[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT
October 1863 - May 1865 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 1, c. 3

Romance of a Young Girl.

            Some time since a comely young woman arrived at Chicago from Louisville, Kentucky, whose history, thus recorded in the Post, of that city, we commend to Miss Braddon for elaboration in her next new novel:
           
The lady's name is Annie Lillybridge, and her family resides in Hamilton, Canada.  Last Spring Miss Lillybridge was employed in a dry goods store, where she became acquainted with a Lieut. W______, of one of the Michigan regiments, and an intimacy immediately sprung up between them.  They corresponded for some time, and became much attached to each other.  Some time during last summer Lieut. W______ was appointed to a position in the twenty first Michigan Infantry, then rendezvousing in Ionia county.  The thought of parting from the gay Lieut. nearly drove her mad, and she resolved to share his dangers and be near him.  No sooner had she resolved upon this course than she proceeded to act.  Purchasing male attire she visited Ionia, enlisted in Captain Kavanogh's company, twenty-first regiment.  While in camp she managed to keep her secret from all—even the object of her attachment, who met her every day, was not aware of her presence so near him.
           
Annie left with her regiment for Kentucky, passed through all the dangers and temptations of a camp life, enduring long marches and sleeping on the cold ground without a murmur.  At last before the night of the battle of Pea Ridge (or Prairie Grove) in which her regiment took part, her sex was discovered by a member of her company; but she enjoined secrecy upon him, after relating her previous history.  On the following day she was under fire, and from a letter she has in her possession it appears she behaved with marked gallantry, and by her own hand shot a rebel captain who was in the act of firing upon Lieut. W______.  But the fear of revealing her sex continually haunted her.—After the battle she was sent with others to collect the wounded, and one of the first corpses found by her was the soldier who had discovered her sex.
           
Days and weeks passed on, and she became a universal favorite with the regiment—so much so that Col. Stephens frequently detailed her as regimental clerk, a position that brought her into close contact with her lover, who at [tear in paper] was either Major or Adjutant of the regiment [tear in paper] A few weeks subsequently she was out [tear in paper] picket duty, when she received a shot in the arm [tear in paper] that disabled her, and notwithstanding the efforts of the surgeon, her wound grew worse and worse.  She was sent to the hospital at Louisville, where she has remained until a few weeks ago, when she was discharged by the post surgeon, as her arm was stiffened and rendered useless for life.  She implored to be permitted to return to her regiment, but the surgeon was unyielding, and discharged her.  Annie immediately hurried towards home, and by the [tear in paper] benevolent persons reached this city.  At Cincinnati she told her secret to a friendly [tear in paper] and was supplied with female attire.  She declares that she will enlist in her old regiment again if there is a recruiting office for the twenty first in Michigan.  She still clings [tear in paper] Lieutenant, and says she must be near [tear in paper] he falls or is taken down sick; but [tear in paper] goes she will go; and when he dies, she [tear in paper] her life by her own hands. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
           
The National Democrat will be issued weekly from the original "True Democrat" office, and will be a permanent institution, defending the old landmarks of Democracy, and the perpetuity of the Federal Union.  The office contains the most superior and extensive Book and Job machinery west of the Mississippi river.  All work of that description done in the best style.  A small amount of cash advertisements will be received.  All communications directed to C. V. Meador. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 3, c. 1
           
None but commissioned officers will hereafter be allowed entrance to the Billiard Saloon. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 3, c. 1
           
Buying Soldiers Clothes.—A great many people, probably, are ignorant that there is a United State statute, prohibiting any person from purchasing either regulation clothes, arms or ammunition from a soldier of the United States and punishing any infringement of its provision with a heavy fine or a long term of imprisonment, or both. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 3, c. 1
           
Capt. Adams is in from Benton, and reports a lively time, which is always the case wherever the Captain goes.  A fine military ball came off last week, which was attended by all the ladies of Benton.  The ladies out there are clever and handsome, we have met them in the ball room in other days, and were reminded of the good old times, when the Captain told us of the magnificent ball. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 3, c. 2
           
We are in receipt of a telegram from Capt. Adams, extending an invitation to a ball at Benton, tonight.  It is a hard thing to resist.  We are entitled to a two days furlough. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 3, c. 6

Mrs. Mary Lowe,

            is now opening a new and well selected stock of Goods, consisting of bolted Domestics, De Lains, Womens' and Childrens' Shoes, Hosiery, Stationery, Pins, Needles, Thread, &c.  Terms—Cash Only.  Location—North side of Markham street, near the Statehouse.
           
Little Rock, Ark., October 13, 1863. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 4, c. 3
           
Women for the Times.—A correspondence of the Cleveland Herald, who has been traveling in the West says:  "It is a very common affair to see a bright-eyed young woman sitting on the reaper driving a four-horse team.  But not only thus are women useful, but I have frequently seen them using the hoe.  But I saw a few weeks ago in the south part of Madison, Lake county, a spectacle which caps all the scenes in this line within my knowledge.  To appearances, a rain storm was coming up, and there was one woman in the field dexterously raking up the hay with the double team and hay wagon was being driven into the field by two other women.  Raker, pitcher and loader were all women." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, October 20, 1863, p. 4, c. 3
           
There is a town in the rear of the Arkansas line, and exactly on the Texas border line, called Ultima Thule.  This is where the "last ditch" is probably located. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 26, 1863, p. 1, c. 3

From Crawford County.

                                                                                        Crawford County, Ark., Nov. 28, 1863.
Editor National Democrat—
           
Sir:  I have to acknowledge the receipt of your communication requesting me to give you a fair and candid statement of the tone and temper of the people here and, especially, of the development of Union sentiment.  My opportunities for observation and forming an opinion, have been pretty fair, although I live out of town.  Repeated and free conversations with my country neighbors and a ride into town every two or three days, where I gather the views of the citizens, enables me, I think, to form a pretty clear opinion as to the points on which you desire information.
           
In 1860, Crawford county polled about 1,200 votes; now, I doubt if 200 voters are to be found in her limits.  An attempt to classify these may be of interest or of use to you.  First; we have the bona fide union men, mostly of northern birth, whose sympathies always were with the federal government.  Their number is small.  Next, are the secessionists, who always were so and who now say nothing, or frankly acknowledge they favor Jeff. Davisism.  Next, in point of numbers, are the time-servers; fellows who are ready to take an oath on either side; who are good secesh when the confederates are here, and intense union men when under federal control.  In this class are the jacobins, who get up little meetings and show their extreme zeal by leaping, at once, to the most radical ground.  Finally, there is the yet more numerous class of thinking men, who are silently noticing the development of events, studying to do right, and who are prepared to support the government, if they shall be convinced that law and order will be maintained.
           
Living here, where the contending armies have, alternately, held control of the country, I have had opportunities of seeing the chameleon like disposition of the third class mentioned above.—Among the confederates they were pro-slavery men and down on the nigger; among the federals, they are ultra abolitionists and down on President Lincoln, who, they declare, is doing things by halves.  These men would be contemptible, if they were not dangerous.  In times of peace known as mere cross-road grocery politicians, or as persons who figured at precinct meetings, they now fancy that, in these distracted times, they can rise to the surface and become great men in a small way.  Men of sense and character have vainly interposed in their meetings and offered conservative and reasonable propositions.  Of course, these were rejected and ultra resolutions were adopted.  So far, the body of the people, the fourth class mentioned above, view the proceedings of these men with distrust and alarm.  They know that, if, in the new order of things, these men are to be rulers, a reign of terror will ensure.  They hold back and are chary of giving in their adhesion to a cause, however good it may be, that has such mad advocates.
           
The people here, with scarcely two dozen exceptions, are willing to give up slavery.  They feel it has followed the fortunes of an unsuccessful war for its maintenance and are content to let it meet its doom.  Slowly, but steadily, the feeling has been growing, and the general expression is "Give us peace, a government of laws and security, and let slavery go."  They are willing to make sacrifices, if any are required, and to return to their allegiance, but they view with dread and alarm, the attempt to get up a new revolution.—Four-fifths of them are willing to put themselves in the hands of the federal authorities, to obey all laws and to support the government, but they fear being turned over to the control of the jacobins.  The latter are, either, tools of designing men, who are using them; or new-born zealots who are anxious to display their loyalty; or, what is worse, are men who want power and control to enrich themselves from what is left of the labors of honest men.
           
The spread and development of union sentiment was steadily on the increase.  Even those who were once secessionists, disgusted with the imbecility or tyranny of confederate military rulers; enraged at the selfishness of slaveholders, who pushed poor men into the ranks to fight and then extorted on their families; sick of the pretension that it was a war for independence when it was made evident that it was for the preservation of the rich man's wealth, these men threw away their prejudices and welcomed back the old flag.  They stood prepared to give a cordial support to the reinstated authority, for the sake of peace and order, but to their dismay, reckless men had come to the surface, who advocated the most sweeping measures, tending to strife and anarchy.
           
What we want is peace and order.  Assure us of that and nine out of every ten in the county will come up to the work in good faith; will cut loose from secession and yield a firm support to the measures of government, even though it insists on the destruction of any peculiar institution.
           
The policy of Gen. Steele, as announced here, was doing wonders.  It was understood to be firm and conciliatory and to carry out the views of the President.  The mass was willing to submit, and the greater part to submit cheerfully.  Public sentiment was gradually settling down into contentment and hope of a return of the good old times.  I trust and believe that the efforts of the red republicans here will fail, that confidence will be restored and sound men will be able to come up to the support of the national government, without being denounced by self-constituted accusers, or abused because of their desire to act calmly and conscientiously.
           
The few secessionists among us are making capital of the rash acts of these rash men, pointing to the inevitable results of ultraism, and thus driving off the timid or causing the prudent to hesitate, who would, ere this, have been found standing firmly and hopefully under the stars and stripes.
           
I will write again when an opportunity offers to send a letter.  Send me your paper as regularly as you can.
                                               
                                                    Yours truly,
                                               
                                                                            Jason. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 26, 1863, p. 1, c. 3

From Prairie County.

            Extract from a letter to the editor from a gentleman in Prairie county:
                                               
                                                            December 3, 1863.
           
The prospect of calling a convention, under the pretense of remodeling the constitution, so as to exclude slavery, is but little though of here.  It is so absurd that I do not suppose a score of men in this section of country can be got to endorse it, and they only hope to get some office, or make themselves conspicuous.  The scheme is impracticable and absurd.  First, we may enquire:  How would delegates be elected to this convention?  From many counties the officers have absconded and others are in the possession or subject to the visitations of the rebels.  Elections, regularly held, would be out of the question.  Would you let the people, in different localities, meet and send delegates?  How many are they to send?  How many must be present at a meeting to make it a legal one, and expressive of the wish of the people?  Here, another difficulty presents itself.  Some sections of the country, for instance, the northeast, would probably send no delegates, while Pulaski county would send as many as she pleased.  There would have been, but for this war, 80,000 voters in Arkansas.  Does any suppose that 10,000, or even 8,000 votes could be polled at any general election now?  Suppose a set of men, calling themselves delegates to a convention, hailing from five or six points in the State, should meet, how many persons would they directly represent?  How many of the 80,000 voters of the twenty or thirty thousand of the loyal men of the State would have had part in sending them there?  The true people would take no lot or part in it, for they are sick and tired of political claptrap and the stale tricks of politicians.
           
