1862, and signed Hassa Mobley:  "I do hope by the blessing of God that peace will be made shortly, and all the soldiers return back to their beloved homes; and the only way is to put all of our trust in God, and be prayerful.  Are there any cotton cards in Columbus?  I heard there was some there.  There is a great call for cards here.  Most all of the women and girls have gone to spinning and weaving.  You just ought to be here to see how industrious we all are.  It is the hardest times I ever saw about getting anything." . .  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, April 22, 1862, p. 4, c. 3 
                Louisiana Cottonade.—We translate from L'Avant Courier the following: 
                The Creole women of Attakapas have been making for a long time, out of the cotton grown upon the soil, certain goods much esteemed in the markets of the South.  A woman can make twenty-five ells (an ell is a yard and a half), of cottonade a month, and this is worth $3 an ell, which makes $75.  The expenses of fabrication are small.  Two years since a Tennessean brought into  Attakapas a certain number of machines to clean, card and spin the cotton.  There are now in this region about a hundred of these machines, capable of making 300 ells of cottonade a month.  The cottonade sells at a price reduced to $1.75 an ell.  The machine imported from Tennessee does not occupy more than four or five square feet, and can be worked by two children.  

Austin State Gazette, April 26, 1862, p. 4, c. 1 
                Cow Hair vs. Wool.—The manufacture of cow hair mixed with cotton has recently been introduced with perfect success.  It is said to be quite as warm and durable for coarse fabrics as wool and cotton.  It is being manufactured in considerable quantities in Tennessee.  One whole company has been uniformed with it.—Ex.  

Charleston Mercury, April 29, 1862, p. 4, c. 1

The War and the Manufacturing Interests of the South.

                A correspondent of DeBow's Review for April gives a detailed account of the increase of manufactures in the South since the beginning of the war.  The following are a portion only of the many referred to: 
                In Spartanburg and Laurens, South Carolina, great manufacturing enterprise has been exhibited.  In the latter county it is mentioned, in addition to the regular branches of manufacture, the ladies generally are making a great quantity of most excellent cloth of various descriptions for men's wear, children, negros, and even for themselves, which are now taking the places of fine delaines and silks.  The ladies in one battalion in that district, recently furnished for the uniforms of one company of volunteers three hundred and fifty yards of very nice jeans, five hundred yards of flannel, and three hundred and fifty pairs of socks, in a very short time, made upon the old-fashioned hand looms, which are numerous in that county--one in almost every family--and some of the cloth for service is said to be equal, if not superior, to the best broadcloth.  In Chester every household is said to have become a manufacturing establishment. . . . In Carthage, the entire people, it is said, with unexampled energy, have recurred to the primeval principles and customs of industry, economy and frugality which characterized our ancestors for many years subsequent to the wars of  '76 and 1812. . . .The women, too, animated with becoming zeal and resolution to sustain our glorious cause, have put aside their silks, their calicos, their head dresses, and covered up their pianos, and have substituted the wheel, the cards, the loom, and are fostering a commendable spirit of emulation in making the largest number of yards, and the neatest patterns of checks and stripes for themselves and their little ones, and the substantial jeans to clothe their husbands, their sons, and their brothers in the army, and then for gratuitous distribution to any needy soldiers.  They are, without distinction of circle or property, all united in constant and useful engagement in getting up domestics of every kind to add to their comforts at home, and supply our army with blankets, clothing, and neat caps.  Defend us with your bayonets, and we will sustain you with our needles, is the watchword with them.  

Galveston Weekly News, May 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 5 
                                                                                                Bryant's Station, May 3d, 1862.  
Eds. News--  
. . . The rains are abundant up here in Milam and Bell counties.  Wheat looks well and crops generally are very fine, though a great deal of land is lying idle for want of somebody to cultivate it.  Every man has gone from here to the army.  Every man is doing his best.  The women and girls are plowing in the field and spinning and weaving in the house.  So we go.  We cannot starve or go naked so long as our women are so resolute and patriotic.   

Bellville [TX]Countryman, May 31, 1862, p.  1, c. 3 
                                                                                            Bellville, May 27th, 1862.  
. . . A few days since I called in to see my old friend Dr. Reams.  The Doctor's health is not very good now a days, still he is going about trying to do good.  His family are all hard at work, some knitting, some spinning and some weaving, carding, etc.  Mrs. Reams is making some very good cloth.  The cloth sells well and I have no doubt will wear well.  It is dyed a sort of brown color, whether they color the cotton first before spinning or color the cloth I was not informed.  This cloth seems to be a good deal in demand about here and I am told there are a good many families about here making similar cloth. 
                There are a good many families making cloth of cotton and wool.  This you know is called linsey woolsy.  They dye the wool before it is carded or spun.  The old lady where I board colored some the other day.  She told me she wanted a cotton basketful of little green moss.  I wondered what she could want that stuff for.  I never heard that it was good for anything before.  True, in North Carolina, we used to cut down trees in the winter when the snow was upon the ground, and fodder and hay were scarce as they generally were there, and let the sheep eat this green moss to keep them alive, and by this means we were saved the trouble of pulling the wool from the dead sheep.  However, I said nothing to the old lady, and after dinner I took the cotton basket and a couple of the boys and went to the timber.  We found a plenty of moss.  The boys climbed the trees and pulled it off while I picked it up and put it in the basket.  In about three hours, we had got the basket full, when we started home.  I carried the basket while the boys walked along, one on either side, chatting and talking a good deal. . . .   
                You have known some very clever old women no doubt, who would sometimes commence to tell a story, and after commencing it tell five or six other stories before finishing the one they started to tell or perhaps forget all about it and not finish it at all.  You probably begin to think it is going to be about so with my moss, but I have been all the time thinking about that moss and will try and get to it now. 
                After we got home, the old lady took the moss and picked it all over, picking out all the sticks and pieces of bark and dead moss, she then took the large kettle and spread a layer of moss all over the bottom of it and then a layer of wool and then a layer of moss, and so moss and wool alternately until the kettle was full.  She then laid some boards across the top and put a rock on the top to hold it down and then filled the kettle with water and boiled it.  It made the most beautiful brown color I ever saw.  They used to call it a dark snuff color in North Carolina.  This is called "dyeing in the wool," and will not wash out nor fade.  The old lady has a piece of about thirty yards in the loom now.  You shall have a "Sunday go to meeting" suit off of it, if you get home pretty soon.  You would look better in a suit of it than if dressed up in Yankee "store clothes." . . .                                                                               G. W. Jefferson Smith.  

Charleston Mercury, June 14, 1862, p. 1, c. 2

Soldiers' Clothing for the Winter Campaign.  
[From the Richmond Whig]

                As we look for no relaxation of the blockade or cessation of the war, until the Yankees shall be taught the impossibility of conquest, we ask the attention of the Government to the important subject of clothing the soldiers next winter.  There is a great deal of wool in the country, and a large crop of flax will, no doubt, be grown in many parts of Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee; but cotton warp constitutes the basis of all our textile fabrics.  How can the people obtain this indispensable article?  The coarse yarn spun by machinery is scarce and very costly; and though we see the cotton burned in the face of the invader, raw cotton cannot be obtained in many portions of the interior at any price. 
                There is a mechanical difficulty, also, which has impeded domestic manufacture.  Hand cards cannot be had at any price. 
                While our soldiers are in the field, there are at home thousands of patriotic mothers and sisters, willing to toil in any way, and under any disadvantage, for those who defend them.  But, in many cases, these patriotic women have neither material nor machinery to manufacture the clothing and blankets their friends require. 
                We may anticipate a similar difficulty in regard to shoes and boots, though there will be, we suppose, leather enough to produce a winter supply of so indispensable an article. 
                Now, what can our Government do to provide for the winter wants of our army?  We answer, let it appoint commissioners of manufactures within the sections of country prepared to conduct the operations referred to, and assign to them as many skilled artizans, detailed under authority of the Act of Congress, as may be necessary to give effect to the object of army supply. 
                In the meantime the Government should purchase and distribute, at low prices, quantities of raw cotton, and if possible wool, so as to employ the industrious poor, who have the will to work, without the means to work.  These measures will cause domestic manufactures which still linger in upper Virginia, Carolina, and Tennessee, to revive and furnish important aid to the cause. 
                This plan, with the manufacture and distribution of hand cards, will meet the emergency; for though the goods thus made may not be so good as we would wish, they will be infinitely better than rags.
 

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], June 17, 1862, p. 2, c. 2 
                                                                                                                   For the Confederacy.

Ladies Impress Cotton.

                                                                                            Manassas, Bartow County, Ga.,        } 
                                                                                                  June 14, 1862.        
Editors Confederacy: 
                The ladies are truly a great institution.--The sufferings of our patriot soldiers arouse all their sympathies and tender feelings, for whom they undergo fatigue and trouble, scarcely to be expected of the softer sex.--But when occasion makes it necessary, they can show themselves made of sterner stuff than sighs and tears.  This was illustrated by a party of ladies at Cass Depot, in this county, to-day.  A gentleman of Mannassas [sic] who now and then indulges in little speculations, had a few bales of cotton at the depot, a part of which the wives of some absent soldiers said they greatly needed.  They proposed to the owner to purchase what they wanted, but as they did not wish so much as a bag, he declined to let them have it.  They told him they would take it; and in compliance with promise thus made to him, they went to the depot, called for the Agent as a witness of their doings, and cut the rope from one bale, took what they needed, and marched very quietly home with it.  I believe they propose to pay the owner fair compensation. 
                So you see some of the women of Bartow are bent on having cotton.  I do not write this to express approval or disapproval of the act, but merely to relate the circumstance. 
                                                                                                JEAN. 
                                                                                                G.W.A.
 

The Southern Banner [Athens, Ga.], August 6, 1862, p. 4, c. 7

Wanted!

1000 yards country Cotton Cloths, plain, striped and checked;  
1000 yards Woolen Linsey for Overshirts;  
500 yards        "       Jeans for Coats and Pants for all which the best market price will be paid in cash.  
July 16.                                                                   I. M. Kenney.  

Washington [Ark.] Telegraph, August 6, 1862 
                We were pleased to observe the industry of our country ladies with their looms.  Everywhere they are in operation.  Jeans, linseys, and coarse cotton stuffs, are being turned out in an abundance, which (considering the scarcity of cards, and the inability of the Pike co. factory to supply yarns,) is truly astonishing.  The country ought to get cards for them at fair rates, and our soldiers and families would soon be independent.  As it is, we believe the women will make almost enough.  One lady has made a thousand yards already.  Others, perhaps, much more.  

The Southern Banner [Athens, Ga.], August 6, 1862, p. 4, c. 7

Work for All.

I have purchased 1,000 dollars worth of cotton cards, which I am willing to sell to any person for a good note for ten dollars--the note must have the name of some person known to myself.  Then I will agree to take cloth in payment for the note, at market prices, delivered between this and July 1st, 1862.  Persons who wish to lend a helping hand in working out our independence, and at the same time make for themselves a living, must make arrangements to get a pair of cards, as they are the bane of our independence.  The Factory's may be burnt, but cotton cards in the hands of the working women are safe.  
April 23.  

Austin State Gazette, August 27, 1862, p. 1, c. 1 
                We call the attention of the public to the letter of his Excellency Gov. Lubbock to Gen. Jas. S. Besser, Financial Agent of the State Penitentiary, which will be found in today's paper. 
                The letter is published for general information. 
                The Penitentiary is doing all it can to supply the wants of our gallant army and their families.  We fear, however, it will prove wholly inadequate to accomplish that end. 
                We can but urge upon all who are in a position to do so, that they make every yard of cloth in their power, not only for their own use, but to supply to those who are unable to make it for themselves.  

Washington [Ark.] Telegraph, September 3, 1862  
...Every family throughout this Department, possessed of a spinning wheel and a loom, is requested to manufacture as large a quantity of cloth (both woolen and cotton) as the raw material at its command will permit.  Those who have no facilities for spinning or weaving, may assist in the good work, by making up shirts, drawers, pantaloons, coats and overcoats, and by knitting stockings, and making hats or caps and shoes, while those who have looms adapted to the purpose, can furnish blankets, or some other article answering the same object.  
--Jno. D. Adams, Capt. and Acting Chief Quartermaster, Trans-Mississippi District.  

Savannah Republican, September 6, 1862, p. 2, c. 5

What the Women of Georgia are Doing for Independence.