As to its absurdities, every body knows that slavery is the creature of local law.  The constitution nowhere says that slavery shall exist.  Its provisions are permissory, not obligatory.  Slavery existed by sufferance of the constitution, not by its creation.  It is treated of, in a current way, as an existing thing that might be continued or abolished.  The passage of a law of three lines would kill it as effectually as any change of the constitution.  For a series of years in this State, the law required that no lands should be valued for the purpose of taxation, at less than three dollars an acre.  A similar law, in any slave State, requiring negroes to be valued at not less than twenty thousand dollars each, would destroy slavery at a blow.  On the other hand, if the people desired slavery, no prohibition in the constitution would be of any avail.  In the foundation of Georgia, Oglethorpe and his compeers had laws passed prohibiting slavery and this prohibition entered into the organic law of the colony.  But the Georgians, in time, began to desire slaves and so hired, at first for a term of a few years, and at last for the term of a hundred years, from the adjoining slaveholding colonies.  If there really was anything in the State constitution establishing or maintaining slavery, the moment the public mind became unfavorable to it, that moment it would cease to be operative.
           
Admit even a convention to be called and the constitution altered so as to prohibit slavery in express terms.  What then?  If it should ever be possible for the confederates to regain possession of the State they would not regard it.  The union armies abolish slavery as they advance into the rebellious districts; the confederate armies, could they advance, would re-establish it.
           
There are other arguments that go to show the folly and the dangers of this convention project.  The fundamental laws of the lands are not to be changed, or tampered with, at pleasure.  A convention that changes them should unmistakably represent the whole loyal people, and that fact should be clearly shown.  If we get up a sort of self-elected tribunal, calling itself a convention, to upset the fundamental law of the land, we set a most dangerous example.  Before long, some other restless spirits may get up meetings, have delegates sent and cooper up a constitution to suit themselves.  We shall have no end to constitutions and no reverence for any of them.
           
But again—to call a convention for that, or any other purpose, is to give a quasi-endorsement to the acts of the secession convention.  It is to say, in substance, "The acts of the convention were legal and binding, and can only be repealed by the power by which they were created."  Grant this position and the act of every rebel becomes legal and in accordance with the requirements of his State government.  It is difficult to define the limits of the powers of conventions.  In this case, by claiming we concede, and acknowledge what we want to deny and disprove.
           
It strikes me, Doctor, that the convention men have too much sense not to know that no change in the constitution is necessary to free us from the institution of slavery, if desired to get rid of it.—But, the secession convention elected delegates to the Confederate Congress, and there are ambitious men in our midst who would like to be nominated by such a body.  A convention has appointed a provisional governor and established a provisional government.  Are there no old party hacks left in our country who would like to get up some scheme by which they would settle into fine, fat, easy offices?  It is unfortunately, the curse of all civil commotions that, while the most startling events are taking place, in quick succession, the small, selfish, restless spirits, though riding on the waves of the torrent that is sweeping all before us, are clamoring to go still faster and for more and swifter destruction.  Though the mere foam and scum, they assume that they can guide and direct the rushing waters.
           
We have a great work on hand to reconstruct a shattered nationality; to restore unity and peace among brethren; to bring the people under the protection of the laws, and to show them that the government though a strong one, can be parental.  As to slavery in the rebellious districts the question has been, or will be, settled by the government.  It does not exist here where the union flag flies.  It has ceased to be.  It was a sore subject and the agitation of it now can do no good while it does harm by driving off conservative men and exasperating our enemies.  It renders the rebels more desperate—it furnishes them with arguments and proofs.
           
The fact is that the humbug of a change of constitution is a mere trick to bring certain men before the public.  The people have had enough of politicians and their maneuvers.  This device is, in my opinion, too shallow and transparent not to be seen through and laughed at.
                                               
                                                            Respectfully, M. D.
 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 26, 1863, p. 2, c. 1—copy flag with cap 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 26, 1863, p. 2, c. 6
           
Amusements.—The Theatres are yet crowded nightly, and the plays give satisfaction to the auditors.  Last night was a benefit night of Mr. Mortimer, at the Little Rock theatre.  The house was full to overflowing.  The after piece was all that we had an opportunity of seeing.  Nan the good for nothing, was the play, and Miss Cinnie Cary filled the character most excellently; and all that took parts in the piece were alike successful.—Mlle Alice dances like a top, and La Petite Belle is always the charm of the stage.  The Cary sisters have a benefit to-night, and every body who are not at the varieties will go.  The bill is the Stage struck Yankee, Loan of a Lover, and Rendezvous.
           
The Variety Theatre is drawing large crowds, and is decidedly a popular place of amusement.—Mr. Goodwin has a benefit Thursday night, when an attractive bill will be presented. We have witnessed many of his efforts to please, the soldiers as well as the civilian, and must say that he is deserving of a good respond to his call.  Go and see Billy. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 26, 1863, p. 2, c. 6
           
New Year's Gift.—Mr. Palmer, at the Anthony House, has in charge one of the most beautiful dolls we ever saw, belonging to the Sisters of Mercy.  It will be raffled off as soon as the number of chances are taken.  Tickets can be purchased from Mr. Palmer.  The cause is one of charity and ought to be patronized.  If you wish to make a nice New Year's Gift to some nice little girl take a chance for the doll. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 26, 1863, p. 3, p. 4

One Woe followeth fast upon the heels of Another.

            For the past two weeks the Democrat has been suspended for want of paper, and yet we had used every exertion to obtain it—sent an order to St. Louis by express more than six weeks ago, but transportation, as all the sutlers and merchants say, was tardy.  The paper came—and then another streak of bad luck—the steam engine got out of order, and this issue, which should have appeared last Saturday, is from the press on Tuesday, with the latest advices we can get to this date.  But to cap the climax, on Christmas day, when passing the pontoon bridge, horse and buggy went pell mell into the river, and Kit Carson was only saved from a watery death, by the kind intervention of some passing soldiers.
           
We are under many obligations to the forbearing public, and hope each Saturday, in the future, to have a courier at your door with our humble offering.
           
In a very short time we will have telegraphic communication with St. Louis, when a daily bulletin will be published. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 26, 1863, p. 3, c. 4

Little Rock.

            The general expression of those who visit Little Rock for the first time, is one of agreeable disappointment.  It has been named the "City of Flowers" and its numerous gardens with the diffused taste for shrubbery among its citizens in time of peace, entitled it to the name.  The war has damaged it in this respect, but not in so great a degree as a stranger might suppose.  With lumber and white paint, a few months would restore the gardens and lots to their former cheerful appearance.
           
One does not see as many carriages as formerly, nor the usual number of sauntering men.  On the other hand, the streets are filled with a restless, quick motioned business people, who seem to have come and made themselves at home at once.  Newsboys are met at every block, apple venders have stalls on each corner; daguerrian artists improve buildings on vacant lots and salute us with staring frames of pictures, every store and store house is full, drays and wagons crowd the streets; two theatres are in full blast and all is bustle and business.  The Provost Marshal is having the streets repaired and cleaned, and is otherwise improving the city.  This indefatigable officer, among his numerous and onerous duties, is mindful of the city and is doing the people good service in that respect.
           
Moreover people from the country are seen at all times, bringing in the products of their farms and buying goods.  Even the old inhabitants who were wont to saunter on the corners, learn the name of each arrival in the city, and so pass a quiet existence, seem to have caught a portion of the spirit of enterprise and walk faster, as if they took had something to do and were determined to do it.
           
But it is not only in the increased activity manifested, but in the feeling of security felt by all.  With few exceptions they seem to realize that they are restored to a former style of things, when they enjoyed happiness, and could count, with some certainty, on the morrow.
           
The wise policy pursued has brought about this congratulatory state of things, and our city is beginning to reap the advantage of having law and order once more. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 26, 1863, p. 3, c. 6

Good News!
Photographs!
(Carte de Visite.)
Ambrotypes,
(Cartes de Compliments."
Card Pictures at NORTHERN PRICES
and (a thing hitherto unattained in Little Rock,)
Northern Style
Card Pictures from $2 50 per Dozen.
Card Pictures for Mailing Four
for Two Dollars,
Which is only at the rate of 50 cents each,
Remember the
Cottage Gallery,
Immediately opposite the Anthony House, next to
brick wall.

                                                                                                Slatter & co.

            Little Rock, Dec. 26, 1863. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
           
The Varieties.—This establishment is crowded nightly by fun-loving audiences.  During the week the managers put on the stage, in a credible manner, the pantomime, or extravaganza, of "Harlequin Tom, the Piper's Son."  We wish the juveniles all had a chance to see it, with its tricks, grotesque situations and absurd changes.  The dancing by Little Miss Berry is excellent and deservedly admired.—Miss Reignolds and Mrs. Berry, continue to sustain their well-earned reputations.
           
The farces the managers put on are well selected, spiritedly played and favorably received.  There is an unusual variety of songs, dancing, posturing and acting presented, so that every one finds something to please him.  The managers deserve success for their untiring efforts to please, and we are told they have in preparation "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and other novelties, wherewith to gratify the public. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 6

Migration to Nevada.

            By a letter from Nevada, in the St. Joseph Herald we learn that crowds of emigrants are pouring into the newly found El Dorado.  The daily stages arrive loaded with passengers, and the roads are thronged with freight wagons, buggies, horsemen and footmen.  The towns and country districts are filling up and improving with marvelous rapidity.  The lodging houses and hotels are filled to overflowing, and many persons have to sleep in tents or under the open sky.  Every species of building material is in great demand, and the market for it cannot be half supplied.  Austin, the main business center, is growing briskly.  Cannon City, twelve miles south, attracts much attention.  Houses are rapidly going up there, and lots are at a high figure.  The place has now one mill, and will have two more within a few weeks.  Clifton, near Austin, grows so fast that the two will probably become one.  A flourishing little town north of Texas, called Yankee Blade, seems destined to contest the palm of prosperity with the other cities.  Nevada is going ahead, even in these times of war, at a splendid rate. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 16, 1864, p. 3, c. 2-3
                                               
                                                From the Chicago Journal.

Chicago on Ice.

            Yesterday was a "huge" day among the skaters.  True, the very warm rays of the sun played the deuce with the ice; and it is equally true that the genial warmth attracted hundreds to the skating parks, where bands of music discoursed sweet strains, and the scene was enlivened with beauty and gayety.  This was true of all the parks.  The Central, the Washington, and the Ogden were thronged throughout the afternoon and evening.  Costumes, embracing every hue of the rainbow, twinkling feet, thrilling ankles and rosy cheeks were there in profusion.  By-and-by, when advertisements crowd us less, we intend to devote proper space to the subject of skating in general, and skating in Chicago in particular; indeed, we intended to "do up" the matter to-day, but, after a visit, our head was so full of ideas that we think we can't do ourselves any kind of justice within our present limited space.  We shall content us with giving this evening a little

Valuable Advice to Skaters.

            To ladies in general—in the matter of dress:  Wear a tight-fitting jacket, and lay aside the shawl or cloak with which you come to the park.  But if you have no jacket, wear a tight-fitting cloak—one that will not impede your movements, and which will leave your waist snug and trim to the spectator's admiring eye.  Let your hoops be small, and your skirts short.  Don't be afraid to let your pretty feet be seen, and, if need be, a bit of white stocking above it.  Eschew bonnets.  Wear jockey hats or fur-trimmed caps—the former are preferable.
           
To gentlemen—in the like manner:  don't wear overcoats till you get "warmed up," and then strip.  That's the way to get "colded up" for weeks to come.  You don't want to be forced to say "bood lide dight" when you mean "moonlight night," do you?
           
To boys with rusty skates:  Walk all the way home over stones and sticks and tell your father you want a new pair.
           
To boys in general:  When you fall down on your face, don't lie there till you melt the ice and make an air-hole.  It interferes with people who have to skate over you.
           
To men with one leg:  Don't try to skate.
           
To men who skate backwards:  As you can't be expected to have eyes in the back of your head, tie a pillow on your back.  Then when two of you come in collision, you will not see so many stars.
           
To men with rockers:  Remember what Artemas Ward said about slopping over.  Don't slop over.  Rock easy.
           
To young ladies with pretty ankles:  Black stockings are an abomination.
           
To ditto without:  Go home.
           
To new beginners:  Be sure and keep time with music.  Never try to skate in two directions at once.  Sit down when you feel like it.
           
To the man with a cane:  Don't poke the same man twice; he might not like it.  Distribute your favors.
           
To spectators:  don't embarrass the clumsy ones by tittering or pointing at them.
           
To little girls who skate in couples:  don't expect folks to skate between you successfully unless you unlock your hands.
           
To married couples:  Don't be too affectionate "on ice."  It tries the bachelor's patience.
           
To colliders:  In case of collision with a man—avoid profane language.  In case of collision with a lady—don't let her fall, but throw your arms about her, and hold her carefully till she recovers her equilibrium or requests you to "unhand me, sir."
           
Finally, Skate to the right:  To the ladies in particular, we say:  "Skate to the right."  

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 16, 1864, p. 3, c. 5
           
A Difficult Question Answered.—Can any reader of this paper, says an exchange, "tell why, when Eve was manufactured from one of Adam's ribs, a hired girl wasn't made at the same time, to wait on her?"
           
We can easy!  Because Adam never came whining to Eve with a ragged stocking to be darned, a collar string to sewed on, or a glove to be mended "right away, quick now!"  Because he never read the newspaper until the sun got down behind the palm trees, and then stretched himself, yawning out, "Ain't supper most ready, my dear?"  Not he.  He made the fire and hung over the tea-kettle himself, we'll venture, and pulled the radishes, and peeled the bananas, and did every thing else that he'd ought to!  He milked the cows and fed the chickens, and looked after the pigs himself.  He never brought home half a dozen friends to dinner, when Eve hadn't any fresh pomegranates, and the mango season was over.  He never staid out until 11 o'clock to a "ward meeting," hurrahing for the out-and-out candidate, and then scolding because poor dear Eve was sitting up and crying inside the gate.  To be sure he acted rather cowardly about the apple gathering, but then that don't depreciate his general hopefulness about the garden.  He never played billiards, nor drove fast horses, nor choked Eve with cigar smoke.  He never loafed around corner groceries while solitary Eve was rocking little Cain's cradle at home.  In short, he didn't think she was especially created for the purpose of waiting on him, and wasn't under the impression that it disgraced a man to lighten his wife's cares a little.
           
That's the reason Eve did not need a hired girl, and we wish it was the reason that none of her fair descendants did! 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 16, 1864, p. 4, c. 3

Execution of David O. Dodd—A Rebel Spy.

            In another column will be seen, the findings of a Military Commission, convened by special order, for the trial of David O. Dodd, charged with being a rebel spy.  The sentence was executed yesterday, at 3½ o'clock, P.M., in front of St. Johns' College, in the presence of six thousand persons.  We were there not because it is pleasant to witness a scene so revolting to human nature, but to sketch the events, and to get pencilings of the prospect presented.  The painful, though imperative duty, was assigned to the Provost Marshal General, under whose personal direction, the whole thing was conducted.
           
The College buildings in the rear, covered with gazing spectators, and the surrounding yard trees in which men had climbed to look on, presented an imposing view from the front.  The young man had received his education in those college walls, and rambled with merry playmates in the grove.  It seemed indeed a strange destiny that brought him there to expiate the highest crime known to military law.  Col. Ritter's cavalry brigade, five lines deep, formed the front of the square, while infantry of the 2d and 3d Divisions formed to the right and left, and in the rear, while a vast throng of citizens and soldiers not in arms, crowded the open space outside.  The scaffold in the centre of the square, was under the supervision of Lt. DeKay, Assistant Provost Marshal, and Capt. Margraff, Chief of Army Police, who in discharge of a military duty, happily combines a cool determined purpose, with charity and human kindness.
           
The Rev. Dr. Colburn had been summoned by the young man to attend as a spiritual advisor, but had abandoned him a short time before the execution, without giving notice to the authorities; hence the Rev. Dr. Peek was requested to attend with the promises [illegible] lations of Divine Mercy—and the ill-fated young man met his doom, with seeming calmness and composure.  The death struggle lasted but a few moments, and all was over.
           
David O. Dodd, according to a certificate of his father found on his person, was in his 18th year; was born in Saline county of the most respectable parentage, and good family.  Since the occupancy of Little Rock by the Union Army, until within six weeks past, he had been clerking in a sutler store on Markham street.  His father about that time having obtained permission from Gen. Steele, went south with his family.  Dodd returned the day before Christmas, pretendingly upon a business transaction.
           
He obtained a pass from the Provost Marshal, to go a few miles into the country, two days before he left the city.  Passed the inside chain guard, on the Benton road, on the 31st of December, and was arrested by an officer of Gen. Davidson's cavalry on a road leading to Hot Springs, about twenty miles from Little Rock.  On his person were found contraband letters, and a blank book, containing telegraphic characters, indicating in part the strength and position of the garrison of Little Rock, also a pass from a rebel officer to go in and out of their lines at pleasure.  His trial, before the commission, of which Gen. Thayer was President, lasted four days, and every opportunity was afforded to give him a chance to prove his innocence.
           
Pending his trial, and until sentence was passed, he plead not guilty.  But yesterday morning confessed that he was sent by General Fagan to obtain information—that he desired to visit Little Rock, and that Fagan would not allow him a pass, except upon that condition.  He was a promising young man misguided, and sacrificed to treason.  It is a pity—and should be a warning to others.  The people of Arkansas must recognize the fact that there is a conquering army permanent amongst them with a commander, whose generous nature is only equaled by a firm adherence to military duty.  Those who would trespass upon the kindness of such an officer, the more deserve to suffer.
           
There may be those who think that Dodd's youth should have excused him.  It is true that it makes it the more to be regretted, but the responsibility rests with those who engaged him for such service.  He asserted his appreciation of the responsibility, and acknowledged the justice of the sentence as the only penalty attached by law to the crime.  The executors of the law, as well as a vast circle of friends, have the warmest sympathy for the family who will learn his sad fate.  What a pity, that treason against the government of our revolutionary fathers, should bring such sorrow, and distress.
           
The following letter was written by the young man to his parents.  It shows the resignation with which he met his fate—and will be forwarded through the lines by the Provost Marshal General:

["Copy."]

                                                                                                    Military Prison, Little Rock.   }
                                               
                                               Jan. 8th, 10 o'clock, a.m., 1864.}
           
My Dear Parents and Sisters:  I was arrested as a Spy and tried, and was sentenced to be hung to-day at 3 o'clock.  The time is fast approaching, but thank God I am prepared to die.  I expect to meet you all in Heaven.  Do not weep for me, for I will be better off in Heaven.  I will soon be out of this world of sorrow and trouble.  I would like to see you all before I die, but let God's will be done, not ours.  I pray to God to give you strength to bear your troubles while in this world.  I hope God will receive you in Heaven—there I will meet you.
           
Mother, I know it will be hard for you to give up your only son, but you must remember that it is God's will.  Good bye, God will give you strength to bear your troubles.  I pray that we may meet in Heaven.  Good bye; God will bless you all.
                                               
                                                    Your son and brother,
                                               
                                                                David O. Dodd.     

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 16, 1864, p. 4, c. 3

                                                                        Hd Qrs Army of Arkansas,
                                               
                                    Office Provost marshal General,
                                               
                                    Little Rock, Ark., Dec. 3d, 1863.
General Orders,            }
           
No. 14.            }
           
1.  Hereafter no persons will be permitted to leave this city to go beyond the lines of Pickets, without a pass from this office or Headquarters of the Army.
           
2d.  Persons regularly engaged in bringing wood, provisions, &c., for the supply of citizens and the army, may, when satisfactorily endorsed, obtain special permits for that purpose, allowing them to pass and repass for a given period.
           
3d.  All persons not connected with the army will immediately upon arrival in the city report at this office, and have their names recorded, together with the place from whence they came.
           
4th.  No merchandise will be allowed to pass beyond the lines.  Any family supplies for loyal citizens, needed, will be made subject to special permit.
                       
                                                                            J. L. Chandler,
                                               
                                                    Lt. Col. and Prov. Mar. Gen'l. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 5
                                               
                                                    Fort Smith, Jan. 25
. . . One Taylor, a smuggler, was caught at his tricks here to-day.  He had valuable goods and medicines secreted on his person, and those of two women in cheap calico who accompanied him.  Five bottles of quinine were found hitched to their hoops skirts. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 6, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
Amusements.—The Theatre is crowded nightly.  There is quite a large stock of actors and actresses, some of whom are above the average as to merit.  The management has put several melo-dramas, such as "Black-eyed Susan," "The Carpenter of Rouen," and others on the stage, in a creditable manner.  The farces are well selected, and spiritedly played.  Miss Kate Taylor, who sings and dances well, is a lively actress and a general favorite.  Miss Nellie Watson, is very much admired, and sustains the principal characters in a very satisfactory manner.
           
The old Varieties is closed, and the building is now used as a concert hall, and the establishment called the "Melodeon."  Songs, dances and a varied entertainment, are here nightly provided. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
           
We publish below the report of the committee of ladies appointed to award a premium to the best arranged ward in the General Hospital.  It is a just and well deserved report, and should have appeared sooner, but was only handed to us, this morning, by Dr. E. A. Clark surgeon in charge.
                                               
                                                Little Rock, Jan. 30, 1864.
           
The Committee of Ladies appointed by the Surgeon of the General Hospital of the Army of Arkansas, to adjudge the premium to the cleanest and best arranged Ward of the Hospital, report as follows:
           
That after a careful and most critical examination, the committee is unable to give the preference to any one ward over another.  They all exhibit the most scrupulous neatness in the rooms, in the bedding, walls, windows, and great taste in the special decorations.  The dining rooms, kitchen and laundry particularly attracted the attention of the committee, as being those parts of the Hospital most liable to show neglect if any existed, but the committee are happy to state they exhibited the same extreme cleanliness in every respect as the wards.  The facilities for cooking and washing are ample under the excellent management of the surgeon in charge, and the utmost regularity seems to prevail throughout.
           
The committee have nothing but praise to bestow upon all connected with this well conducted establishment, and join in heartfelt sympathy with the occupants who have been wounded in their country's defense, or become sick while in her service.
           
(Signed,)
                                               
                                                Mrs. Clara B. Davidson,
                                               
                                                Mrs. Ada F. Whitehill,
                                               
                                                Mrs. Cornelia A. Chase. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
The lovers of the dance and social merriment, spent a gay and festive evening at the headquarters of Maj. Gen'l Steele on Thursday evening last.  It was the most superb party we have attended for many a day.  The party of beautiful ladies and gallant gentlemen, were handsomely entertained, and the evening hours passed mirthfully away. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
Editor's Table.—History of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, by John Foster Kirk, published by J. B. Lippencott & Co.
           
Very Hard Cash, by Charles Reade, published by Harper & Bros.
           
The Old Helmet, by the author of "Wide, Wide World," published by J. B. Lippincott & Co.
           