                We extract the following paragraphs from the letter signed "Countryman," written from the "Piney  Woods" to the Thomasville Times: . . .  
                And I should say a word about Homespun, real Georgia Homespun, that is made and worn to mill, to meeting, and to market, by all grades in the country.  Believe me, Mr. Editor, I have been much pleased with many of the neat plaid and striped homespun dresses I have seen, worn by a good form, neatly made, and then the pretty face was shaded by one of those pretty home made bonnets, and a halo of patriotic industry all over it—it was the very love of a dress.  Mr. Editor, if you want to make a paper for the country people, you must go among them, and see what things they fasten on.  You must listen to the music of the wheel, and the scratch, scratch, of the cards, as the rolls are being prepared for the wheel—and then it may be out by the side of the house, under a shelter—listen to the bang, bang, of the real Georgia loom, as some female member of the family plys [sic] the shuttle, shifts the triddles [sic] and waves the batten, in making the fabric that will place us in a state of independence of Lynn and Lowell and Manchester.  

Dallas Herald, September 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 5 
                We some time ago suggested that "hog, hominey [sic] and homespun" constituted the actual necessities of life. 
                Some of our friends in the city smiled incredulously at the idea, and others called it impracticable.  We made use of the expression understandingly, and that too after seeing a practical illustration of it in other parts of the Confederacy.  The people of the interior of Texas have, since then, begun to put it into practice, and it is well they have.  At the present moment there are not enough imported goods in the State to clothe one-fifth of its people, and not enough imported provisions to feed one in a hundred.  The time must come in the progress of events, and that too very shortly, when the amount of dry goods in all the stores in Texas will not clothe one in a hundred of the population.  What then?  Homespun, and the sooner people learn to make it, the better for them.  Hog and hominy—a rough expression for home produce—we have all come to.  Let the people put into operation practical independence.  If the country will not subsist the population, it is not worth living in.  We are not worthy [of] our liberties if we cannot conquer them—the country is not worthy of us if it cannot support us.—Houston Telegraph.  

Bellville [TX]Countryman, September 20, 1862, p. 1, c. 5 
                Almost every family in this county seems to be actively engaged in the manufacture of cloth.  Some have not yet got their looms, and some are still in want of spinning wheels; but all seem to be making preparations in some way to manufacture enough for home consumption.  

Galveston Weekly News, September 24, 1862, p. 2, c. 1  
                MAKE YOUR OWN CLOTH.--The people of Texas are learning the practical lesson of independence in the only school in which it probably ever could be successfully inculcated upon the Southern people--that of necessity.  It is now plain we must make our own cloth or do without it, and we trust there is not a man or woman in Texas who would  not prefer this alternative, rather than have the southern market opened again to Yankee goods, no matter how cheap.  We rejoice to learn from many parts of the State that the Texas women are going to work in earnest upon domestic manufacturers, and that the old spinning wheel and hand loom are again being brought into requisition.  This is evidence not only that we shall be independent, but that we deserve to be a free people.--The Huntsville Item says:  
                "The time was, when Texans were noted for their 'homespun' independence; they can be so again--This universal dependence on one factory is a shame to our name.  We went, a few days ago to try and get a small lot of cloth for the family of a friend, for this winter's use; but were told we could file the affidavit--perhaps the order would be reached next June!  If our arguments could be so put as to convince every family in the State of the beauty as well as necessity, of relying on home industry for the bulk of their wearing apparel, we would feel more gratified than Gen. Lee over his late victories--It would be one without blood.  Too much has the fashion been, to "make cotton!" let it be modified, and hereafter let it be fashionable, as well as economical, to 'MAKE CLOTH!'"
 

Dallas Herald, October 11, 1862, p. 2, c. 4

Looms and Weaving.

                The undersigned, being a practical Weaver, and having been employed in the Manufactories at Lyons, France, is now building looms, with the flying shuttle which he offers to the public.  He will also weave cloth, blankets, &c., at 25 cts. per yard for single width and 50 cts. for double width. 
                All orders promptly and faithfully executed.  Will also purchase all the yarn that may offer.                                                                                 B. Femelat. 
                Dallas, Texas, Oct. 11, 1862—16:2mo.  

Savannah Republican, October 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 2

Looms Wanted.

                The Committee on Manufacturing Cloth invite proposals for Looms suitable for weaving stout cloth for soldiers' wear.  Application to be made immediately, to 
                                                                                                                             Joseph Lippman, 
                                                                                                                       Chairman Committee.  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, October 16, 1862, p. 1, c. 5 
                A substitute for wool is made into a cloth by a great many persons in Georgia, with the design of using their wool for our soldiers in the field.  This substitute is cowhair.  The cloth made of it is perhaps not quite so smooth as that made of wool, but it is heavier, and no doubt will be nearly, if not equally, as warm, and will last fully as well.  The hair is washed perfectly clean, and pulled or beat so as to have no bunches.  After it is well dried, it is ready for use—Like wool for ordinary cloth, it is used only for "filling," and mixed with about one third cotton.  The common and easier way of mixing is by ginning it with the cotton, although it could be, we suppose, mixed fully as well by "carding."  If the same quantity in weight of seed cotton and hair are thoroughly mixed and placed in the gin after the seed are separated, the cotton lint will be about one third of the hair.  The breast of the gin should be a little raised, or the hair will make the saws to choke.  Cowhair, thus mixed with cotton, may be carded, spun and made into cloth with no more trouble than is required for wool or cotton.  The hair can be purchased at the tanneries.  

Savannah Republican, October 18,1862, p. 2, c.5

Just Received:

10 bales Factory Yarns  
15 bales 3-4, 7-8 and 4-4 Brown Shirtings 
                bales Brown Drills 
                bales 10 dozen Extra Heavy Drills  
English Grey Poplins  
Georgia and Tennessee Colored Homespuns  
Scotch Ginghams  
Georgia Grey Jeans  
Georgia Grey Twills 
                For sale, retail or wholesale, by 
                                                                                                DeWitt & Morgan.  

The Southern Watchman [Athens, Ga.], October 22, 1862, p. 2, c. 2  
                . . . Take homespun cotton, for example.  Two bunches of thread will make 32 yards--thread is selling at 4 and 5 dollars--weaving costs 10 cents a yard.  Now what is the showing.  To make 32 yards ten dollars worth of thread is required and the weaving is worth $3.20--making $13.20 as the cost of 32 yards, which from 90 cts. to a dollar a yard amounts to from $28.80 to $32!!  Talk about extortion!  What greater extortion have we than this?  We might adduce whole columns of facts showing that nearly everybody is guilty of it, and usually those who raise the most fuss about it are the very persons who are most guilty.  
                It will be seen from the above that the much-abused factories charge only five times as much as formerly for their thread, while those who weave it and denounce them so bitterly are charging about eight times as much for cloth as formerly!  

Galveston Weekly News, October 29, 1862, p. 2, c. 1 
                Soldier's Clothing.-- . . . We would, however, remark that all the spinning wheels and hand looms in the country should be kept constantly employed to supply any deficiency of clothing for our soldiers.  We believe there are several thousands of these in our State, and tens of thousands in the South, and though each hand loom could produce but a few yards, all of them would produce enough in a few weeks to clothe our whole army.--There are thousands of white, as well as of negro women who know how to spin and weave, and the raw material, both wool and cotton, is abundant.  Perhaps the work could be expedited by the organization of societies in all our counties, for the manufacture of soldiers' clothing.  

Savannah Republican, November 4, 1862, p. 2, c. 1 
                Home Manufactures—We have had laid on our table four specimens of plain linseys, made by the hands of Mrs. Neill, near Powelton, Hancock county.  They show what the women of the South can do when they put their dainty hands to the work.  

Charleston Mercury, November 5, 1862, p. 2, c. 1 
                Aged Industry.--We have been shown by a friend a sample of check homespun, the cotton of which was carded spun and woven by an aged and venerable lady in Marion District, whose grand-children had planted and picked the raw material.  The indigo with which the homespun is dyed was also made by the industrious lady, who has nearly completed here three-score and ten.  Surely when such work can be accomplished by the aged, and with the great staple in abundance, there is no reason why homespuns should be selling at fabulous prices, nor why younger fingers with an average share of industry, might not supply the wants of an army.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, November 11, 1862, p. 1, c. 3

Cloth—Home Made.

                The Milton, N. C., Chronicle says:  "A very estimable lady—one of the smartest and prettiest in the country—wishes to know of us what she ought to charge per yard for a piece of cloth now in the loom, the cotton in which cost $4 50 per bunch, and the wool rolls $2 per pound.  To this must be added the cost of weaving, &c.—We are rather puzzled for a reply, but she ought to exact of shoemakers, tanners, flour and corn speculators about $15 a yard; and if she can possibly find a cotton factory "lord" obliged to buy it, charge the rascal $25 a yard—and then she can't "get even" with him.  To people of conscience, we do not think she could sell her cloth for less than $4 a yard, and make anything.  When we say cloth, we mean cloth; because she makes the best and prettiest article that we have ever seen manufactured in the Southern country.  This industrious lady seems desirous of selling  her cloth at a price that will barely pay for the material and labor of weaving; she does not desire a big profit, for she loathes the name of an extortioner, and wishes to avoid it.  Would to heaven that all Southern ladies were like her!—There would be no laziness, no extravagance, no hifalutin tomfoolery, no Miss McFlimseys who think that God created them merely to thumb broken down pianos, screech like right owls, cut fantastic capers in fancy dances, and "show off" merchants' dry goods and prop themselves up in parlors as pretty toys for men to look at and admire.  The best music a female can make these war times is the music of the spinning wheel.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, November 11, 1862, p. 3, c. 2 
                Carpet Blankets.—Major M. W. Perry yesterday exhibited to us a Carpet Blanket made for the army.  It is undoubtedly a most excellent and warm covering, and will be a very comfortable addition to a soldier's bed clothing.  It is made of scraps of cloth cut into strips and woven closely together, forming a heavy and warm counterpane, one of them being worth two or three common bed blankets for warmth and durability. 
                We understand that a reliable gentleman has contracted with Quartermaster Dillard to make these blankets out of the scraps left in making soldiers' clothing, and that he has several looms at work weaving and a number of children cutting and sewing together the strips.  He will be enabled to turn out the blankets pretty fast for a new business, and the work will give employment to a number of women and children needing something to do. 
                These blankets would also be the most comfortable night covering for negroes, and they will no doubt be extensively used hereafter by those planters who examine them.  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, November 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 1 
                The Milton, N.C., Chronicle says:  "A very estimable lady—one of the smartest and prettiest in the country—wishes to know of us what she ought to charge per yard for a piece of cloth now in the loom, the cotton in which cost $4 50 per bunch, and the wool rolls $2 per pound.  To this must be added the cost of weaving, &c.  We are rather puzzled for a reply, but she ought to exact of shoemakers, tanners, flour and corn speculators, about $15 a yard; and if she can, possibly find a cotton factory "lord" obliged to buy it, charge the rascal $25 a yard—and then she can't "get even" with him.  To people of conscience, we do not think she could sell her cloth for less than $4 a yard, and make anything."
 

Memphis Daily Appeal [Granada, MS], November 13, 1862, p. 1, c. 6  
A lady living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel and an auger, made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day.  The thread is furnished by Major N. B. Pearce, and woven into cloth for army purposes.  Think of that, ye effeminates who loll on a sofa or carriage cushions and complain.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Granada, MS], November 14, 1862, p. 2, c. 7  
The Milton (N.C.) Chronicle says:  "A very estimable lady--one of the smartest and prettiest in the country--wishes to know of us what she ought to charge per yard for a piece of cloth now in the loom, the cotton in which cost $ 4 50 per bunch, and the wool rolls $2 per pound.  To this must be added the cost of weaving, etc.  We are rather puzzled for a reply, but she ought to exact of shoemakers, tanners, flour and corn speculators, about $15 per yard; and if she can possibly find a cotton factory 'lord' obliged to buy it, charge the rascal $25 a yard--and then she can't 'get even' with him.  To people of conscience, we do not think she could sell her cloth for less than $4 a yard and make anything."  

Charleston Mercury, November 19, 1862, p. 1, c. 1-2

                                                                                                Vernonsville, November 14.

. . . The number of sheep have been greatly reduced by dogs--wool will sell readily at from one dollar and fifty to two dollars per pound.  There is great demand for it, but it cannot be obtained.  Yarn is also in very great demand, as I am told by those who go to the factories to purchase it, that they sometimes find from two to three hundred people there waiting for the hour of sale to arrive.  It is selling now at three dollars per bunch, of five pounds.  This great demand for factory yarn is caused, in a great measure, by the want of cotton cards.  Here was exhibited a great deficiency of common sense or foresight in those who conduct affairs, in not having imported at the proper time a full supply of cards for our women.  Had this been done, it would greatly have curtailed the enormous and unconscionable price not demanded by the cormorant proprietors of any of the cotton factories.  Nevertheless, the women of our country are doing the best they can to obviate the many difficulties in their way, and, with cheerfulness, forego the comforts and conveniences they enjoyed before the war.--There is a loom and spinning wheel in every house and cabin, and there is great activity in making domestic cloth of all kinds; and there is a great deal made, and much of it of excellent quality.  After supplying the wants of their families at home and their sons and brothers in the army, with good thick jeans and linseys, many sell the remainder at the villages to purchase more yarn to make more cloth--and so they go on.  I have never before known as much cloth of different kinds to be made in the country.  Good jeans have been selling at four, and linseys at three dollars per yard.  God bless our precious mothers, wives, and sisters!  Always susceptible of happy influences, how could the present glorious struggle for home, liberty and honor, fail to give new spirit and vigor to their patriotic and devoted affections?  They say they want peace--and would gladly embrace it; but never, no, never in a Union with Yankeedom--they want a separation, total and everlasting.  . . .         W.  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, November 21, 1862, p. 1, c. 7 
                A lady living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel and an auger made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day.  The thread is furnished by Maj. N. B. Pearce, and woven into cloth for army purposes.  

San Antonio Herald, November 22, 1862, p. 2, c. 2 
                A Good Example.--We saw a day or two ago, an excellent quality of jeans, which was manufactured in this place.  The cotton and wool were carded and spun, and the cloth woven by the ladies of one of our wealthiest families.  They have produced a sufficient quantity to clothe the family, white and black, and to give liberally to destitute soldiers.  We should like to give the names of these useful and patriotic ladies, but as true merit is generally modest, we fear such notice might be offensive.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, November 25, 1862, p. 1, c. 6 
                A Loom for the Times.—Dr. P. R. Clements, from Eufaula, Ala., has in our city a loom of  his invention, which we think is just the machine for the times.  This loom can weave with one ordinary hand about 40 yards of good homespun a day.  It is worked by a small balance wheel and crank.  Dr. Clements proposes to sell the right for counties for the State.  Here is offered a splendid opening for an enterprising mechanic.  The looms can be purchased in Eufaula, Ala., for $75 each.—Milledgeville Union.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Granada, MS], November 28, 1862, p. 1, c. 3

                                                                The Ladies of Sardis and Vicinity.

Editor Appeal:  . . .  
                Prominent among the many societies organized for the laudable purpose of clothing our brave boys in the army, stands the Sardis soldiers' aid society and its auxiliary, the Sardis spinning and weaving society.  Of the former Mrs. McCracken is president, and Miss Callie Morriss secretary; of the latter Mrs. A. W. Lowe, president, and Mrs. Pullen and Miss Sue Simmons secretaries.  The Sardis aid society was organized more than fifteen months since, and from the day of its organization to the present date, it has been steadily engaged in its praiseworthy mission.  Much that it has done has never been and, perhaps, never will be known to the public, but the recipients of its kindness will ever remember it with gratitude.  Many hospitals have been supplied with delicacies for the sick, and many a poor soldier, far away from home and kindred, has ejaculated a silent prayer for the happiness of the good ladies of Sardis and vicinity as he eagerly partook of the good things sent.  
                Last winter one entire company was furnished with blankets, underclothing and socks, and several others supplied in part; beside a great many garments given to individuals wherever found needy.  More than one hundred and twenty-five uniforms were made, and many other things of which the writer is not posted.  The ladies were materially aided in their efforts by many patriotic gentlemen hereabouts who subscribed liberally in money and cotton.  
                But last spring it was ascertained that the stock of fabrics of which garments had heretofore been made, was exhausted.  Flannels, shirtings and goods suitable for coats and pants could no longer be obtained.  This was a serious dilemma, and men perhaps under similar circumstances would have given up in despair; but not so our fair friends.  They met the emergency boldly; such fabrics as they needed could not be bought, but *they could be made.*  A spinning and weaving society was immediately organized.  Hands little used to such things were soon busy with the distaff and shuttle; and the merry hum of the wheel and the clatter of the loom soon became familiar sounds throughout our neighborhood.  Osnaburgs and jeans was [sic] soon manufactured and made up, and many of our thinly clad soldiers will soon be made to rejoice on account of the handiwork of these fair ones.  
                I would that I could give you a full history of all that these two benevolent societies have done and are now doing for our cause, but my space will not allow it.  They are engaged in a holy work, and well are the fulfilling their missions.  
                From many a camp in Virginia, Tennessee and Mississippi will a silent "God bless them" ascend to heaven; from many a home in Missouri, Arkansas and Texas, will the tear of gratitude trickle down the fair cheek of mother, wife and sister, as she learns that her loved one far away has found a mother--a sister--to minister to his wants.  God bless the ladies of Sardis and vicinity.                                                                              Visitor.  

Savannah Republican, December 4, 1862, p. 1, c. 5 
                A lady, living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel, and an auger, made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day.  The thread is furnished by Major N. B. Pearce, and woven into cloth for army purposes.  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, December 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 6  
We have before us a sample of cloth, manufactured by Mr. John Cox, of this county, the filling of which is spun without the use of cards.  The cloth, though not as smooth as could be desired, is very strong and will answer every purpose until we can gain our independence.—Arrange your cotton simply with the hand into a convenient size, and draw the thread slowly and you can make a very good filling for negro clothing.  Fresh ginned cotton is the best.—[Sandersville Georgian.  

Dallas Herald, December 6, 1862, p. 2, c. 2 
                We have been shown a donation of 31 pairs worsted socks, 50 flannel overshirts, 2 undershirts, and 6 pair flannel drawers, for the soldiers, made by a lady and her two daughters, in Grimes county.  The flannel was all of home manufacture, and the best article of the kind we have seen in many a long day.  This donation is worth at least $75, probably $100.—Telegraph. 
                According to our calculations, the above articles would bring not less than $450.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, December 9, 1862, p. 3, c. 1 
                Elegant Home-made Fabrics.—Mr. John Dawson, of Russell county, Ala., exhibited to us, the other day, some beautiful bolts of cloth from his spinning wheels and loom.  They consisted of Stripes for ladies wear, which were not only nearly as smooth and fine as calico, but the several colors were woven in with a taste and nicety that made the goods appear very pretty and genteel; also a superior article of Jeans, and two spools of colored Thread, of a fineness not equal to Coates, of course, but much finer than that sold by the factories. 
                We learn that those handsome fabrics were not only made entire with the spinning wheels and loom of Mr.  Dawson, but that the cotton and wool were also of his own raising, and the loom of his own make! 
                Such men as this old gentleman, are "illustrating" our capacity for independence in a most conclusive manner.  Let his example be generally imitated, and 
                "We'll be a glorious people yet, 
                Erect, redeemed, and free."  

The Southern Banner [Athens, Ga.], December 10, 1862, p. 1, c. 7  
A lady, living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel, and an auger, made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day.  The thread is furnished by Major N. B. Pearce, and woven into cloth for army purposes.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Jackson, MS], December 16, 1862, p. 2, c. 4  
                We clip the following items from the San Antonio Herald of the 22d ult: . . .  
                A good Example--We saw a day or two ago an excellent quality of jeans, which was manufactured in this place.  The cotton and wool were carded and spun, and the cloth woven by the ladies of one of our wealthiest families.  They have produced a sufficient quantity to clothe the family, white and black, and to give liberally to destitute soldiers.  We should like to give the names of these useful and patriotic ladies, but as true merit is generally modest, we fear such notice might be offensive.  

Galveston Weekly News, December 17, 1862, p. 1, c. 1

The Gentler but More Heroic Sex.

. . .           In this connection we may be permitted to mention that a friend from the Colorado has sent us a specimen of Linsey woolsey, manufactured by Mrs. J. S. Montgomery, near Eagle Lake, the woof of cotton and the filling of wool, black and white mixed, making a most beautiful and substantial cloth, thick and wide, equal to the best Kentucky manufacture, and fit for the uniform of a Major General. 
                Mrs. M. in her patriotic desire to aid the struggle in which the South is engaged, is busily employed with some of her negro women in spinning and weaving, and will send garments made of this material, besides underclothes and socks, to her numerous relatives and friends in the army. 
                If all the wives of planters, who have the labor thus to bestow, would imitate her example, our noble soldiers would not feel so keenly the wintry blasts and inclement weather now upon them; and these ladies should, and doubtless do, consider themselves amply repaid by the service they are called upon to render in defence of their liberties, their homes and their property.
 

Galveston Weekly News, December 24, 1862, p. 1, c. 2 
                Editor of the News:--In your issue of the 10th inst., I notice a call by you for "information in relation to tanneries in Texas and what efforts are being made for a supply of leather--also in regard to domestic manufactures, such as shoemaking, spinning and weaving by the old fashioned spinning wheels and hand looms." 
                I can answer for Washington and a considerable portion of the adjoining counties. . .  As to "spinning and weaving by the old fashioned spinning wheel and hand loom," there is a general movement in that direction everywhere.  Looms and wheels are being made by the thousands, and every family who have been so fortunate as to procure cards, are manufacturing quantities of the most excellent cloth.  But the scarcity and ruinous high prices of the cards operates with many poor families, as a sufficient barrier to prevent them from doing anything at all towards clothing themselves, even.  Certainly the card speculators are striving to force the community back into the use of the primitive fig leaf apron again. 
                It is not worth while to say anything about what the managers of the State government might have done to aid the people in procuring cards.  They be d----d, but if the people had the cards, I am sure I tell the truth, when I assert that the whole country would be instantly converted into one grand efficient manufacturing establishment.  And from the thousands of buzzing wheels and clattering looms, propelled by willing hands and loving hearts; the ready made clothing and substantial blankets would flow to our armies, as free as water.  There are few soldiers in the service, who have not a female relative or friend at home, who would take delight in having the opportunity to clothe him during the war.  I know of what I speak, and the drawback to all this, is intentionally produced by a black hearted set of enemies to our cause.                     THINE GID. 
                We add the following although headed private. 
                With my own hands I have finished a month ago and they are now in successful operation, what my neighbors pronounce a very neat set of spinning wheels, reel, loom, warping mill, 40 spools, 2 reels or slegs, shuttles, &c., all the outfit and preparation for making various kinds of cloth.  I am now engaged in making a chemical analysis with the coloring matter obtained from our forests.  The ladies are delighted with my experiments. 
                                                                                            GIDEON.

  Memphis Daily Appeal [Jackson, MS], January 24, 1863, p. 1, c. 2

Letter from Ripley.

                                                                                             Ripley, Mississippi, January 12, 1863.  
                Editors Appeal:  Having a leisure hour, and being confined to the house of a friend by a very painful wound, received in Holly Springs some weeks since, I have concluded to send you a few lines which you can publish or not as seemeth good unto you.  This war has developed much of good and evil in our people.  The long slumbering energies of home industry have been aroused, and the noble, brave-hearted women of our land, many of whom have gone to work with wheel and loom, heart and hands, and bid defiance to Lincoln's blockade.  The wife of Chaplain E. H. Osborne, of this place, once sported  her moire antique, and double jupe brocade, and fancy gaiter boots.  Now she sports a pair of boys boots, No. 3 and a homespun dress, the manufacture of her own hands, rejoicing in her independence.  She is of the opinion that Jeff Davis is an appreciative gentleman.  But while a spirit of independence has arisen, among our honored country-women, who toil rather than depend on the Memphis cotton trade for linen and flummery, there are hundreds of wagons going from this county of Tippah to Memphis, laden with cotton, which they exchange for goods and greenbacks, introducing the latter into the country, depreciating our currency, buying up greenbacks in order to trade with the Yankees, giving two dollars in Confederate money for one in greenbacks. . .  T.W.P.  