Round the Block, an American novel, with illustrations, published by D. Appleton & Co.
           
The Bivouac and the Battle-field, or Campaign Sketches in Virginia and Maryland, by Geo. F. Noyes, Capt. U. S. V., published by Harper & Brothers.
           
Southern History, the second year of the war, by Edw. A. Pollard, of the Richmond Examiner, published by Chas. B. Riceardson [sic], of New York.
           
Held in Bondage, a tale of the Day, by "Quida" published by J. B. Lippincott & Co.
           
Pelayo, an Epic of the older Moorish Times, by Eliz. T. Porter Beach, published by Appleton.
           
Journal of life on a Georgian Plantation, 1838-9, by Frances Annie Kimble, published by Harper & Brothers.
           
Annals of the Army of the Cumberland, by an officer, J. B. Lippincott & Co., publishers.
           
Field Manual of Evolutions of the Line, arranged in a tabular form for the use of officers of the U. S. Inf., being a sequel to the authorized U. S. Inf. Tactics, by Capt. Henry Coppee.  Lippincott & Co.
           
Military Dictionary, by Col. H. S. Scott, D. Van Nostrand, publisher.
           
All the above works for sale by Blelock & co., Markham street. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 3, c. 5

Melodeon
Concert Hall
Corner of Markham and Rock Streets.
Hiram Marks, Manager.

                        Songs,
                       
                        Dances and
                                               
                        Burlesques,
           
by a Talented Troups [sic] consisting of
           
The Holland Family;
                       
            G. P. Madden, Oscar Willis;
                                               
            Johnny Cole;
                                               
                                    and a host of others!

Admission 50 cents,
To all Parts of the House.

Feb. 13. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 3, c. 5

Little Rock Theatre.
Marshall, Bell, and Desmoine, Lessee.
Harry Gilbert,                                                   Stage Manager.

Dramas,
                       
Pantomine,
                       
                        Farces and
                                               
                        Ballets Produced.

Every Evening With an Entire
Change of Programme Each Night.

Reserved Seats                                     75,
Parquette                                              50
Feb. 13. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 4, c. 4

Groceries and Provisions.
G. M. Jones, E. P. Lane,
Just received and for sale at the old stand of
Wm. F. Pope & co.,
Theatre Building, Main Street,
Harrison's Celebrated Flour, Belden's
crushed Sugar, pulverized sugar, choice brown
sugar, Sugar cured Hams, Sugar cured dried Beef,
Assorted Pickles, English Chow Chow,
Rio and Java Coffee, Black and
Green Tea, choice But-
ter, Star Candles,
Salt Fish,
Twenty Barrel's Salt,
English Dairy and Western Reserve Cheese, Fam-
ily and Toilet Soap, Pearl Starch, Soda, Sale-
ratus, Cream Tartar, Preston and Mer-
rill's Yeast Powders, Dried Fruits,
Almonds, Corn Starch, Filberts,
Spices, Jellies,
Baltimore Oysters,

                        Sardines,                                                                     Mustard,
                       
Crackers,                                                                    Ginger,
                       
Nuts,                                                                           Candies,
                       
Pickled Tripe,                                                              Sour Kraut,
                       
Tobacco,                                                                     Cigars,
                       
Indigo,                                                                         Brooms,
                       
Buckets,                                                                      Nails,
                       
Garrett's celebrated Snuff, Stationery, &c., &c.
                       
Little Rock, January 16, 1864. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 4, c. 4

Dry Goods!

150 Pieces Calico!

                                                            50 Pieces Domestic!

50 Assorted Shawls;
                       
Flannel, Dress Goods,
                       
                        Sontays [sic], Hoods, Jeans,
                       
Overcoats;
                       
            Boots;
                       
                        Shoes, &c.

Received and Selling
Very Low, at
Scruggs' Old Stand,
Water street.

                                                                                                N. Hoffheimer & Co.,
                                               
                                                J. M. Athearn & Co.
           
Jan. 9, 1864. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 4, c. 4

Wanted!

By an Army Officer, an intelligent correspondent upon the subject of LOVE AND MATRIMONY.  All letters strictly confidential, and will be directed to the undersigned, care of the Editor of "National Democrat."
                                               
                                                Willie Wildwood
           
Jan. 23, 1864. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 13, 1864, p. 4, c. 4

Important to the Ladies
Arrival of New Goods!!

            The undersigned have just received and offer for sale, at very low prices, a general assortment of staple and fancy Dry Goods, such as
                       
Prints of the best fabric;
                       
Shirtings, bleached and unbleached;
                       
Flannels of all colors;
                       
Irish Linen;
                       
Cotton Cards;
                       
Balmoral Shirts [sic];
                       
Ladies Corsets;
                       
Shawls and Cloaks;
                       
Ladies Shoes of all sizes;
                       
Misses Shoes of all sizes;
                       
Childrens Shoes of all sizes;
           
Boys Boots and a great many articles too numerous to mention, therefore we invite you one and all to give us a call before purchasing elsewhere.
                                               
                                    Lindauer & Co.,
                                               
                                                Tucker's old Stand.
           
Jan. 30, 1864. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 20, 1864, p. 1, c. 4
                                               
                                    Headquarters 3d Regt. Mo. Cavalry,
                                               
                                                Camden, Feb. 1st, 1864.
Miss Nannie—
           
Through the menny changes of life I have arriven to the presant Period unharmed and unchainged for this eavening I find my self still as devoted a friend of yours as ever and field as deap an intrus in your future wellfar & hapiness as I do my aon, though if I wer to think rightley of the matter I would at once ask myself this question.  Should I not have a return of affections before I suffer myself to forme so strong an attachmen for enny one.  But again when I think of it I only think it my deuty to love and worship those noble trates of carracter which I finde developt in you which I think an Angle would hough in reverence and pay the highest tokens of regard and respect hoping that you look on me with some degree of simthy if not with that devoted friend ship that I have for you I will close this subejct.  Miss Nannie I know nothing that would be of intrust to you.  I only write this to increas your indebtedness to me and hope you will favor it with an answer at the earles opertunity.
           
hoping that this may find you in good health and in fine spirits surrounded by a sircul of happy and affectionate friends I for the present will say farwell,
                                               
                        Respectfuly
                                               
                                    your devoted friend,
                                               
                                                            ________ 

                                                                                    Headquarters 3d Regt Mo. Cav.,
                                               
                                                Feb. 1st, 1864.
Dear Nannie—
           
I have just finished a letter to you from _______ which you will find on the opposit page I wroat it according to in strucktions he said he wanted it wroat as loving as possible and if it is not I am no judge and I am getting tired of urging anothers claims to a Flower that I hope Bloomes only to bless my existence.  Nannie I wroat you a long letter to day which I will send by ________ that you may read to the family and to this one you can keep it a secret and Burn as soon as you have red it.
           
Dear Nannie it is useless for me to tell you I love you for you have herd it as often as the stars twinkled in the fair off fermant and I beleav yess I know you love me most tenderly for you have often told me so and I knew you as too pure to disseave me
           
And I would to my creator that I was possest of the poetical Eloquence of Burnes to discribe my feelings towards you this evening although I have often treated you coolly and done you menny rongs when I com to reflect my heart would blead with sorrow and I hope those unplesant moments as forgiveden  and forgeten and our intercours herafter be it long or short will be like menny days we have spent together of happiness to pure for utteranc—Nannie I am sitting on the Bank of the Washataw River and the Boys as skinning over its waivs in Boats and skifts of ever kind and size and the sun has just hid its face behind the western hills, what a seen it fills me with delight and yitt with sadness, it is a magnificent sene Boath Grand Gloomey and perculier it reminds me of the menny scenes on Barren River (God bless her waters and the sawel that donfinds her to her cannels) may God watch over that lovly State and may it yett be the land of the free and the home of the blessed.
           
When I commenced writing I thought I would not write but a few lines but I forget my self and new not what I wroat untill I was don it is now dark and I will have to close in the commencement I ask you to Burn this but I now ask you to keep it kiss all the children for me.
                                               
                                    Farwell your
                                               
                                                Devoted cousin
                                               
                                                            ________ 

 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 20, 1864, p. 1, c. 5

A Letter from Castle Thunder.

            We have been permitted, says the Missouri Republican, to make the following extract of a letter from Junius M. Brown, (nee army correspondent of the New York Tribune, now a prisoner at Castle Thunder, Richmond.)  He was captured along with two other correspondents—Richardson, of the Tribune, and Coleman, of the World, in April last, on a tug in the Mississippi river, during the siege of Vicksburg and Port Hudson—Coleman, as may be remembered having been permitted to return home.—Here is the extract:
                                               
                                    Castle Thunder, Richmond, Va.,
                                               
                                    Saturday Afternoon, Dec. 19, 1863.
           
My Dear C—Once more permit me to return my thanks for your most friendly offices and to assure you of my appreciation of your favors.  Knox sent Richardson $200 in Confederate currency a week or two since, and consequently we are very well supplied.  Both he and I have abundance for all immediate uses; so you need not trouble yourself to send us more.  If we want any further financial aid we will not hesitate to inform you.  Our friends in the north are very kind.  They have done all they could to secure our freedom, and, failing in that, have exerted themselves to the utmost to render our captivity comfortable.
           
For prisoners, we (the Bohemian mess, I mean,) live quite luxuriously—far more so, I dare say, than most of the fortunate families in Richmond.  In our appointments, provender and surroundings, we are the purple robed patricians of the prison.  We have been tattered and torn (and hungry, and may be so again,) but not recently.  We are epicureans now, and have a number of retainers at our table almost daily.  We have grown dainty and become voluptuous peripatetics—Assyrian members of the can't-get-away fraternity.  We have good books to read; fine cigars to smoke; high philosophic themes to discuss, and a "Castle" for our home.  Queer castle!  Singular home.  Do we like it?  I will not answer.  Place yourself in our position and fancy now happy you would be.   We are resolved not to be miserable, and we won't be, either.  We are philosophers, both, and laugh at adversity and the misfortune of war.
           
The health of my collaborateur and myself is good.  We have tried to take every disease and taken none.  Even the small pox respected us, probably because it would have nothing to do with such a pair of Yankee abolitionists.  Saints, you know are never ill.
           
We have concluded to spend the winter in the south, and have some idea of a permanent residence here.  Rich sends much love to you, and I offer you the best remains of a very old and worn out heart.             Vole et benedicte!
                                               
                                                Junius H. Browne. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 20, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
By order of the military authorities, the Theatres are to close at 9 o'clock, at night, and all drinking saloons at eight.  On the Sabbath no drinking saloon will be allowed to be opened.  This arrangement will add to the peace and quiet of the city.  It gives time enough for pleasure and amusements, and the soldiers and citizens an opportunity of returning to their camps and homes at an early hour.  We have not, however, in the past, had much reason of complaint; and yet, some accidents have occurred that might have been avoided if the same course had been earlier pursued.  There is no army in the service composed of better men or better disciplined than the army comprising this Department, and there is no captured city in the South where better order has been preserved.  Cols. Chandler and Andrews, and Capt. Margraff, have all given the police regulations of the city their special attention, and Gen. Steele has afforded them every assistance necessary. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 27, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
Last Wednesday the 22d of February, and birth day of Washington, was celebrated by a grand review of Col. A. H. Ryan's 3d Arkansas cavalry, on the north bank of the river just opposite the city.  The Regiment was formed on the review ground at two P.M.  At that hour a salute of 13 guns by Vaughan's Battery announced the arrival of Maj. General Steele, his staff and numerous friends.  After presenting arms and inspection by the General, the Regiment broke into columns of platoons and passed in review, presenting an appearance worthy the gallant Colonel, and all the officers and men of the Regiment.  After a few evolutions in battalion drill, performed in a most admirable manner, the Regiment was dismissed and repaired to headquarters, where an hour was happily spent and good feeling reigned supreme.
           
The commissioned officers of the regiment were then presented to the Major-General, who complimented them highly on being a regiment in so short a time, so well disciplined, and so competent to every duty required.  After the departure of the General and guests the officers of the regiment met to celebrate among themselves the birth-day of Washington.  Among the toasts were the following:  "To the memory of Washington"—standing and in silence.  "To the President"—"To Maj.-Gen. Steele"—"To Col. A. H. Ryan"—"To the Third Arkansas Cavalry," and "To our friends at home."
           
Col. Ryan arrived in Little Rock from Washington on the 12th day of December, 1863, and in the short space of two months, has organized a regiment second to none in the Department.  It numbers 1100 men rank and file.  The officers of the regiment are thoroughly competent, and all the soldiers brave and patriotic. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 27, 1864, p. 3, c. 4

Soldiers' Weddings.

            Our re-enlisted veterans and new recruits are turning their high bounties to good uses by liberal investments in the matrimonial markets.  Judging from the number of weddings that are taking place all over the country, it would appear that the first thing an old soldier or a volunteer with greenbacks in his pocket thinks of is getting a wife, if he has none.  It is the old story over again.  The brave carry off the fair.  Mars and Venus are in conjunction now, as in the olden time, with this difference in our favor, that Hymen stands by with nuptial torch, in the shape of goodly piles of greenbacks.  The clergy profit by the recruiting officer, and the number of marriages this year will exceed all precedent.  There is philosophy in this.  A bounty of a thousand dollars, with the prospect of a pension and a farm at the close of the war, cuts away the difficulties from many a love match.  It would take years of hard work and self-denial for a young man to gather the outfit which may be gained in one hour by yielding to the impulse of patriotism.  There is a well-founded impression that the present year will see the end of the civil war, and our young men embrace the chance of high bounties to settle themselves in life.  Their pay will almost support their brides, and in a few months the war will be over, and they can fall back upon their bounties to make a good start in life, and purchase stock for rebel farms, or make a start in life in their native towns.  It is to the credit of our young ladies that they are appreciating this thrifty patriotism, and appear willing to dispense with the usual long courtships, in favor of volunteers and veterans, whose furloughs expire on a certain given day.  So, weddings are everywhere done upon short notice, and clergymen of all denominations are kept busy.  In this city the increase of weddings from this cause is quite unprecedented.  But it is in the country that the results are more remarkable.  The villages and towns in the interior of this state are almost depleted of marriageable girls, who have been converted into war widows by the sons of Mars.  It is the same throughout New England.  In one village in Connecticut, where a wedding is a rare event, no less than twenty seven have occurred since last Thanksgiving.
           
It is to the credit of our heroes that victories, both in love and war, follow them wherever they go.  A civilian stands but little chance against a soldier among the girls.  The latter generally give the preference to the veterans.  Then comes the raw recruits and civilians last.  This is the rule even in Dixie.  The animosity of the secession ladies to the Union is only Pickwickian, so far as regards our brave soldiers individually.  In Charleston, Va., we hear of thirty soldiers wedding as a result of a few months encampment of a regiment near that place.  It is almost the same in other parts of Virginia and throughout the border States.  In New Orleans soldiers' weddings are the order of the day.  On patriotic grounds these results are eminently satisfactory, as tending to abate the animosity of the feminine haters of our country's cause.  We take it that the best way to conciliate these Dixie damsels is to furnish them with good Union husbands.—New York Sun. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 27, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
           
The Age of Purity Returns.—Fourteenth street, Washington, is said to contain throughout its whole length south of Willard's not one house that is not a house of ill-fame.  A contract has just been made to build a house of the same character that is to cost $80,000!  Old Babylon and Ancient Rome were models of purity, compared with Washington under republican rule—the party whose platform was to "restore the government of his fathers."—Perhaps they mean the very early fathers—those who lived in Herculaneum and Pompeii, and the exhumed stony symbols whose faith and practices have in modern times excited the astonishment (but not the admiration) of beholders.—Hartford Times. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 12, 1864, p. 3, c. 6

"D"                                "G"                                "B"
Officers' Club
and
Restaurant.
Drake's Bitters, Rye and Bourbon Whisky, Brandy, Gin, and Schiedam
Schnapps, Best Quality, Just Received.
Call at Jones' Building,
Above Stairs, Corner Main and Cherry Sts.
"C"                                "X"                                "S"

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 26, 1864, p. 1, c. 6

How General Thayer of Fort Smith treats
Disloyal Women.

                                                                                        Hd'q'r's., District of the Frontier,           }
                                               
                                        Ft. Smith, Ark., Feb. 17, 1864.            }
Special Orders No. 45.]
           
Miss Cecilia De Jeune, a resident of Fort Smith, having admitted to the General commanding that she is disloyal to the Government of the United States; that she gave utterance to exclamations of joy when she heard that Major General Blunt and all his staff were killed; that she has expressed sentiments of disloyalty to the government of the United States, at various times since the occupation of Fort Smith by the Federal forces; that she has not lived at her father's house for two years, he being a Union man:  And, it not being advisable that she should be sent through our lines at present, nor reside longer at Fort Smith, or on the south side of the Arkansas river, but it being advisable that she should reside on the north side of the Arkansas; and it being desirable, also, that the war should not cause the separation of members of the same family more than is really necessary.
           
It is therefore ordered, That the said Cecilia De Jeune leave Fort Smith to-morrow, at 12 M., under charge of the Provost Marshal, and be taken to Van Buren, and remain there until further orders; that she be restricted to the limits of her father's family only, all other persons being forbidden to communicate with her.
           
Any manifestations of disrespect to the government and military authorities of the United States, will be promptly and properly attended to.
           
The Provost Marshal at Van Buren, will see that this order is complied with.
           
By command of Brigadier General,
                                               
                                    J. M. Thayer,
                                                                        Wm. S. Whitten,
                                               
                        Assistant Adjutant General. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 26, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
           
Our northern exchanges contain a great many advertisements from "soldier boys," "Uncle Sam's nephews," "blue coats" and others in the army soliciting correspondence with ladies, with a view to "fun, love and matrimony."  The Cincinnati Commercial has near half a column of this class of advertisements.  One is from two young ladies, and another we subjoin as a specimen:
           
"Wanted—Correspondence—Any fair maiden who wishes to form an acquaintance with a gay and festive cuss—object fun—can have her wish gratified by addressing O. P. H., Cincinnati.  No heiress need apply."
           
"Gay and festive cuss" is very good.  We are satisfied that the real name of the advertiser is Richard Swivelley, Esquire. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 26, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
We are furnished, by the author, with a printed copy of the particulars of the execution last week, which we failed to notice in our last issue for want of time:

Retribution.

            On Friday last, the 18th inst., Jeremiah Earnest, of Montgomery county, and Thomas Jefferson Miller, of Hempstead county, suffered the penalty of death, for causelessly hanging Union men down in Dixie, during the past summer.  They were hung in front of the penitentiary, where they have been imprisoned since they were captured by the Federal army, some time last fall.  A fair and impartial trial was allowed them, and every opportunity afforded them to establish their innocence of murder; but their guilt of participating in the hanging of the two Ogburns and Childers, on the Antoine in Clark county, in July last, was beyond controversy, and now a just retribution has overtaken them, and this is but the prelude to hundreds of cases equally guilty, whose hour of punishment will certainly come sooner or later.  Hundreds of good and loyal citizens of the United States have been murdered in cold blood, by mobs and bands of rebels acting under no shadow of authority but their own base passions.  And these cruel murders, we are told are still being committed within the rebel lines.  They may think themselves safe, and therefore continue these outrages, but a moment's reflection ought to convince any reasonable man, that the majority of the United States Government cannot thus be set at naught.  Just as certain as any man engages, or participates by his presence in aiding to hang and murder Union citizens, just so certain will a just retribution overtake him.—They need not think to commit their crimes surreptitiously, for "There is a chief among them taking notes," and all their black deeds will be hauled to light when they least expect it.                                                                                                          J. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

A Pleasant way of putting down the Rebellion.

            Uncle Sam's nephews in Arkansas have found an agreeable and effectual way of crushing the rebellion.  It has been said that the women of the South are the most rebellious, and, but for them, the spirit of resistance would soon die out.  The boys have gone on the principle of striking at the root of the evil and of conquering the women.  The tactics adopted have been successful so far, and consist in wooing and marrying the fair ones.  Whether it is because their secesh lovers are out of sight, and therefore out of mind, or that they have lost all hopes of seeing them again, or because the blue coats have such winning ways, we do not know but it is certain that marriages of the soldiers and citizenesses are of daily occurrence.
           
Scarcely a day passes, without one or more of these marriages in this county.  One clergyman, we are told has married as many as five couples in one day.  In the adjoining county of Conway, we are told that all single women under sixty are gobbled up as fast as the soldiers find them.
           
This, it strikes us, is an effectual way of putting down the rebellion.  These fair rebels will of course, be turned over, and become firm believers in the Union, if not Unconditional Unionists.
           
This is a new phase of the development of Union feeling in Arkansas that must be agreeable, at least, to the parties constituting the Union.

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
           
The following is a letter from a deserter from the rebel army to his sister.  It shows the state of feeling and changes going on:
                                               
                                    Little Rock, Ark., March 20th, 1864.
Dear Sister—
           
I wrote my last letter to you from Camp Bragg, twenty miles west of Camden.  About six weeks ago that army got orders to skedaddle to Red river, and as I had been in the army thirteen months and could not get a furlough for ten days, nor clothing of any consequence, and little to eat, bad pay and bad money, me and seven others of my company struck out for Drew county instead of Red river.  A scout of cavalry was sent after us, but they were not smart enough to catch us.  I did not stop long in Drew county, but came on to this place, and resolved to fight no more fore slavery, secession or big officers.  Since I came to this place I have been well treated by the federals, have good clothing, well fed and three dollars per day for my work.  Federals encourage mechanics, and do not go in for slavery, white or black.
           
An election was held last Monday in the State, which resulted in bringing the State back into the Union, under a free constitution, and I am glad of it.  From the best information that I can get, Louisiana is about to do the same thing, if she has not already done so.  I would like to go home and see you, but I would not more than get there before I would be informed by some of Jeff.  Davis' tools that I would have to go into the service immediately and fight for the negroes or negro owners and loose my own liberty.  I shall decline going to South Carolina until they change their views.  I suppose the army east of the Mississippi to be of the same character as the rebel army west of it.—One of the big generals here has cut out for Mexico.
           
A large army will leave here to-morrow for Red river, and I dont think they will meet with much opposition there.  The desertions from the southern army is large.  A few that is fond of blood are leaving the southern army and going out as guerrillas.  The federals make them stretch hemp when they catch them.  Two were hung here last Friday.
           
Enclosed you will find seventy dollars which is now worthless here—if you don't keep it too long you may be able to buy something to live on.  In conclusion, I hope the whole south may soon be back again in the Union, never again to be cursed by the ravages of war.  I don't know whether it is worth while for you to write me or not, as the letters have to go over the lines by flag of truce, and is some trouble to send.  I would like very much to hear from you, if it is possible.
                                               
                                    Respectfully, 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 21, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
           
We learn that the order of Gen. Sherman, prohibiting the issuance or sale of rations to refugees, or citizens not in government employ, has been extended to this department.—This will cause some distress among the poor who have come within our lines and it will be necessary to take steps to relieve them. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 21, 1864, p. 2, c. 5-6

Complimentary Supper to Maj.-Gen. Steele.