San Antonio Herald, March 7, 1863, p. 2, c. 2 
                We have seen a pair of pantaloons, the cloth of which was manufactured on the plantation of Doctor Houston, of Wilson County, and the garment cut and made by a negro seamstress, that would be a credit to any country.  The blockade is turning out to be a blessing by showing our people how independent they may be of all other countries.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Jackson, MS], March 18, 1863, p. 1, c. 8  
From the Mobile Tribune.]  
The following extracts from a private letter, written by a Memphis lady, will amuse your readers, and perhaps be of considerable interest to our friends who are going to the "up country" to spend the summer. 
                                                                                                North Alabama, March 1, 1863.    
             Dear Brother:  *  *  *  We live among the poorest and most ignorant people in the world.  I have seen but one lady of any refinement since we arrived; and the people all say "she is a mighty strange kind of a woman."  It is no wonder they think so.  She looks like another race of beings.  
                An old woman, with brown yarn gloves and madder-colored homespun apron and sack, with blue and black homespun dress (all honor to her industry!) called on us the other day.  She walked, she said, "nigh about four miles and a half jest to ax us if we knowed anything about her son Lazarus, what went to the wars from the Mississippi State, last gone September was pretty nigh three years ago, and she hadn't heard from him in all that time." .   Then she got to talking about the times and said, "I've had only this one pin for three months, and I'm just as partic'lar how I puts it in my clothes for fear I'd lose it, and I can't tell where I'd get another from.  But before the war I lived here nigh on to seven years and never bought but one store coat yit." . . .                                   M.  

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], March 21, 1863, p. 3, c. 2

"She Layeth Her Hands to the Spindle, Her Hands Hold the Distaff."

                Thus spoke the wise King of Israel, thousands of years ago, of a virtuous woman.  The picture he drew had doubtless many originals, even among the wealthy of his day.  But gradually in the progress of time they disappeared, and woman, once the slave, then the helpmate, finally became the doll and plaything of the lords of creation. . .  
                Most people will sing to think of the good old times--as if all old time manners and ways were necessarily good; which does not follow as a natural sequence at all.  But, thanks to the war, we see again some of the good old customs of Solomon's day revived.  The women of the Confederate States--and no heroines of song or story outshine their peerless character--are giving heed to the things which make for the welfare of the army and the country.  The rich are looking after their servants and directing their work--the making of cotton and woolen cloth.  It is become the pride of the country matron, and even of the young ladies too.  In almost every country place, and in the small towns and villages, we hear on every side the homely but not unpleasant whir of the spinning wheel, and the click and thud of the hand-loom.  The fairest and the daintiest of the land are learning the mysteries of days [dyes] and cilor [color] setting and of warp and weit [weft].  Scarlet and purple are an every day theme.  It is a prodigious fashion, and what is more, a good fashion.  We hope to see more still follow it.  It should be a glory to a young lady in these times, not only to wear a homespun dress, but to be able to spin and weave it.  All honor we say to the music of the spinning wheel, and especially to those who learn that while not forgetting their piano.  They are fit to be the wives of heroes.--Augusta Constitutionalist.  

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], April 10, 1863, p. 1, c.3-4

Correspondence of the Richmond Sentinel.  
A Few Days in Georgia--Spent in Atlanta and Columbus.

                                                                                                             Columbus,  Ga., March 21.  
Messrs. Editors:  
. . .  In Atlanta and Macon the ladies dress as in times of peace, have an abundance of fine clothes, and ride in fine carriages, drawn by fat, sleek horses.  Fine bonnets and silk dresses are as thick as blackberries.  Homespun by the city ladies is not much worn.  It is not becoming, they say, and gives them rather a plebeian appearance.  Their example, were they to dress in homespun, would certainly have a very salutary effect.  It would beget habits of economy in all classes, and make people more self-reliant, contented and happy. . . .                                                                                                          Viator.  

Galveston Weekly News, May 6, 1863, p. 1, c. 4

Letter from Tennessee.

                                                                                Camp near Franklin, Murey [sic] Co., Tenn.    } 
                                                                                                                         March 3, 1863       }  
. . . God bless the ladies, the part they have acted in this war will never be forgotten, and that part is no little.  Their fair hands have clothed our army, have woven the fabric that warmed the soldiers frozen form, as he laid down to sleep at night in the cold winters blast, and have administered to the wants of the sick and wounded; they have breathed words of consolation to the sick and afflicted; and by their spirited address, have nerved men on to deeds of daring. . .  

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Ga.], May 9, 1863, p. 2, c. 2

The Southern Girl With Homespun Dress.  
----  
(Author Unknown.)  
----  
Air--Bonnie Blue Flag.  
----

Oh!  yes, I am a Southern girl, 
                And glory in the name,  
And boast it with far greater pride 
                Than glittering wealth or fame.  
I envy not the Northern girl 
                Her robes of beauty rare;  
Though diamonds grace her snowy neck, 
                And pearls bedeck her hair.  

Chorus. 


                                Hurrah!  hurrah!  for the sunny South so dear; 
                                Three cheers for the homespun dress               
                                The Southern ladies wear.  

 

This homespun dress is plain, I know-- 
                My hat's Palmetto, too--  
But then it shows what Southern girls 
                For Southern rights will do.  
We've sent the bravest of our land 
                To battle with the foe,  
And we would lend a helping hand; 
                We love the South, you know.  

Now, Northern goods are out of date, 
                And since Old Abe's blockade,  
We Southern girls can be content 
                With goods that Southern made.  
We scorn to wear a bit of silk, 
                A bit of Northern lace,  
But make our homespun dresses up 
                And wear them with much grace.  

Our Southern land is a glorious land, 
                And her's a glorious cause;  
So here's three cheers for Southern rights, 
                And for the Southern boys.  
We've sent our sweethearts to the war; 
                But, dear girls, never mind,  
Your soldier lad will not forget 
                The girl he left behind.  

A soldier is the lad for me-- 
                A brave heart I adore--  
And when the sunny South is free, 
                And fighting is no more,  
I'll choose me then a lover brave 
                From out that gallant band;  
The soldier lad that I love most 
                Shall have my heart and hand  

And now young men, a word to you; 
                If you would win the fair,  
Go to the field where honor calls, 
                And win your lady there.  
Remember that our brightest smiles 
                Are for the true and brave,  
And that our tears fall for the one 
                That fills a soldier's grave.  

Galveston Weekly News, May 13, 1863, p. 1, c. 1 
                We have samples of ten different patterns of home-made cloth, made by Mrs. Wm. S. Taylor, of Montgomery county, assisted by her daughters.  Mrs. Taylor is an old Texian, and like nearly all the ladies who passed through the ordeal of our former revolution, knows how to use the hand loom and spinning wheel.  

Charleston Mercury, May 21, 1863, p. 1, c. 2

Southern Silk.

                We recollect the silk excitement of twenty odd years ago, which, under the stimulus of Yankeeizing speculation, was turned into the murus multicaulis mania, the unlucky consequence of which brought discredit upon the really laudable enterprise in which it originated.  We had believed that the silk culture in the South was completely broken up, but we are happy to learn by the following notice in the Atlanta Commonwealth, that we were mistaken: 
                We have received two skeins of beautiful sewing silk manufactured by Mrs. Thomas Gibson, near Mayfield, Warren County, Ga.  It is smooth, strong and glossy, and sufficiently fine for all practical uses.  We learn that Mrs. Gibson in 1831 procured about 10,000 eggs, and put up about forty cuts on a common reel of about 120 yards each.  This she put into skeins to the number of 500.  This year she has about 30,000 worms, and if they do as well as they did last year, she will have 1500 skeins of silk.  She has disposed of all she made except a few skeins.  She has a sufficient amount of mulberry trees to feed 200,000 worms.   We take peculiar pleasure in noticing this successful experiment in silk culture, and trust that it may be an incentive to others to engage in the same laudable work.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, May 26, 1863, p. 3, c. 6 
                Not long since we heard a young lady say that hereafter she intended to buy none but homespun dresses.  It was a wise conclusion, and we hope every woman in the Confederacy will follow her example, and buy no more of those goods which blockade runners are palming off on the people as from England, when, in reality, they are from Yankeedom, and thus save gold in the country which, by this means, goes into the pockets of the enemy.  This revolution has proved that the women of the South are not mere butterflies of fashion; they have labored cheerfully and made sacrifices unmurmuringly, and have proved themselves worthy of their patriotic husbands who are in the field.  The young ladies have learned lessons of usefulness and economy and will make model wives for our brave young soldiers when they return from the bloody field to peaceful pursuits.  

Savannah Republican, , June 2, 1863, p. 2, c. 2 
                                                                                [From the Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel.]

Cheering News from Arkansas.

                We have had the pleasure of an interview with a gentleman recently from Camden, Ark., who has kindly furnished us with some facts in regard to the situation of affairs in that State, which cannot fail to be of great interest to our readers. . . By precaution and foresight, cotton and woolen cards are plenty, and many families are engaged in carding, spinning and weaving cloth, both for domestic purposes and for clothing the soldiers.  Our informant mentioned some households where eight hundred yards had been wove the past year, who intended this year to increase the amount to one thousand yards. Under the quickening influence of the time, the whole State is alive with industrial enterprise. . .

 

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, June 2, 1863, p. 3, c. 4

From the Augusta Chronicle, 28th.

Cheering from Arkansas.

                We have had the pleasure of an interview with a gentleman recently from Camden, Arkansas, who has kindly furnished us with some facts in regard to the situation of affairs in that State, which cannot fail to be of great interest to our readers. . .  By precaution and a wise foresight, cotton and woolen cards are plenty, and many families are engaged in carding, spinning, and weaving cloth, both for domestic purposes and for clothing the soldiers.  Our informant mentioned some households where eight hundred yards had been wove the past year, who intended this year to increase the amount to one thousand yards.  Under the quickening influence of the times, the whole State is alive with industrial enterprise. . .  

Charleston Mercury, June 5, 1863, p. 1, c. 5

The Productive Power of the South.

                . . . We have plenty of arms, and can make our own powder, and the production of iron is rapidly increasing.  Then what indispensable article do we lack to render us entirely independent!  It is that of clothing; and, singular to say, very little attention has been paid by our public authorities to increased production, now almost indispensable to our safety.  Our old stock of clothing is fast wearing out, the production is not half equal to the demand, and it has become a positive and pressing necessity to increase our means of supply.  If this war is to continue, we will need new factories, and the old ones must be extended; the hand of industry must be induced to take hold of the spinning wheel and hand loom in every hamlet and hovel in the country.  The question with us is, not how cheap we can be supplied, but how we are to get cloth at all.  It will be safe to assume that we will have to rely mainly on home production, which leads to the inquiry--how we are to increase the means of supply?  It will certainly not be done by legislative restrictions on prices; high rates must be looked to as a moving cause.  That our safety should depend on high prices--yea, extortionate rate--is an uncomfortable reflection, but that is an ordeal we are doomed to pass through, and the difficulty ought to be willingly met and overcome by every lover of his country.  Prices must go up to a point that will remunerate the hand-loom and spindle, or we will be without a sufficient supply. 
                Capitalists will not engage in new manufacturing enterprises unless they have a prospect of great gain; and prices must be unrestricted by legal enactments, or our factories will be suffered to wear out and burn up without an effort to renew them; and as for new establishments being reared, that is out of the question with the present state of public sentiment, in and out of Congress and our State legislature. 
                If half the amount that has been expended in importing calicoes, brandies, wines, cheese, fancy soaps, and the thousands of jim cracks of Yankee manufacture that load the ships coming through the blockade, had been expended in machinery for the manufacture of every needed article, we would now be in a situation to carry on the war within ourselves, and to put the Yankee at defiance; but, unfortunately for us, public opinion has sanctioned the idea that he who exchanges our last golden dollar and imports Yankee ten cent calico and sells it for three dollars a yard, is a benefactor to his country, while the ingenious producer at home is branded with infamy and indicted for extortion for selling a similar article made at home for a dollar and a half. 
                Our experience in the salt production affords a valuable lesson on the stimulating effects of high prices.  The unrestricted high price of salt stimulated the production of that article and saved our country.  But for the high price of salt last summer, the salt kettle would have been idle, and meat could not have been saved; and so it will be with cloth.  If prices be kept down by legal restrictions, the hand spindle and loom will be restrained and discouraged, and will not be put in operation as a matter of profit; or who will purchase high priced cards to spin and weave for a livelihood, while there is no better prospect than that of competing with factories at 40 and 50 cents a yard?  You may traverse the country from one end to the other to find persons who can earn their bread at such prices. 
                Twelve to fifteen thousand pairs of cards industriously worked will produce as much cloth as a factory of eight thousand spindles and three hundred looms; but so long as factory cloth is sold for forty and fifty cents a yard, the twelve to fifteen thousand pairs of hand-cards will not be industriously worked.  They are now being made and coming into the country by tens of thousands, and they must be set to work in order to save us. . . .  

Galveston Weekly News, June 10, 1863, p. 2, c. 2

Domestic Manufacture.