            The complimentary supper given on Thursday night by the citizens of Little Rock, at the Anthony House, was a magnificent affair.  It was in honor of the personal, social and military virtues of the Department commander of Arkansas, Major-General F. Steele.  We have seldom if ever witnessed a more thorough demonstration of popular sentiment and appreciation.  The table, under direction of appropriate committee aided by Mr. Stephens, the hotel proprietor, were most sumptuously crowded with the good things of life, and adorned with iced cakes and flowers, arranged by delicate hands.  It would be difficult to form an idea of the numbers present.  From 9 until 1 o'clock at night the large dining hall and ladies' ordinary were full to overflowing.  The Hotel, throughout the day had been beautifully adorned with flags.—From each window and on lines across the street they were displayed in rich profusion.  At an early hour vast crowds were assembled in front of the Hotel, and excellent music was discoursed by the "10th Illinois" Brass Band.  Colonel Peter J. Sullivan, who was honored with the charge of Master of Ceremonies, had in conjunction with other members of committees, used every precaution and energy to make it an occasion of extraordinary interest.  The citizens of Little rock, in whose memory Gen. Steele will live forever, gave every facility and a hearty co-operation.
           
At half past nine o'clock the Major-General was escorted by the heads of the department from his quarters to the dining hall, and seated at the head of the table, with his staff and State and army officers in close proximity.
           
After partaking of the bounteous feast of eatibles Col. Sullivan elegantly proposed "a feast of reason and flow of soul."  After expressing in his own peculiar and expressive style, the object to be "a tribute of respect, of veneration and esteem of our noble General, the Department Commander of Arkansas"—three rousing cheers were given for General Steele.  It was a long and loud huzza and no one failed to claim his right to a voice in the well merited compliment.
           
We cannot give in full the remarks of any speaker, but must not forbear some quotations from Col. Sullivan.  He said:--
           
"General Steele came to Arkansas in the line of his military duty; a brave, gallant officer, a true and accomplished gentleman, to restore to us a government, a country with constitutional liberty under the flag of our fathers.—That the General knew no North, nor South, nor East, nor West, but an indivisible and indestructible union of States, for the perpetuity of which he had bared his breast to many fierce storms of battle."
           
Col. Sullivan continued—
           
"We came also to do honor to the loyal people of Arkansas, who, amid the fretted storm of secession bravely maintained their honor, their loyalty and their love for the Union, and accept with glad and thankful hearts, the blessings of good government—which were guaranteed by our revolutionary fathers, and which can never be tarnished by the hand of treason.  God will never let the Union be severed.  Our commanding General belongs to no party or clique, but is an American soldier, whose big heart is fired with zeal, and love for the whole country."  [Loud cheering.]
           
The following toast was then announced by Col. Sullivan.
           
"The United States of America are held and safely protected by clasps of Steele, which can only be broken by the severance of the Union!"
           
To this General Steele was called upon to respond, which he did in a brief, fervent, pointed, and patriotic manner.  He said that he was a soldier and not a speaker; that as an army officer he came to Arkansas to vindicate, at the point of the bayonet, the integrity, supremacy and perpetuity of the United States; to drive rebellion from the State and afford protection to loyal people; that he obeyed orders of the War Department, and endorsed to the full the Constitution and laws and rightful institutions of his government, and the administration and policy of the President of the United States, and the authorities at Washington City."  He said "that the people of this State had had an opportunity of judging between the oppression of tyrants, who would dissolve the Union of States, and the liberty and protection of free government.  That every energy he possessed would be given to sustain the emblem of the world's only hope—a free and constitutional republic."
           
The General referred to the negro as the pretext for breaking up a Government productive of so much happiness, but alleged that there was a deep-seated principle of oligarchy and aristocracy, which lay nearer the foundation of the rebellion—that the Government has not only stood the mighty shock, but will continue to stand, and be even stronger in the future—that it is passing the fiery ordeal, and will be purified as gold in the crucible.  The General was heard with intense interest, and frequently interrupted with shouts of applause.  At the close of his remarks, "The Star-spangled Banner" was played by the band.
           
The next toast in order was—
           
"Our gallant army, with Grant at its head, has preserved us a country, a home and an untarnished name."
           
To which Judge Harper and Senator Warner made most patriotic responses.
           
The next was—
           
"President Lincoln:  May he live to rebuke and reform the would-be destroyers of our glorious Union."
           
Mr. Bertrand responded to the toast by special request.  Said he was not so often surprised by the call for a speech as the rebels frequently are by General Steele in an engagement—that he was for the Stars and Stripes—for the Union, when others who make louder pretensions to loyalty now, were against it.  He closed by the following toast:
           
"To General Steele—a gallant soldier and true gentleman."
           
Washington's March was next played by the band.
           
"Peace—the end and aim of war, is written upon the pillars of Heaven; it is sung by the angels of God, and it will be reflected down to us—when this cruel war is over."
           
Was responded to by Mr. Butler, of the House of Representatives, in a humorous, spirited and patriotic style.
           
"Major-General U. S. Grant, like Washington, after having conquered a peace, will let his grateful country once more repose in the arms of the whole people."
           
Was responded to by General E. A. Carr, in a most befitting manner.  The military history of General Grant was graphically reviewed, and the highest eulogies pronounced upon his name.
           
"The Governor of Arkansas—honest and patriotic."
           
Was received with uproarious shouts, and responded to by many speakers.
           
"May our worthy Legislature bring forth a Union knot that can never be untied—"
           
Was toasted to Lieutenant-Governor Bliss, who replied that the Union Legislature would cut the gordian knot of secession in Arkansas.
           
Col. Sullivan announced that from a feast of reason, they would now pass to the precincts of more myrth [sic] and merriment.
           
"Old Shady" was sung by Capt. B. O. Carr and Mr. E. Everest, and the goddess of song hovered over them so near that they touched the hem of her garments.  The music was never better.
           
"The brave volunteers of Arkansas—"
           
Was then toasted to Speaker Patton, of the House of Representatives whose response was spirited and pointed.
           
Volunteer toasts were called for—Judge Harper offered            
           
"Shiloh—its living and dead heroes."
           
Col. Sullivan was called to respond, who replied that his heart's sympathies were too much elicited in the theme to speak upon the incidents of that bloody battle.
           
A toast to Shiloh's dead heroes was drank in silence.
           
"The braves of Jenkin's Ferry—may they never be forgotten by loyal Arkansians."
           
Was dedicated to General Salomon.  His reply was Napoleonic:
           
"That he had done some running at Jenkins Ferry, and did not wish to talk about it."
           
General Steele gave the highest praise to Gen. Salomon for gallantry in the engagement at Jenkins' Ferry—said Salomon had whipped the enemy and driven him back before he thought the battle had fairly begun, and that the rebels had troubled him no more from the time that Salomon repulsed them to the present.
           
Three cheers were given for Salomon.
           
General Carr offered a toast, standing, to General  Rice, who was wounded at Jenkins'  Ferry.  General Steele gave a testimony to gallantry and military genius of General Rice, and to his services at Jenkins' Ferry.  He said there were but few officers in the United States army of General Rice's age, so proficient, and that on the field of battle, a braver officer never drew a sword.
           
Hon. O. P. Snyder, of the House of Representatives, was toasted as author of resolutions passed in the Legislature, unanimously endorsing General Steele.  Mr. Snyder's response was spirited and patriotic.
           
"Our fallen braves—sacred to their memory—they have paid the price of liberty, and sealed it with their blood—"
           
Was announced by Surgeon George R. Weeks.
           
"General Steele:  May our army and navy be as strong as the name he bears—"
           
By General Salomon.
           
H. B. Beidler gave the following:
           
"May the kind feeling of friendship and esteem exhibited by this assembly, for Major General Steele, be the sentiment of the whole nation."
           
Senator Warner, and others, responded to the toast in a spirited manner, and the assembly adjourned in harmony and unanimity of feeling.  Such was the enthusiasm and excitement of the occasion, that all the incidents and sentiments of interest may not have been noted.  It was a well-merited compliment to the Major General—a unanimous endorsement of his virtues as a gentleman and soldier—reflecting the kind feeling and appreciation of our citizens.  The different committees, which will be found in another column, and the proprietor of the hotel, are entitled to the thanks of the guests, for doing their duty faithfully, and the brass band for elegant music.  Ed. Everest was presented with the nicest bouquet that was on hand, and our reporter came away after "noon of night" without a flower, but has our warmest thanks for being so cool and collected as to preserve such notes of the grand complimentary banquet as will be of interest to our numerous readers. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 21, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
We publish the following letter from the Unconditional Union, with a correction added by permission.
                                               
                                    Little Rock, Ark., May 11, 1864.
Editor of Unconditional Union:
           
I observe a slight error in your account of the battle of Jenkins' Ferry, on the 30th of April, 1864, given in your paper of the 10th inst., which justice to my officers and men demands that I should correct.  The paragraph to which I allude is as follows:
           
"The negroes particularly, deserve great credit for their gallantry.  They repulsed charge after charge from the enemy and no sooner was a command received than obeyed.  They charged a battery and captured three pieces of artillery and two battle flags, which inspired them with confidence, and urged them on to the bloody contest, pouring death and destruction before them."
           
Now the facts are these:  On the right of our line of battle, which rested on the road from Princeton to the Ferry, my regiment was the first that engaged that enemy, and after a severe contest of an hour, was relieved by the 9th Wisconsin and the 9th Wisconsin was subsequently relieved by the 2d Kansas, (colored) infantry.  The action had lasted some two hours before the 2d Kansas came up.  After the 2d Kansas had been engaged about half an hour, Gen. Rice ordered me to relieve them and charge the batter; (which had taken position in the road about one hundred paces in front of our extreme right;) but afterward so modified his order as to have the charge made jointly by the 29th Iowa and 2d Kansas.  I ordered my command to advance with a shout, which was promptly done, until we arrived at the line of the 2d Kansas, when the two regiments were blended into one, my own, being the largest, extending beyond the 2d Kansas on either flank.  companies "A" and "D," and part of "I" of my right wing, ("F" having been previously posted across the Bayou to our right,) extending across the road, immediately in front of the guns, with their left resting on the right of the 2d Kansas.  In this order the two commands moved gallantly forward, and captured the battery; (two guns instead of three,) and eight prisoners, including one Lieutenant, but no battle flags.  The prisoners were taken to the rear and across the river in charge of four of my men.  There were two or three miniature flags taken from the guns by my men, one of which that I examined, was about five by nine inches, with blue field and three bars, and bearing the inscription, "God and our native land."  My command advanced beyond the guns about sixty or seventy paces, and held the ground while the 2d Kansas, whose ammunition was exhausted, withdrew and aided a detail of my men in taking the guns to the rear.  I then fell back slowly to our regular line of battle, and was again relieved by the 9th Wisconsin, Col. Salomon, who had held himself in readiness to support us.
           
In making this statement, I have not desire to detract in the slightest degree from the 2d Kansas, nor to claim any undue credit for my own regiment.  My sole object is to do exact and equal justice to all, and hence I cannot silently permit my command to be totally excluded from an act of gallantry in which it suffered so severely, having lost some of my best men, and had two officers wounded:  Capt. Mitchell severely, and Lieutenant Johnson slightly.  It affords me the greatest pleasure to say that the 2d Kansas, under its gallant leader, fought bravely, and although my men were first at the battery and actually took the prisoners, we cheerfully concede to it an equal share of the glory of the charge.  All the regiments engaged fought with a heroism unsurpassed in civilized warfare.  It is also worthy of note that the 50th Indiana infantry, and named in your account, was in the thickest of the fight.
           
I am very resp't'y, your ob't, serv't,
                                               
                                    Thomas H. Benton, Jr.
                                               
                                    Col. 29th Iowa Inft. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 21, 1864, p. 4, c. 3-4

[Correspondence of the Missouri Democrat]
Letter from Arkansas.
The Battle of Mark's Mills.

[detailed account of battle]
           
All the officers with the train, but not connected with the command, were killed, wounded, or made prisoners, except Lieutenant Scrum, who made his escape with a few cavalry.  All the cotton speculators but one, and most of the citizens, were captured.  Among them was a Mr. Townsend, of Milwaukee, who had been to Camden to visit his son, a Captain in the 28th Wisconsin volunteers.  He was on his way home and his son was going as far as Pine Bluff with him.  Captain Townsend is supposed to be killed, as he was neither among the prisoners nor the wounded, and nothing has been heard of him since the fight.
           
Among the killed was a lieutenant whose name I did not learn.  He had resigned and was on his way home, but when the fight commenced he took charge of a detachment of men who had become scattered from their commands, and gallantly led them to his own death.
           
Captain Reed, of the 3d Missouri cavalry, was on his way to Little Rock to attend to some business of his regiment.  He also took charge of some men without an officer, and was killed near the battery.
           
Our entire loss in killed and wounded will not exceed two hundred and fifty, not over fifty of whom were killed, and twenty have died since the battle.  None of our wounded except Major McConley, were taken away by the rebels.  He had one thumb and fore finger shot away.
           
The rebels buried and removed all of their own dead, and carried away all of their wounded that could bear transportation.
           
They left, however, one hundred and twenty-seven of their worst cases in houses near the field, many of whom have since died.
           
None of our medical officers were held as prisoners except to take care of our own wounded.  Dr. Casselberry, 1st Indiana cavalry; Drs. Strong and Smith, of the 36th Iowa; Dr. Rafe, of the 5th Kansas cavalry; Dr. Wall, of the 77th Ohio, and Dr. Cochran, of the 1st Iowa cavalry, were with the train, and did all in their power to make the wounded comfortable.
           
The Confederate Surgeons and the citizens of the neighborhood did everything in their power to provide for the wants of our wounded.
           
The rebel soldiers, however, robbed our men and officers of everything they could get, stripping the clothes from our dead and wounded, and as far as I could learn, no efforts was made by the rebel officers to restore the stolen property.
           
All our ambulances except one and our medicine supply were carried off by the rebels, and they left their wounded and our own wholly destitute of medicines and dressings for their wounds, and they refused to give us permission to send for supplies to Pine Bluff or Little Rock, or to procure them from their own stores.  Five days after the fight however, one of the surgeons went to Pine Bluff without permission, and sent back ample supplies for all their wants, and ambulances to convey all those who were able to be moved to Pine Bluff.
           
There were with the train from one to two hundred negro men, women and children.—Some of the negro men were killed on the field, fifteen or twenty perhaps, but none were injured after that so far as I could learn.  They were taken away with the other prisoners towards Shreveport.
           
In addition to the loss of the train was that of the valuable pontoon bridge which accompanied General Davidson in his expedition from Pilot Knob to Little Rock, and also Gen. Curtis all through his campaign.
           
At the close of the fight the rebels burned and destroyed about sixty of the wagons, and in so doing, set fire to the woods and burned some of the dead; but it is thought that the wounded were all removed before the flames reached them.
           
The following is a list of our killed and wounded, as far as could be obtained. . . . 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 28, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
"The Invincible Glee Club."—We had the pleasure of most elegant music from that excellent band night before last.  It was at the sluggish midnight hour, and our refreshments were all previously exhausted, so we were of necessity passive on the occasion, but the mellow strains were so soothing and so charming, that we hope to welcome them some night when we will try and make their visit mutually pleasant. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 28, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
Blelock & Co.—To our friends, Sam Fife, Mr. Gibbs and Ives, of the above firm on Markham street, we are indebted for many favors in the way of papers, books and periodicals.  To Mr. Fife we are especially indebted for new novels, among them Blanche of Brandy Wine, a romance of the Revolution, by George Lippard, and Family Pride by author of "Pique;" both of which are well written and well conceived in plan and diversity of arrangement. 
           
It is needless for us to say that Blelock & Co. keep constantly on hand the latest news of the day, and the most approved literature, and that the clever salesmen will be happy to see their customers. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 28, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
Adams' Panorama of the War.—We visited the Methodist church building last night, to see the exhibition.  It is a neat and tasty affair, and worth going to see.  Ladies and civilians who have never seen a battle field, have now an opportunity to see the representation of one. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, June 4, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
                                               
                                    From the St. Louis Republican.

Very Latest from Little Rock—Rebel News and Items.

                                                                                                Little Rock, May 18, 1864.. . .

Gen. Blunt's Men at Jenkins' Ford.

            There were several Kansas jayhawkers at the battle of Jenkins' Ford.  They belong to the Blunt school of military morality, discipline and tactics, and were, until very lately, attached to that redoubtable General's command.  They have shown their prowess on many a rich field of plunder, where decrepid [sic] old men and defenceless women and children were to be robbed and outraged.  They are veterans in this species of service, and the envy of every thief and robber who has been smuggled into the Union livery.  On the march to Camden they were unusually energetic, brave and valiant in their desperate assaults on every specimen of feeble humanity who had a copper's worth of property to be robbed of.  On the return, at Jenkins' Ford, they seem to have magnanimously resolved to leave to the brave and honest men who fought under Salomon and Thayer, all the glories of that brilliant achievement, as well as its great dangers, while they meekly and modestly sought the less glorious and less dangerous position of the rear.  It was remarkable with what speed a crowd of them carried their blanched visages to this coward's elysium when fierce fighting is going on at the front—remarkable that the victorious shouts of their honest comrades did not allay their fears or arrest their flight.  Where or when they would have halted, had not the gallant Col. McLane, who was superintending the crossing of trains, stopped them with a line of bayonets at the pontoon bridge, it is impossible to say.  They thronged the way, blocking the trains, and disputing the narrow, corduroyed road with the horses and mules, and would have crowded them from the bridge had it not been for the prompt action of this brave efficient officer, who has no sympathy with cowards.—He kept them back at the point of the bayonet until the trains had all been safely crossed, and then they were permitted to take their chances with the brave and honest men who had driven the enemy from the field, and secured by their valor the privilege of crossing at their leisure.
           
It is gratifying to know that there are only two or three regiments of this class of Kansas men in the service—that most of the men from that State rank among the best and bravest of our soldiers.  These men believe that honest means best promote an honorable and noble cause; and prove by their conduct that the Kansas quotas have not been filled by enlistments or their forces officered by appointments from the penitentiaries and jails of the county.  They steal not; neither do they rob or murder; but when necessary, they freely offer their lives a sacrifice for the good of their country.  They fight as valiantly as the best, the guilty enemies of our country.  They do not shun the dangers which warfare with crime involved.  They practically demonstrate that they are the champions of an honest and a good and noble cause. . . . 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, June 11, 1864, p. 3, c. 6

Little Rock
Theatre.

Marshall, Templeton & Co.,                                                     Lessees.
E. Marshall,                                                                              Manager.
A. S. Addis,                                                                             Treasurer.
John Templeton                                                                        Stage Manager.

A New Play!
The Galley Slave!

Saturday Evening, June 11, will be enacted the new melodrama in 3 acts, called the

Galley Slave;
or,
The Unknown!

The performances on this occasion will conclude with beautiful songs by

Miss Alice Vane.

Parquette                                                                                  75 cts.
Gallery                                                                                     50 cts.
Doors open 6¾,                                                      Curtain rises at 7½.       

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, July 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
           
We regret to say that as we go to press on Saturday morning we have no late news, not even a decent, respectable rumor.  No reliable gentleman, intelligent contraband, lady refugee, or gentleman just from the lines, has made his appearance.  The weather is too warm to exert ourself by exercising our invective powers, and the best, simplest and easiest way is to tell our readers the simple truth and that is that there is no news—nary new. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, July 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
           
No Paper on the 4th of July.—The circle of intelligent gentlemen who do us the honor to set type, roll ink and turn wheels for us, are intensely patriotic.  Wherefore, they notify us that "nary lick" of work will they do for us on next Monday.  Therefore, our patrons need expect no paper on that day.
           
We appreciate the loyalty and patriotism of the aforesaid type-stickers, pressmen, &c., and will not insist on their working on that glorious day, and as these qualities, so commendable, are often exhilarating and exciting, we beg the provost guard and police to overlook any demonstrations or eccentricities which burns in the breast of every "loile" man.  It will not be the effects of liquor.  Not a man or boy of them drinks.  They never touch a drop.—Lay a drop down before one of them and he would barely look at it.  A drop or ten drops would be untouched.  We have seen them tried. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, July 2, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
           
A writer thus describes an interview with Major Pauline Cushman, the great lion of the present time:  Miss Cushman is a lady of magnificent physique; tall, commanding and graceful.  Possessed of one of those calm, self asserting faces, which is masculine without surpassing an actual femininity; with thin, determined lips, and pleasant eyes, she in no wise disappoints the observer who may have formed an ideal conception of appearance from the suggestive events of her singular career.  In conversation she is slow and exact and almost sententious in her method of expression.  All this is somewhat surprising, when we remember the apparently inflexible nature of that rule, established by experience, which teaches us that to be notable and highminded is equivalent to being execrably homely and shockingly awkward.  Homeliness and eminence are the gemini that walk the world hand in hand.  The "Major," having retired from the military service, is about adopting the profession on which she relied to the outbreak of the rebellion—that of the stage. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, July 2, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
Theatre.—Last night but one of the season.  To-night is set apart for the benefit of the sprightly actress Miss M. Thompson, and deserving actor Mr. E. Thompson.  The play is Romeo and Juliet, with Miss Thompson as Romeo, and Mrs. Graham as Juliet.  This bill, with the fact of its being a benefit night, ought to draw like a poor man's plaster, and fill the house. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, August 13, 1864, p. 1, c. 1-2

The Selfishness of Slave-holders.

            In the Telegraph, published in Hempstead county, in this State, and which is, we believe, the only rebel paper now published in Arkansas, we find the following advertisement:
           
"Wanted to Hire 1,000 Negro Women!—At the Manufacturing Quartermaster's Department, Gilmer, Upshur county, Texas.  I want 1,000 negro women to spin and weave cloth for the army.  Twenty dollars per month and rations will be paid.
                                               
                                    J. D. Thomas, Major,
                                               
                                    and Manufacturing Q. M. D. A.
           
Gilmer, Texas, June 1st, 1864. 

            Wanted to Hire.—I want to hire one hundred and fifty able bodied negro men for teamsters, for which I will pay thirty dollars per month.  Capt. R. O. Boggess, A. Q. M. at Washington, will make all necessary arrangements with parties in that vicinity.
                                               
                                    Isaac Brinker, Major
                                               
                                    and Chief Q. M. D. A.
           
June 21st, 1861. 