                                                                                                                Willow Springs, Milam Co. 
                Eds. News.—I enclose you samples of home-made cloth, sixteen pieces of which were made by Mrs. Capt. Smith, of this county, and though she has exceeded the most of us in quantity, yet in each house "the noise of the wheel is heard in the land." 
                                                                                                Yours respectfully, 
                                                                                                                                M. C. Allen. 
                The above samples, 28 in all, have come to hand, and many of them are most excellent and serviceable material.  We are glad to learn that the whole country is now
pretty well supplied with this domestic manufacture, which, although not quite as handsome in the finish as the Yankee fabric, is really far more serviceable, and, as we learn, does not cost half as much at this time.  It should be adopted as a principle not to buy a yard of Yankee made goods when so good a substitute of home made cloth can be had.  It should be remembered that any and all importations from Yankeedom at this time are paid for in our cotton, and that this trade is giving aid and comfort to the enemy in the most effectual way, and encouraging them to prosecute this war for our own subjugation.  Under such circumstances, can a true patriot patronize a trade in Yankee goods?  By the way, we would take this occasion to notice the fact that we find among the pretty large importations into this market of late, that no small portion of them consist of such Yankee notions as whisky and other liquors, also various articles of ladies' dress and other goods that could be dispensed with without any abridgement of comfort or enjoyment.  And yet there seems to be an inordinate demand for these Yankee luxuries, and such is the reckless extravagance of many, that they do not hesitate to pay ten or even twenty prices rather than do without a fashionable dress or bonnet.  Such are the kind of goods that constitute a large portion of the returns we get for our cotton!  So much for the great blessings of a free trade with the Yankees!  

The Southern Banner [Athens, Ga.], June 10, 1863, p. 3, c. 5  
For the Ladies.--Fine bleached homespun, linen handkerchiefs, stay binding, needles, pins, knitting pins, just received and for sale by 
 [June 10]                                  I. M. Kenney.  
Tobacco, wool hats, sleys, shuttles, rice, black pepper and soda just received and for sale by                                                                        
[June 20]                                  I. M. Kenney.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], June 12, 1863, p. 2, c. 8  
Wool Jeans.  A few bales home made and Factory Jeans, which we are prepared to make into Uniforms for privates or officers on reasonable terms.             W. F. Herring & Co., 
                                                                                                                                Atlanta, Ga.  
Flax Thread.  Black, white, and drab, on spools for machine and hand sewing of superior quality.  For sale by                                                                                                W. F. Herring & Co., 
                                                                                                                                Atlanta, Ga.  
Hickory Stripes.  A few bales to arrive and for sale by  W. F. Herring & Co., 
                                                                                                                                Atlanta, Ga.  

Washington [Ark.] Telegraph, June 15, 1864          

WANTED TO HIRE,  
1,000 NEGRO WOMEN

At the manufacturing quartermaster's department, Gilmer, Upshur county, Texas.  I want 1,000 Negro Women to spin and weave Cloth for the army.  Twenty Dollars per month and rations will be paid. 
                                               D. Thomas, Major                
                                            & manufacturing Q.M.D.A.  

Gilmer, Texas, June 1st, 1864.  

Dallas Herald, July 1, 1863, p. 1, c. 1

Adventures of a Young Lady in the Army.

                Among the registered enemies of the United States government who have been recently sent across the lines from New Orleans, there is now in this city a lady whose adventures place her in the ranks of the Molly Pitchers of the present revolution. 
                At the breaking out of the war, Mrs. James J. Williams (the lady of whom we alluded) was a resident of Arkansas.  Like most of the women of the South, her whole soul was enlisted for the struggle for independence. . .  She then visited New Orleans, was taken sick and while sick the city was captured.  On recovery she retired to the coast, where she employed herself in conveying communications, assisting parties to run the blockade with drugs and clothes and uniforms.  She was informed on by a negro and arrested and brought before Gen. Butler.  She made her appearance before Gen. B. in a Southern homespun dress.  She refused to take the oath, told him she gloried in being a rebel—had fought side by side with Southern men for Southern rights, and if she ever lived to see "Dixie" she would do it again. . .  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, July 3, 1863, p. 1, c. 7 
                A gentleman writing from Madison, Florida, says:  "If no disaster befalls the crop of corn and hogs, I don't know but Florida itself could feed one half of the Confederate troops for months.—You would be astonished to see the aptness exhibited by our people for making cloth.  The sound of the spinning wheel may be heard now almost everywhere.  Jeff. Davis' speech at Jackson, Mississippi, has had much to do in exciting the admiration of the ladies for homespun dresses."
 

Charleston Mercury, July 24, 1863, p. 1, c. 3

Letter from Florida.  
[From an Occasional Correspondent.]

                                                                                                Chuleotah, Fla., July 1.  
. . . One planter, not distant from here, will this year kill four hundred hogs, and his wife has clothed her family with cloth of her own making.  She counted two thousand yards that she had made for her negros, and then stopped counting, but not working.  The ladies here have learned to do a variety of work, and are every day devising means to meet the exigencies of the times.  They prove themselves very ingenious and skillful.--The most refined and cultivated accommodate themselves to their new life, and give their personal attention to the manufacturing of fabrics.  With "the energy of delicate life" they give their hearts to their work without morbid repining.  The gentlemen in this house wear handsome black cloth, spun, woven and dyed at home.  We are not at Judge ----- -----, Chuleotah, Madison county. . . .                                                                   M.B.  

The Southern Watchman [Athens, Ga.], August 12, 1863, p. 4, c. 1  
The Industry of the Women of the South.--A letter from Lincoln county, Tenn., says:  On the small farms throughout this section all is life, activity, and industry.  Many a woman who never before held a plow, is now seen in the cornfield.--many a young girl who would have blushed at the thought before of handling a plow line, now naturally and unconsciously cries "gee up" Dobbin, to the silvery tones which the good brute readily responds, as if a pleasure to comply with so gentle a command.  Many a Ruth, as of old, is seen to-day binding and gleaning in the wheat field, but, alas!  no Boaz is there to control or to comfort.  The picture of the rural soldier's home is at this time but a picture of primitive life.  Throughout the country, at every farm house and cottage, the regular sound of the loom, as the shuttle flies to and frow, with the whirl of the spinning wheel, is heard, telling of home industry.  Cotton fabrics, of neat, pretty figures, the production of home manufacture, are now almost wholly worn in Tennessee, instead of calicoes.  

Savannah Republican, August 19, 1863, p. 2, c. 1 
                Where are all the ladies who, when the war broke out, were going to wear nothing but homespun during the war?—Augusta Constitutionalist. 
                They are wearing out their old summer dresses, to be sure.  You would not expect them to wear heavy homespun with the thermometer up in the nineties.—Mobile Advertiser. 
                A still better reason is that calico is cheaper than homespun, besides being more comely.  Our observation teaches that homespun is bout the dearest every-day dress a lady can wear, and having had to foot several bills in that line, it has cured us completely on the subject of domestic manufactures for ladies' dresses.  What with trimming to make them look decent, the fading after the first introduction to the washtub and consequent, early abandonment, it is poor economy to indulge in homespun dresses.  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, October 7, 1863, p. 2, c. 2 
                The Claiborne Southerner is informed that some farmers are refusing to sell their surplus jeans at less than $12 a yard.  

Savannah Republican, October 20, 1863, p. 2, c. 5

New Goods  
Just Opened:

1 case Winter Poplins,  
1 case Gents' West End Neck Ties,  
1 case Gents' hemmed Linen Cambric Handkerchiefs,  
30 dozen Scissors,  
Black English Crapes,  
Black Crape Collars and Cuffs,  
1000 yards Plaid Homespuns,  
For sale by 
                                                                                                DeWitt & Morgan.

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], November 11, 1863, p. 1, c. 2 
                A Girl Worth Having--One of our fair country-women, the daughter of a rich and independent farmer of Rockingham, was married the other day to a gentleman who may congratulate himself upon having secured a prize worth having.  She was what we would call "an independent girl," sure enough.  Her bridal outfit was all made with her own hands, from her beautiful and elegant straw hat, down to the handsome gaiters upon her feet!  Her own delicate hands spun and wove the material of which her wedding dress and traveling cloak were made, so that she had nothing upon her person when she was married which was not made by herself!  Nor was she compelled by necessity or poverty to make this exhibition of her independence.  She did it for the purpose of showing to the world how independent Southern girls are.  If this noble girl were not wedded we should be tempted to publish her name in this connection, so that our bachelor readers might see who of our girls are most to be desired.  If she were yet single, and we were to publish her name, her pa's house would be at once thronged with gallant gentlemen seeking the hand of a women of such priceless value.--Rockingham Register.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, November 17, 1863, p. 2, c. 2 
                At the marriage of a couple at Mt. Crawford, Va., the bride appeared for the ceremony in a full dress of real Confederate—that is, old time linsey woolsey made with her own hands.  The bridegroom wore a woolen suit of gray, the product of the country.  After the ceremony, the couple started for Richmond, she hiding her blushes beneath a cute little straw hat (the straw of which it was made having grown on her father's farm) made by herself, and protected from the insinuating familiarities of Rude Boreas by the ample folds of a Confederate cloak, of the same material as her bridal dress, and made by the same fair fingers.  

The Southern Banner [Athens, Ga.], November 18, 1863, p. 3, c. 4

Fall in Price of Blockade Goods.

                A correspondent at Wilmington, under date of the 11th instant, writes:  "Blockade goods are tumbling down with a crash.  The last auction sale I attended was the 10th, when prices fell more than seventy-five per cent. below those realized at the preceding one.  I am not at all surprised at this seemingly extraordinary change.--There are here now no less than fifteen entire cargoes warehoused, waiting a change in the market.  The result may, in a great measure, be attributed to the large stocks already in the hands of the speculators but much is also due to the success which has attended home manufactures. 
                "A merchant tailor, whom I met at the sale, observed that it was astonishing to witness the great extent to which home made cloth had come into use in so short a time, and that almost nine out of every ten men he met wore a homespun suit.  So he said it was getting to be the case with shirts and domestics.  He said he intended to be very cautious in his purchases, as a panic was brewing, and he was not going to be caught among the victims."  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, November 21, 1863, p. 1, c. 5 
                                                                                                Houston, Texas, November 12 
                P.S.  Large importations of cotton cards have found their way into Texas, and are now sold at a price which places them within reach of all. 
                The loom and spinning wheel are now found in almost every house, and the busy hum may be heard continually throughout the length and breadth of the State.  An abundance of material for soldiers' clothing is now manufactured "at home," and even if the coming winter be severe, but few if any, will suffer for the want of comfortable apparel.  With plenty to eat and plenty to wear, we are in fine spirits and eagerly watch for the threatening foe.  When he comes, he will not find us unprepared for him. . . H. P.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], November 24, 1863, p. 1, c. 8  
[Correspondence Mobile Evening News] 
                Houston, Texas, . . . November 12. . . 
                 P.S.  Large importations of cotton cards have found their way into Texas, and are now sold at a price which place them within reach of all. 
                The loom and spinning wheel are now found in almost every house, and the busy hum may be heard continually throughout the earth and breadth of the State.  An abundance of material for soldiers' clothing is now manufactured "at home," and even if the coming winter be severe, but few if any will suffer for the want of comfortable apparel.  With plenty to eat and plenty to wear, we are in fine spirits and eagerly watch for the threatening foe.  When he comes, he will not find us unprepared to receive him.  

Weekly Columbus [GA] Enquirer, November 24, 1863, p. 1, c. 5 
                A Girl Worth Having.—One of our fair country women, the daughter of a rich and independent farmer of Rockingham, was married the other day to a gentleman who may congratulate himself upon having secured a prize worth having.  She was what we would call "an independent girl," sure enough.  Her bridal outfit was all made with her own hands, from her beautiful straw hat down to the handsome gaiters upon her feet.  Her own delicate hands spun and wove the material of which her wedding dress and traveling cloak were made, so that she had nothing upon her person when she was married which was not made by herself!  Nor was she compelled by necessity or poverty to make this exhibition of her independence.  She did it for the purpose of showing to the world how independent Southern girls are.  If this noble girl were not wedded we should be tempted to publish her name in this connection, so that our bachelor readers might see who of our girls are most to be desired.  If she were yet single, and we were to publish her name, her pa's house would be at once thronged with gallant gentlemen seeking the hand of a woman of such priceless value.—Rockingham (Va.) Register.

Austin State Gazette, November 25, 1863, p. 2, c. 5

[Communicated]

                "The ladies of the Confederacy have it in their power to depreciate or restore the currency to perfect soundness."  
                You are right, Mr. Editor.  These are sensible remarks, and the women of the South have, indeed, a heavier responsibility than they seem to be aware of; for much of the unfortunate depreciation of our currency is owing to their want of true patriotism and self denial. . . What if every lady in the land were to say, that from this time, until the close of the war, I will hoard every dollar of Confederate money, for which I do not receive the same value in gold--that I will wear no costly goods while our brave soldiers are in the field--that I will even refrain from manufacturing fine cloth for my family, preferring to see them dressed only in such as are suitable for camp life, while I diligently employ every moment thus saved from home duties in preparing something for the comfort and encouragement of our gallant defenders.  What if we were to say to thee extortioner and speculator, we have no use for your goods?  Our own hands can make as good as we wish to wear while this struggle continues; and when our friends return, they will meet us all the more joyfully, that we have preferred to the vanities of life, the dearer pleasure of toiling for them; and when that brighter day shall come, our currency will be redeemed, and in triumph we will deck ourselves in gold and fine linen to welcome them home, and win the only admiration we covet.  We might do these things and thereby accomplish more for the cause than all we have done before.  As for myself, with the exception of one calico dress, for which I bartered homespun, I have not spent $10 in dress since the war commenced, and therefore I have the right to sign myself                                  A PRACTICAL PREACHER.  

Washington [Ark.] Telegraph, December 2, 1863  
THE MISSOURI EXILES.--I have just learned for the first time, through the thoughtfulness of Lieut.-Col. R. H. Musser and Captain D. H. Lindsay in writing to me on the subject, that many families recently expelled from Missouri are in great distress near Washington, Ark.  I have sent to Capt. Lindsay, out of the State military funds, money sufficient to relieve the more urgent necessities of those families.  The enemy has sent them here with the design of increasing our burthens; if they are willing to work, (and I am proud to say I have not yet many of my countrywomen of Missouri who are not,) they can foil him in his object, and even materially aid us.  We need cloth for our army; they can help to make it; and in so doing will find speedy, honorable and profitable employment.  To those desiring it, I will furnish the necessary cards and spinning wheels, the cost to be refunded to the State out of their future earnings.  Those wishing to avail themselves of this aid should write to Capt. D. H. Lindsay, Washington, Ark. 
                                            THOS. C. REYNOLDS, 
                                                  Governor of Missouri.  
Shreveport, La., 21st Nov., 1863.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], December 8, 1863, p. 1, c. 8  
An Energetic Woman.--A correspondent of the Clarion writes from Jasper county, Mississippi:  
Mrs. Simmons, a widow lady of Jasper county, Mississippi, has made during the present year 300 bushels of corn, 100 bushels of potatoes, with peas and pinders enough to fatten her hogs.  She did the plowing herself, and did it with an old wind-broken pony.  Her two little daughters, aged twelve and fourteen years, did the hoeing.  She has also made 100 pounds of tobacco, now in press.  Since her crop was finished she has done weaving enough to buy her salt and a pair of cards, and has some money left.

Galveston Weekly News, January 6, 1864, p. 1, c. 2 
                An old citizen of Dallas county says that a good article of worsted socks can be purchased in abundance in that county at five dollars per pair and Texas jeans at twenty dollars per yard.  This will, of course, be cheering news to many of our citizens, and especially to the editor of the State Gazette, who expresses an anxiety to procure such articles.
 

Washington [Ark.] Telegraph, January 13, 1864 
                To the Ladies.  A Lady has a very handsome piece of straw-colored Tarletan, suitable for an evening dress, which she wishes to exchange for a calico or homespun piece--pattern for pattern.  She has also a handsome Satin Mantle, which she would exchange for home-made goods.  Enquire of the editor. 
                Washington, January 13, 1864.  

Washington [Ark.] Telegraph, January 20, 1864  
TO THE WOMEN.-- ...  
                You have done nobly.  It delights us to contemplate these things.  To transport ourselves a century into the future, and look back at the present.  To see the glory which will surround the memory of the women of '61.  All that is now rough and unpleasant will be forgotten in history.  The stones and stumbling blocks will be no longer visible--the ravines and rugged ledges will be lost in the distance.  From that stand point the fame of our women will shine with a halo altogether lovely.  Future ages will catch an exaltation in beholding it, which will inspire new heroism in the daughters of future centuries, when Rome and Greece are forgotten.  
                Yes! nobly indeed!  Many born in wealth, and used only to indolence, have felt the true woman's nature arise within them, which makes all women equal, and have cast aside their luxuries with joy, and gloried in their privations.  Many who were poor, and to whom husbands and sons were all the joy of life to cheer and reward them in their daily toils, have sent them forth with tears and choking sighs, but with blessings and words of encouragement.  May God reward it!  "The children you have borne them must be free."  
                All that was but the beginning.  From garrets and closets, and lumber of smoke-houses came forth the old fragments of long-forgotten looms and spinning-wheels, and a new sound arose in the land; a melancholy humming with a somewhat fierce and energetic close, like the death song of the shell--we all knew it well in our youth.  It was the sound of the spinning wheel.  It arose from the city and the village, the planter's mansion and the settler's cabin.  It was a low sound truly, but could the enemy have been gifted to hear its still small voice through the din of arms, they might have read its terrible meaning.  It is this, "We are the true amazons who fight thus with our sons and brothers, and lovers.  Not on horseback with bows and arrows, and right breasts cut off; but in womanly modesty; with prayerful hearts, we do nobler battle.  We enable them to laugh to scorn their dependency on your Lowel Mills.  We clothe them, and uphold their hands by our cheerful submission to our share of the ills you have brought upon us.  The contest is ours also.  Behold how we maintain it."  
                Time wore away.  The war was prolonged.--All experienced, over and over again, the "hope deferred," that "maketh the heart sick."  You most of all.  Your passive endurance, relieved by the stir of martial events, was the heavier burden.  Often the lightning flash along the wires struck upon your hearts with a blow more terrible than death, wringing them with extreme of mortal agony.  You have bowed your heads to the stroke, in resignation to God, not in submission to the enemy.  Still, your courage has risen to sustain the survivors.  Still, the busy fingers have been plied.  Still, the wards of the hospitals have found you ministering amidst loathsome wounds, disease and death.--Still, you have hurled defiance at the enemy, and breathed your spirits into the hearts of sterner man.  Still, you have continued to send other dear ones from your households.  Still, you have continued to hear the gaunt wolf of hunger, howling nearer and nearer, and have trembled for the infants at your firesides.  Still, the tales of the barbarous infamy of the enemy towards your unfortunate sisters within their power have paled your cheeks day by day, but your hearts have not been appalled.  Your courage has not failed.  Your perseverance has not faltered.--You have never whispered submission.  Your instincts have been no less true that the reason of strong-minded men.  You have seen in that an ignominy for your sons and daughters more terrible than suffering and death.  
                All this must not be for naught.  God will not suffer that in his justice.  Of this be assured.  Those floods of tears were not wrung out from crushed hearts to fall like water in the desert and be dried up forever.  Those labors of patient industry; those sacrifices by day and by night; those wakeful nights, relieved by dreadful dreams of loved forms in the wild carnage of battle--all these, suffered and done in humble reliance upon Him, and with consciousness of right, cannot be rewarded with subjection and degradation.  Believe it not.  
                Persevere!  But why say that?  We may urge the planter to plant, and the workman to toil at the forge.  They may need that, for men are prone to discouragement.  Why urge true women to be true women still?  She was "last at the cross and first at the sepulchre," whilst Peter, the boldest of all the twelve, only followed timidly afar off, and, in his weakness, denied his Saviour with oaths.  Upon your efforts rests the hope of our army.  If you fail them, the cause is lost.  You cannot--it is safe.  The wheel will go on.  The sick will be cared for.  If necessary, (which heaven forbid!) you will be found at the plow.  Our men will be encouraged, and their hopes renewed.  They will be ashamed to be absent from their posts and lounging in idleness whilst woman shows such perseverance.--They will scorn submission to an enemy, rendered more hateful by the evils they have brought upon you.  They (all that are worthy of the name) will feel a sacred devotion to a cause thrice hallowed by the martyrdom of women.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], February 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 6

A Womanly Appeal to the Ladies.

From the Columbus Enquirer.]  
. . .  Sisters of the South, we have work to do!  Think not that by draping your forms in crapes and bombazines you are honoring your noble dead.  Think not that by giving a Jewish extortioner a thousand dollars for a suit of deepest black, and a Jewish milliner a hundred or two more for putting it in wearing order, you show that they are still fresh in your memory.  That might do in peaceful times, when your friends died in their beds of disease, but now be up and doing; help on the cause.  You who, in the first flush of your patriotism, gave twenty five and thirty dollars for homespuns and ostentatiously wore them, do not now discard them because they wash badly and cost so much; but get a wheel and cards, if you do live in a city, and make one for yourself, and  not  only that, clothe your husband, brother and little ones.  Petition your President for a few cargoes of cotton cards to be sold to you at cost.  Petition him to forbid, and that immediately, importations of all dry goods, save necessaries for the army.  And let us commence anew, discarding our old watch word of "working for the soldiers" as being worn threadbare by simpering misers, for the better one of working for our Government, of which our gallant soldiers are a part.  

The Southern Banner [Athens, Ga.], February 10, 1864, p. 3, c. 3

Clothing for the Army.

I am now prepared to exchange cotton yarns and shirting for jeans, blankets and wool. 
                                                                                                          J. Livingston, Major and Qm.  
Feb. 10                                                                                                                   Athens, Ga.  

Charleston Mercury, February 10, 1864, p. 1, c. 3

The Spinning Jenny.

                                                                                                                North Santee, January 28. 
                To the Editor of the Mercury:  Is it not a matter of surprise that, although the scarcity and high price of cloth has been one of the most important evils inflicted upon us by the blockade, we have failed to make use of a remedy entirely within our reach?  I allude to the spinning jenny, invented by Hargreaves, nearly a century ago.--Almost two years since, learning that one of these machines was in the neighborhood, I thought it worth while to pay it a visit of inspection.  I found it quite simple in construction, and such as any good carpenter could make, excepting the spindles of iron or steel, and the metal steps in which they turn.  Its operation is easily understood, and with it a woman can spin a bunch of yarn, as I was informed by the owner of the one in question in one day, instead of a month--the time required to spin a bunch of five pounds with the single spinning wheel now in general use all over the country; or, to make the contrast still more striking, one woman, with the jenny, would spin as much in a year as she would in thirty yarns with the common wheel.  Further, with the spinning jenny in universal use, as much yarn would be spun in the Confederate States in a month as would require thirty months with the single wheel, excluding the factories. 
                The yarn can be spun of any fineness; and our experience since the commencement of the war teaches us that, by using coarse yarn, warm clothing can be manufactured of cotton as well as wool, although, of course, not quite equal to the latter material. 
                In the making of cloth from the raw material, the most tedious and discouraging of all the processes to be gone through, is the spinning of the yarn.  To obtain a bunch of 5 lbs., sufficient to make about 15 yards of cloth, it is required, day after day, and week after week, to continue drawing out the yarn yard upon yard, and mile upon mile in length, until a month is consumed.  In short, the operation would discourage any but the more patient nature of woman.  A good carder can card a pound of cotton per day.  A weaver can weave then yards of cloth; both operations being far less tedious than the spinning.  If then the jenny supplies this great want, is it not important that at this time th should be generally introduced throughout the country, when the procuring of them is in our power.  A few days since looking over some of the old numbers of the "Penny Magazine," I came across a description of Hargreaves' invention in the volume of 1836, and it agreed exactly with the machine I had seen, and several of them are scattered through the country.  The original cost of the one I saw was $9 (nine dollars); and before the war, when cotton yard could be bought at eighty cents to one dollar per bunch, it had sold for one dollar! 
                                                                                                                                                N.  

Galveston Weekly News, February 24, 1864, p. 1, c. 2 
                Home Industry.—No people were ever impelled by such powerful motives  to resort to every branch of domestic industry, as are the people of the Confederate States at this time, for in fact we do not believe any people were ever before similarly situated.  On the one hand we are cut off from obtaining supplies by trade with foreign nations, and on the other the enemy have finally determined to the extent of their ability, to prevent the productions of supplies from our soil, or to destroy them if produced.  Nothing short of our absolute destruction is now determined upon.  If we now and then obtain a few supplies by a successful blockade runner, we have to pay such ruinous prices that few are able to make the purchases, and the few factories and hand looms in the country charge about the same prices for their products, so that nearly all families in moderate circumstances are compelled to supply their own wants by their own
industry.  This is now apparently the only alternative left us to save ourselves from the destroying power of the enemy.  We should be as completely subjugated as completely enslaved to the Yankee racy by allowing ourselves to be deprived of necessary food and clothing, as by the defeat and annihilation of our armies.  Our liberties are, therefore, just as much dependent on the industry and rigid economy of those who remain at home, as on the victories of our armies in the field. . .  
                The Richmond, Va., Sentinel says: 
                "Much more than heretofore should housekeepers and farmers make their arrangements for meeting all their wants by home industry and enterprise. 
                "It will not do to rely on importation.  Already the blockade has closed all our Atlantic ports except Wilmington; and twenty grim steamers lie as watchers off the mouth of the Cape Fear, like so many grimalkins at a mouse-hole.  We shall have no reason to be disappointed or surprised if the port of Wilmington should be closed ere many months.  Nor must we rely on our factories.  Look how the prices of their products have already ascended, until they have become unpurchasable by the multitude.  This is all according to "the laws of trade" we are told, and therefore to be approved and applauded; but a protection must be found, and it is to be found in home production.  Besides, the number of these mills has been reduced by fire, and the machinery of those that remain will not last forever. 
                "A hundred reasons combine to urge upon every family to look to its own resources.  The hand card and the hand loom and the spinning wheel, whose music is sweeter far than that of the piano, should be found everywhere.  All who can should grow their patches of flax and cotton.  All should have sheep, if but a few.  Our forests furnish dyes as various and as bright as the tints that make their foliage so glorious at "the turn of the leaf."  With these materials, there is no reason why our ladies should not be clad in beautiful apparel, the product of their own industry and taste; while they may clothe their husbands and sons fine enough for kings.  There is not a farmer's wife who may not easily provide clothing for all her servants, and make some to sell besides. 
                "And how much more independent and happy should we all be if thus providing for ourselves.  A fig for blockaders, we might well exclaim; nor would we be any longer exposed to the extortioner's grip.  And those eventualities of the future to which we have alluded would bring no terror to us.  Earnestly, therefore, do we advise every one to use every means and make every arrangement in his power to provide for the clothing of his family from his own resources, and thus make himself independent of manufacturers and blockade runners."  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, March 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 1 
                Miss Tucker, of Weatherford, deserves to bear off the palm.  She has made with her own fair hands a pair of cotton cards, and carded, spun, wove and made her own dresses.  Who can beat that.—[Texas Telegraph.  

Galveston Weekly News, March 2, 1864, p. 1, c. 7 
                                                                                                                Victoria, Feb. 16, 1864.  
Mr. Editor:-- . . . The hum of the spinning wheel and the clatter of the loom is heard in almost every house.  The people are wide awake to the necessity of making their own clothing; and ladies, old and young, are doing service to their country and to themselves by their developments of our great staples, cotton and wool.  Long may the new feature last!  Its adoption, a long time ago, would have rendered us independent of Northern rule; its continuance will secure the independence for which we are battling. . . . West.
 

Daily Missouri Democrat [St. Louis], March 22, 1864, p. 2, c. 3  
A correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette writing from Clarenden, has had  access to a Confederate mail bag of about two hundred letters, recently captured in Arkansas....

The Wife of a Rebel.

Officer writers to her husband, "Poor dear, this terrible war has reached a crisis, and must soon be over.  Our aspirations were noble, but, dearest husband, when will we learn that the South has failed?  I cannot advise and am powerless to help you.  Oh how my heart aches when I reflect how you must suffer for lack of clothing and all comforts.  If I could weave my heart into garments for you, I would gladly, oh how cheerfully, do it; but, alas, I am helpless; I can do nothing but pity you and love you.  It is a reign of terror in Arkansas; I have less fear of the Federals than the lawless guerrillas.  I can only love you and pray for you.  I join nightly and hourly in fervent prayer for peace, and the return of the loved ones to the loving ones at home."  

Bellville [TX]Countryman, March 24, 1864, p. 1, c. 2 
                A Loom.—We are much in want of a loom.  This is a favorable opportunity for some one who is indebted to us to help us.  Somebody furnish us with a loom, quick, and we'll soon have a new pair of pants.  Don't all speak at once!  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], May 11, 1864, p. 2, c. 2  
A Mississippi Girl!--The Brandon (Miss.) Republican states that Miss Nancy Neely, daughter of Mr. James Neely, of Rankin county, wove twenty yards of cloth on Friday last, between sunup and sundown.  Who cares if the Yankees do blockade our ports as long as we have such girls in the Confederacy?  Is there another young lady in the county, State or Confederacy, that can weave twenty yards of cloth per day?  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], May 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 2  
Miss Anna Geiger, daughter of Jacob Geiger, of Richland district, S. C., recently wove twenty yards, during a portion of the day, and could have wove more had she wove all day.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], June 7, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

Smuggling in North Mississippi.

Editors Advertiser and Register:  
                Gentlemen:  A woman writes, who is neither very hard working nor at all fashionable, to beg a few moments' hearing against those traders and extortioners, those deserters, conscript shirkers, and dregs strained out of the militia, those soldiers' wives, widows, mothers and daughters, who are likewise--traitors.  
                There are enough to bespeak praise for our self-sacrificing people, and I thank Heaven there are many to deserve it.  But I live near our plague-spotted border. . .  
                Laws against inland blockade running, trading in greenbacks and shipping off cotton, are thundered at us, while citizens keep up a thriving business in all these varieties of infamy.  The nearer the rind the whiter the leprosy, and villages which, when in the heart of the Confederacy, were leal with its purest blood, are now eaten up with it, though flaunting in the gayest gifts of Yankeedom.  No malice is meant, or I could cite a hundred names of the highest respectability.  Ladies smirk in Yankee bonnets; gentlemen bedizen themselves with Yankee hats; women sell their souls for coffee; and men swallow shame in brandy.  We simper in artificial flowers and strut in shoddy; eat and drink up our price in the Yankee slave mart; while we breathe with sleek complacency incense to our unexampled constancy and fortitude. . . . .  
                Meanwhile, all around them, poor women, soldiers' wives and widows, are toiling late and early with loom and wheel to clothe the South with nothing better than homespun.  But our fretful limbs are too tender for such coarse stuff--it is scarcely fine enough for our negroes.  Scarcely indeed!  for they, too, have been to Memphis, have seen for themselves, and know a thing or two about the boasted superiority of their masters.  It is good to hear their tales of jetty captains, colonels, lawyers and merchants, who merely play at those trades to the tune of immense profits.  It is Arabian Nights to listen to tales of town Cleopatras and Zenobias reigning in a fool's paradise of fine clothes, good living and nothing to do.  By such stories, propagated by this emancipation society of smugglers and blockade runners, our fields are robbed of their tillers, while they, poor creatures, wander off and fall into some such steel trap as Fort Pillow.  
                A woman's hard day's work cannot exceed from three to eight dollars in Confederate money which Yankee trading gentry value from thirty to eight cents in greenbacks.  For the worth of many days' labor they will sell a pair of cotton cards.  We cannot censure the importation of medicines, but it requires the toil of forty-eight hours of sunlight to buy from the leech a dose of quinine for her sick child. . . . .                                Ilex.  
Okolona, May 4, 1864.  

Memphis Daily Appeal [Atlanta, Ga.], June 19, 1864, p. 1, c. 2  
What Texas Women are Doing.--A private letter received in this city from a lady in  Texas says:  "Since I commenced making cloth, I have made 2700 yards for myself and 300 for others.  The girls dress in homespun and like it."  Three cheers for the fair daughters of Texas.  

Chicago Tribune, June 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 3

Home Spun Dress.

                                                                                                          Army of the Tennessee, 
                                                                                                          Ackworth, Ga., June 9, 1864.  
Editors Chicago Tribune: 
                The accompanying song is from a letter of a Southern girl to her lover, in Lee's army, which letter was obtained from a mail captured on our march through Northern Alabama.  The materials of which the dress alluded to is made in cotton and wool, and are woven on the hand-loom, as commonly seen in the houses at the South.  The scrap of a dress enclosed in the letter as a sample was of a grey color with a stripe of crimson and green—quite pretty and creditable to the lady who made it. 
                The lines are not a false indication of the universal sentiment of the women of the South, who by the encouragement they have extended to the soldiers and the sacrifices they have made, have exercised an influence which has proven of the greatest importance to the rebels, and have shown what can be accomplished by united effort on the part of the gentle sex. 
                As a moral may be drawn from the ballad which might be profitably followed by the men and women of the North, and in view of the anti-imported goods Covenant now being entered into by so many of our noble-hearted countrywomen, I thought the enclosed would possess an interest to your readers and have therefore copied it for publication. 
                If it should in any degree aid the great cause by adding to the number of those who wish to show what "Northern girls for Northern rights will do," or add one recruit to our glorious armies in the field, it will contribute that much towards producing that feeling of earnestness and sacrifice which, had it existed at the North to the same extent it has at the South, would have ended this struggle in favor of right and justice long ago. 
                                                                                                                                                C. S.  
[six verses of "The Homespun Dress"]  

Charleston Mercury, July 12, 1864, p. 1, c. 1 
                A Georgia Lady.--Mrs. Mary Arnold, wife of Wm. F. Arnold, of Coweta County, Georgia, made in the year 1863 one thousand twenty-eight yards of cloth, besides knitting several pairs of gloves and socks for soldiers gratis.  Who cares for Yankee blockades when we have ladies of such untiring energy and perseverance among us?  Three cheers for Mrs. Arnold.                                                                  Lagrange Bulletin.  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, July 16, 1864, p. 1, c. 8

Blockade Runners.

                We find the following caustic article in the Sunny South: 
                My Dear Sir:  For a good while I have been wanting to give some of the Aberdeen people a piece of my mind, so bad that it makes the ends of my fingers ache to think of it.  I have for some time been casting about in my mind to find some means by which to accomplish this all-important piece of business, and at last I bethought me of your valuable little "Sunny."  I am only speaking of those who go to Memphis, that renowned place where our fair ladies go to take the oath of allegiance to their particular friend and protector, Abe Lincoln. 
                I will not reproach the name of woman by calling blockade runners by that almost sacred name; for what true woman who cares one iota for herself or her country, and last of all, but not least, of our brave and gallant soldiers, would place herself in a condition to be subjected to insults, and swear and act a falsehood?  They are not true-hearted Southern women, but ladies who cannot wear "Dixie Silk," that is, the noble and patriotic homespun, but must have the finest and best their favorite city (Memphis) affords.  I will not believe one word that such a person would tell me, even were she on oath; for if she will first dishonor herself by going there she will not scruple in deceiving her most intimate friend.  If she is not for us she is against us, and if she is against us what surety have we that she will not deceive us.  I think it is a blessed good thing that the honor of our soldiers is not in the keeping of blockade runners, for if it was they would be apt to come up minus.  If a woman will not preserve her own honor she will not preserve that of another.  Some ladies who go to that den of thieves seem to have buried the remembrance of the past in oblivion; for they have lost husbands, fathers, brothers and lovers in this most unjust and cruel war, but still they actually go there to buy insults and black dresses to mourn for their loved lost ones.  Wonder which is the blackest, their mourning without or their hearts within?  We see Memphis goods promenading the streets daily.—McClellan hats and McClellan sleeves and waists are quite the rage, and Garibaldi dresses are so elegant they can't for their life resist the temptation to wear them.  I have several times been laughed at and made the subject of rude remarks by the hopeful daughters of two of our fair town ladies (who are noted for going to Memphis and wearing Yankee finery) because I had on patriotic homespun, a very little persuasion would induce me to give their names, but I will refrain, and impute it to ignorance.  Some of these ladies are compelled to take feather beds with them to sleep on during their journey there and back; greenbacks look so tempting they conclude to sell them when, oh! shades of the mighty!  they find instead of feathers they have carried cotton.  Was there ever such a stupid or [illegible] of in all the known world?   They are covered with confusion and anger to think their servants had cheated them so as to have stolen their feathers and put cotton in their stead; but they determine to make the best of a bad matter and sell the cotton as though it were feathers.  When they hold up their white and dimpled hands to wear, it is a wonder they do not drop to their sides with shame and refuse to do their "holy office."  If their hands are soft and white they have a harder and darker substance within, which they call a heart; but it is a disgrace of that real and genuine article for which it is named. 
                Hoping, Mr. Editor, you will favor us by letting our humble letter appear in your columns.  I remain your friend.                                             A Little Southern Girl.  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, July 20, 1864, p. 1, c. 5 
                                                                                                                Houston, July 4, 1864.  
. . . Our women are busy as ever plying their wheel and loom and preparing to put their husbands and brothers in possession of comfortable clothing against the not far distant winter. . . All eyes and ears are now turned to catch the reports from the East.  We are about ten days to two weeks behind the course of events there, and as all intelligence comes by chance we feel the greater anxiety.  Let me remind all travelers this way to call at the office of the Advertiser and Register and bring files of papers.                  X.  

Mobile Register and Advertiser, July 31, 1864, p. 2, c. 4 
                The Rankin girls.—Many of our most wealthy, intelligent and lovely young ladies have gone into the manufacturing business, and some of them we are told, have made it quite profitable.  Hat, cap and bonnet factories have spring up in every direction, and almost every man you meet wears an elegant new hat presented to him by one of those home made manufacturing establishments.  Our girls have become really industrious; they make beautiful cloth out of the raw material, and then make it up into clothing for the soldiers; they make beautiful hats for their fathers, brothers, sweethearts and themselves; they make beautiful palmetto fans; some of them make their own shoes, and make them very neat and durable and when the war is over they will all make the very best of wives.—[Brandon Republican.  

Galveston Weekly News, September 14, 1864, p. 2, c. 3 
                                                                                                           Hempstead, Sept. 3d, 1864. 
                Ed. News.—I send you by this morning's train a specimen of bagging manufactured here from common moss.  The warp is of cotton, and the filling moss.  Its superiority consists in the fact that the moss will not rot, however much it is exposed to the weather, and all it costs is the gathering and rotting.  A small improvement on the fabric would make comfortable carpets, negro blankets, &c. 
                It is made by Mrs. Lee, of this vicinity, and sent to you for inspection. 
                Very truly yours,                                                                  F. J. Cooke. 
                [The above letter explains itself.  We are not a judge of such things.  We invite those who are to call and examine it.—Ed.]  

Mobile Register and Advertiser,  September 23, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

The Fashions.

                We have no such member of our editorial staff as a fashion editress, a circumstance which we greatly regret on account of all who are similarly situated with the lady subscriber who sends us the following appeal, and who seems, by withholding her name, determined that we, at least, shall not recognize her.  Perhaps some of our fair friends, can supply our deficiencies: 
                                                                                                         _____, Ala., Sept. 20th, 1864.
                Messrs. Editors:  Will you not for the benefit of some of your country friends devote a small portion of your time and space to "the Fashions"—We all wear homespun dresses and home made hats, but do not like to be entirely out of the fashion, if we are almost out of the world; we are deprived of many a little trip to the Gulf City on account of our old-timy clothes.  There are no beaux here to catch, but a few of our brave soldiers get a short leave of absence sometimes, to visit their friends, and of course we all wish to dress becomingly as we can.  You will probably say that fashions are not always becoming, which is very true; yet, it is not every one who has taste sufficient to choose fashions for herself.  If any of us are fortunate enough to get a calico dress, which does not happen often, the style of making costs us many an anxious thought; and if you do not give us a few hints occasionally, I fear our city friends will not recognize us when we meet them; which would be exceedingly mortifying to at least one of your subscribers.  

The Southern Banner [Athens, Ga.], October 12, 1864, p. 3, c. 5  
More New Goods.  Bleached homespun, spool thread, flax thread, fig. blue indigo, madder, copperas, logwood, bluestone, cotton cards, best article, cavalry spurs.  Pocket and case knives, tooth brushes, sealing wax, gum camphor, pepper, spice, alum, castor oil, spts. turpentine, pistol caps, tobacco, sperm candles, factory thread, for money or barter. 
                                                                                                                I. M. Kenney.       

Mobile Register and Advertiser, October 28, 1864, p. 2, c. 4 
                Wool is Scarce—A Substitute—My wife is using a substitute, which is cow hair.  The process is, whip the hair clean from dirt and lime; wash and dry it well, and mix with cotton; spin fine or coarse as needed.  It makes excellent gloves, socks, blankets, and men's clothing.  Said to be warmer, heavier, and more lasting than wool.  I expect to wear cow hair clothes this winter.  Many ladies are doing this, but all do not know of this plan, and if the editors through the country would publish this, thousands of our soldiers this winter might be warmly clad.—Hillsboro Recorder.  

Galveston Weekly News, November 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 4

Squire Smoothly's 18th Letter.

In which he desires Mr. Wigfall's Views on the  
impressment system, and deprecates further  
discussion of States Rights at this present.  
The christening and the conflagration which  
ensured, in which General Magruder's "sox"  
are finally disposed of.

                                                                                           Brushy Fork of Sandies, Oct. 18, 1864. 
                Ed. News—Dear Sir:--After offerin of my pious regards I again take pen in hand to write you these, and proud to hear tell you got back from the Rio Grandy, through perils of land and sea, of robbers and of false brethrern, and saw Cortina and Mr. Bradwell; and now home safe under the shadow of your own vine and figtree and none to make you afeard, and the yaller fever much abated—and again a writin of your News Paper and I hope and pray it may continue to be wrote in the fear of God, and to the enlightenment of His people—having due regard to them in authority and sustainin of law and order, but at the same time not fearin to rebuke iniquity in high places—nor shunnin to declar right in the face of all men, to the eend that the godly be encouraged and the wicked put to shame—Amen. . .  
                We happened to a bad accident at my house at Thursday, which thanks be to His name it want worse.  We had a christenin at my house.  Mrs. Kincaid she had the twins and my wife her little one, and three of the naybors brung childring, making of six in all, and brother Raimy offishiated and made a power full prayer, and was a comfortin season generally, and sat the supper in an out cabin whar the weemin does thar weevin.  Well, after supper my dauter Jenny and some more of the young gals, they gets General Magruder's sox and stuffs them with cotton, and sets the six babies to the table, all in a row, and draws a sock on every babies head; and when all hands was called to see, thar sot the six babies as bright as dollars, with the General's name in gould thread, only upside down, round hits little head, and them as spry as minks, a winkin and staring at the candles, and all as good as gould and never whimpered, and the sox a stickin up like the General's legs was in them, as natural as pigtracks, and lookin so sweet the weemin pitched right in to kissin of them and some how upsot the table, and must have been then the fire got in the cotton.  Well, between midnight and day hit broke out, and Mrs. Kincaid, she first, and cut the cloth out of the loom, and saved nine yards for the boys pants, and got scorched shockin, and fit the fire like a soldier, but the balance was all burned, loom and all, and all the wool and cotton for spinnin, and the clock reel (the wheels providentially was in the house), and we lost two par of cards and a whole bilin of soap, and a cross cut saw, and a turkey hen and her settin of eggs onder the floor, and all the dye stuff, and the grist from the mill, and all the taller and the candle moulds, and two bushel of salt and a gourd of honey, and a heap of things, besides them unfortunate sox—and not even a speck of the gould thread to be found in the mornin.  The worst loss is the loom and the truck for spinnin, the weemin bein all hard at it, to get cloth wove for the boys in the army before the cold weather, but thankfull it want worse—"The Lord giveth and the Lord taketh away, blessed be the name of the Lord!" 
                And in regardin of the General's sox, the nayborhood talk is, they was onlucky from the jump, but my reflection is, that if they had been sent right along when they was nit, they out have been a comfort to him at this writing up thar in the cold in Arkansaw, but if people has to wait for gould lace and the like vanities, the right time gets past and the opportunity lost. 
                I close these, hoping you are enjoyin of reasonable health and a growin and prosprerin, not only in temporal affairs, but in them that outlasts this present vale of disappointment. 
                                                                                                Yours to command, 
                                                                                                                Jasper Smoothly.  

Galveston Weekly News, March 1, 1865, p. 2, c. 2 
                Blessing of the Blockade—Texas Home Industry.—We have on our table a group of nineteen samples from the looms of a single plantation, embracing such a variety of quality, material, color and fabric, as to command the admiration of all who see them.  No two of these samples have the same color or quality; and they range from the heaviest plain cotton domestic, to a fine and smoothly executed stripe and check for dresses—from the heaviest double twill bleach pilot cloth, to a nice, purely white and soft flannel, linsey and tweeds of several qualities and patterns.  The grey jeans, or cloth, is so exact a fac simile of our grey army cloth in color, and so superior to most of it in quality, as to answer well for Confederate uniforms. 
                Would that we were better skilled in fabric technicals, and the operations of the factories, that we might do justice to the patriotic handicraft and economy of "Greenwood," in Montgomery county. 
                We learn with surprise, that the two looms, kept constantly running—the one with the fly shuttle, and the other with the common hand shuttle—have yielded, during the past year, more than six thousand yards of manufactured goods, of which these samples are fair specimens. 
                Every color is borrowed from the neighboring hills and forests; every fabric of cotton and wool consumed, grew upon the same plantation that manufactures and wears them; the looms, the shuttles, the harness and the slays, the reeds and the warping bars, were made out and out, on the spot where they are used, and not a nail
dresses—from the heaviest double twill bleach pilot cloth, to a nice, purely white and or bolt of iron is found in the loom house. 
                The slaves that do the labor in these manufactures were born in the family, and readily learn to perform each their special part in the work.  The intelligence and supervision has been furnished by the lady of the manor, and not a hired assistant in any department has been employed; and only two articles have been purchased to enable them to obtain these results, namely, the cards and the copperas.  The latter of these is abundantly produced in the hills of Texas, and is being rapidly brought into market.  The latter [former], we hope, soon to see manufactured within the State. 
                We cannot add that this prolific product of the loom has been entirely consumed on the plantation that has yielded it; on the contrary, besides clothing entire the slaves of the plantation, it graces the parlor of the mansion, in the dresses of the elegant and intelligent mistress and her family; and it blesses many a soldier in the trenches and on the field, from Texas to Maryland. 
                The county is greatly indebted to Major Green Wood and his accomplished wife and family, for these testimonials, to the blessings of a blockade.  Heaven spare their noble boys who have borne their industry and their patriotic blood through storms of battles in the farthest and bloodiest fields of the Confederacy.
 

Austin State Gazette, April 12, 1865, p. 1, c. 4 
                                                                                                                Executive Department. 
                                                                                                Austin, Texas, March 30th, 1865.  
To the County Courts: 
                The importance of introducing into the country, and putting into operation, machinery for the manufacture of articles necessary to the clothing of the people, and the army in the field, is a subject urgently demanding our most serious attention, and the exercise of our fullest energies.  Experience has shown that a large portion of the clothing for the use of the Texas soldiery, has been furnished at the hands of the industrious and patriotic women of our State. . . This can be most effectively done--in reference to the manufacture of clothing--by the introduction and distribution through the State of wool and cotton carding-machines.  The Manufacture of clothing by the preparation of the raw material by hand carding, is necessarily, slow, tedious, and involves the employment of much more labor than would be necessary in the use of the machinery proposed. . . P. Murrah.  

Galveston Weekly News, April 26, 1865, p. 1, c. 7 
                Country Girls.—The local editor of the Augusta (Ga.) Register, who has been for some time past, rusticating in the agricultural regions of Georgia, writes about "country girls" as follows:  "These country girls, my 'Devil' are a different material from what your bewitched eye meet on Broad street every day.  They may not sport as gaudy feathers, and their dresses may not drag through quite as much mud; but for cooking a dinner, climbing a fence, or acting the jockey, your city girls can't touch them.  And then, my dear 'Old Nick,' their dresses are something to talk about.  Look at one we see here.  Did you ever see a more comely poplin than she wears?  Now examine it more closely, and you will find it home manufacture—spun and woe by the hands of the fair wearer.  Yes, they are the architects of their own dresses, and, my word for it, they are fitted to help any worthy man to become the architect of his fortune."  

Galveston Weekly News, May 10, 1865, p. 2, c. 1 
                We have been shown nine different specimens of jeans and tweeds, made by Mrs. Jones and daughters of Hardin county.  The colors are different shades of blue, purple and brown, are all fast and are Texas productions.  The specimens before us comprise various patterns for gent's and ladies wear.  We are told that a large family of about forty persons, including negroes, have been clothed with these and similar manufactures, all being the handiwork of the ladies alluded to.  The specimens are very beautiful and would be hard to beat.  

Dallas Herald, October 21, 1865, p. 2, c. 1

Letter from Kaufman.

                                                                                                                Kaufman, Texas 
                                                                                                                Oct. 5th, 1865  
. . . As yet, but few goods, or any character of merchandise have found their way to our county, except perhaps now and then an occasional peddler of Jewish faith gives us a call.  It is quite annoying to be thus still deprived of the privilege of buying your wife a new calico dress, and yourself a pair of boots.  And then some of the ladies say, this home manufacture of goods is very irksome. . . .                  HAL.