            The Texas papers contain similar advertisements.  It will be seen that these are dated over two months ago.  Added to the slaves in Texas at the breaking out of the rebellion, those taken there from Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana and other States, even as far as Kentucky, and we may safely estimate that there are one half a million negroes in Texas.  We have seen the estimate as high as a million.  Every town and village is crowded with them.  Some are out on farms, but the want of farming implements and the unsettled state of the country is such that their owners have not put them to work.  Keeping these facts in view, and reading the advertisements alone, we may be able to form some idea of the intense selfishness of slave-holders.  It shows that they are pursuing the same suicidal course they pursued all through this war.
           
Herein, we believe, will be found the secret of their failure.  To this, more than to anything else, they may assign their want of success.  It is not Lovell, or Johnson, or Pemberton;--it is not the want of skill or bravery, for it is no discredit to the Union army to say they have met foemen worthy of their steel;--but it was the avarice of the rich men of the South that made them lose.  More than that, it made them deserve to lose.
           
It illustrates another thing of which northern people are unaware.  A great many people at the North have an idea that slaveholders whip their negroes three times a day; that they half starve them, chain them at night and put them under lock and key.  A slave, they suppose, speaks with bated breath, lives in constant fear and dares hardly lift his eyes to his master's face.  On the contrary the great error is that they are pampered and petted.  On sugar plantations and some cotton ones the labor may be severe and continuous, but the generality of negroes had an easy time of it.  Masters and mistresses thought more of a negro than of a poor white man, and would let the latter suffer rather than a negro should miss a meal.  This is strong language, but it is true in detail and in gross.  So many instances have come under our observation that we cannot deny the fact.
           
The Confederacy conscripted white men.  It took all between certain ages.  It tried to conscript a certain per centage of slaves and the planters raised such an outcry that it was abandoned.  In South Carolina, the legislature enacted a law requiring a certain number of negroes to be sent to work on fortifications, but the law fell dead, so strong was the resistance to it.  They took every poor white man and made him dig and fight for thirteen dollars a month, but refused to let their negroes go for thirty dollars a month.  Here, when hospital nurses were needed, their owners refused to send them, for fear the negroes would get sick and because they said the negroes could earn them more than a dollar a day.  White men were ruthlessly dragged from their homes to perform these duties.  If they got sick or died, it was a loss to his wife and children, but if a negro died, it was a thousand or fifteen hundred dollars out of the owner's pocket.
           
The rebels were pressed for want of men.—Their armies were driven back, because they said the Union forces were too strong in point of numbers.  The thousands of teamsters in their army; the sappers, miners, and camp employees might have had their places supplied with negroes, but slave owners would not risk their property.  Read the advertisement of Quartermaster Brinker, offering thirty dollars a month for negro men as teamsters, and then remember that white men are forcibly conscripted and paid less than half that sum.  The family of the negro is provided for, while the family of the poor white man is left unprovided, and the rich man of the vicinity will make them pay from three to eight dollars for a bushel of meal.
           
Northern people can hardly understand the strange infatuation of slaveholders and the sacrifices they made for their negroes.  When the Confederate soldiers were fighting for them barefooted in the snow, slaveholders were buying leather and shoes for their negroes.  When the soldiers were hungry, the rich men kept corn and bacon locked up on which to feed their slaves.  Nor was this all.  The wives and daughters of these men could not seem to realize there was a war.  Carriages rolled about with a servant to drive, who might have been at work.  House servants, nurses and waiting-maids idled about the houses, while their mistresses strummed their pianoes or giggled in parlors, instead of learning to spin and weave.  They were excessively afraid their menials would be deprived of some comfort, but had no thought for the poor wife and children, whose husband and father was in the army.
           
People from Dixie tell us that it is so even yet.  Planters will spend money and time to get clothing and food for their negroes, even when the soldier is deprived of them, while the negro will run away from home at the first opportunity and the soldier is fighting for that same negro property.
           
The slaveholders of the South had an abiding faith in the potency of King Cotton, in intervention and the speedy closing of the war.  They reasoned themselves into this belief.  They wished it so strongly that they became convinced it would be so.  Then each man studied how to get through the war with the least loss to himself.  If shoes and clothing for his negroes rose in price, he raised the price of his corn and other farm products, to enable him to keep even.  Others might suffer and lose, but he kept the scale poised.  If his son went in the army he went as an officer, or in some department, and if a negro was sent to the army it was to wait on "Master Charles."
           
You can go now within the rebel lines in Arkansas, and find a thousand negro wenches doing nothing except to wait on their mistresses, and who could be sent to Gilmer to weave cloth.  If their owners realized their desperate situation they would send them there, aye, and go themselves to spin and weave.  Instead of this, with a madness that is astonishing, they cherish and pamper the slaves, and day after day, week after week, profess to believe that the rebel cause is just on the point of triumphing.  The most extravagant stories are circulated and believed.  Little Rock has been taken time and again.  Grant is whipped every week day, and twice on Sunday.  Washington city falls once a month.
           
Meanwhile their negroes run away, and their soldiers desert on every possible occasion.  Majors Thomas and Brinker may advertise as long as they please, but no negroes will they get.  The only chance is to conscript poor white women.  If children are left without father or mother to protect them, no matter, so the rights of the slaveholder are left undisturbed.
           
A people so supremely selfish as the great body of slaveholders in the south have shown themselves to be, cannot—ought not—to succeed.  They would ruin any cause.  They have extorted from the poor and from their government until their hands are filled with worthless trash.  They have disgusted the poor white men of their army until they desert whenever they can.  They have crippled their army and their government until it can scarcely move.  A little while longer, and the negroes they sacrificed so much for, to save whom so many white men have died, will leave them to return no more.  It is just and righteous that it should be so.  It is terrible that much of the sorrow and suffering should fall upon those who had no negroes to lose, and who were seduced or forced to fight the battles of the selfish and cowardly.
           
Reading over what we have written, we are free to confess that there is a great deal of agrarianism in it, and something of the spirit which seeks to array the poor against the rich, which cannot be too strongly condemned.  Nevertheless, let it go.  We write of a class, in which, of course, there are many exceptions.  But, as a body, we have told the truth on them.  For ourself, we do not suppose a man is any the worse for being rich.  Indeed, we consider a rich man, if he is honest and liberal, as good as a poor man, and a white man as good as a negro, if the white man behaves himself.  We are afraid we are wedded to this belief, but the intense selfishness of slaveholders in this war has been so marked, so wonderful, so suicidal, that the current chronicler is compelled to notice it as one among the most wonderful phenomena of this stupendous age. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, August 13, 1864, p. 1, c. 2
           
A lieutenant was promenading in full uniform one day, and approached a volunteer on sentry, who challenged him with, "Halt!  who comes there?"  The lieutenant, with contempt in every lineament in his face, expressed his ire with indignant "Aha!"  The sentry's reply, apt and quiet, came.  "Advance, ass, and give the countersign." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, August 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Insults to Loyal Men.

            The Ill-Conditioned Union of this city, professing to be a loyal paper, omits no opportunity to sneer at, defame, vilify and insult the loyal people of Arkansas.  Being rather cowardly and a sneak by nature, the editor dares not openly insult the soldiers, but does it covertly and strikes them over the shoulder of some other person or thing.
           
The latest and foulest of the kind in that paper is to characterize the Union men of Arkansas as poor and ignorant.  The manner of doing this is as offensive as the matter.  First, weeks and months ago, that paper showed that the Union soldiers from Arkansas were from the non slaveholding counties and were non-slaveholders.  They were called poor men, but in reality, with scarcely an exception, they were owners of farms, of cattle, and well to do in the world.  But the Union calls them poor and ignorant.  It says that African slavery made them so.  It is a foul calumny—a black slander.
           
The body of the people of Arkansas are men of property.  They were farmers with homes, such as Bliss used to try to dispossess them off, or enter out, at the land office.  As to their ignorance, out of every hundred, there were ninety who were better informed and better educated than the man who slanders them in his falsely styled union paper.
           
The people of Arkansas, in point of wealth, in the means of living, were equal to those of other States.  In point of intelligence, of education and general information, they were equal to other western States.  It is an insult to be writing of their poverty and ignorance.  They supported good schools and educated their children.  There were more schools and better ones, two to one, according to the white population among the non-slaveholders than among the slaveholders.
           
In the counties where there were fewest slaves the proportion of newspapers taken and read, by the white population, compared with the slaveholding counties, was three to one.  Take any body of men, gathered together from all parts of the State and take out of it an equal number of slave owners and non-slave owners, and the latter would show an equal if not a superior amount of learning, intelligence and virtue.
           
It is not only a humbug to talk of the ignorance of the poor white men, as farmers are called, but it is a slander and an insult.  They were just as smart, as intelligent and as good as the slaveholders.
           
It is adding injury to insult to say that they were made poor and ignorant by slavery.  They were men who rose superior to any such influences.  They governed themselves, controlled their institutions, maintained their own schools and churches and did all their duties as citizens and patriots.
           
It is high time these slanders were stopped and we hope that loyal men will be no longer insulted under pretence of kicking at the carcass of dead slavery by a woman whipped rebel. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, August 27, 1864, p. 2, c. 6

Female Academy,
Little Rock, Ark.
Under the Charge of the Sisters of Mercy.

            This institution is beautifully situated on the square at the corner of Louisiana and Elizabeth streets.  The buildings are spacious and the grounds extensive.
            The course of studies embrace the English, French, and Italian Languages; History, Geography, Philosophy, including Astronomy and the use of the Globes; Arithmetic, Algebra, Botany, Vocal and Instrumental Music, Drawing and Painting, and all kinds of useful and Ornamental Needle-work.
            The scholastic year, which commences on the first Monday in September, is divided into two sessions of five months each.

Terms:

Board and Tuition, per session of five months                                                $85 00
Washing                                                                                                         10 00
Physician's fee                                                                                                   5 00

Day Pupils Per Session.

First Class                                                                                                    $22 00
Second Class                                                                                                 20 00
Third Class                                                                                                     18 00
Fourth Class                                                                                                   16 00
Fifth Class                                                                                                      14 00

Extras.

Instrumental Music, three lessons each week                                                    $25 00
Vocal Music, two lessons each week                                                                 15 00
Drawing                                                                                                            12 00
Grecian and water color painting                                                                        15 00
Guitar lessons                                                                                                    15 00

Observations.

            Payments to be made semi-annually in advance.  No deduction will be made if any pupil leave before her session shall have terminated, except in case of sickness.  To prevent interruption in the classes, visits will be limited to Saturdays, and made to the Pupils, only by Parents or Guardians, or persons authorized by them.
            The Annual Vacation will commence the 1st of July and terminate the first Monday in September.
            Young Ladies wishing to take private lessons in Music, Painting and Drawing, will be charged $3 in addition to the terms of regular Pupils.
            All communications addressed to the Mother Superior, Convent of Mercy, Little Rock, Arkansas.
            August 27, 1864.

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, November 12, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

The Concert at the State House.

            It has been arranged that the Concert to be given by the Band of the First Brigade of Gen. Saloman's Division, will be on Monday evening in the Senate Chambers, kindly tendered by the State authorities for that purpose.  The programme, which we publish below, exhibits gems from the greatest composers, and we may confidently anticipate a rich musical treat, such as, perhaps, has never been given in Arkansas:

Instrumental and Vocal Concert,
Senate Chamber—State House.
Little Rock, Arks.,
Monday, November 14, 1864.
Part I.

First Brigade Quick Step                                                                   Hemstedt.
Varsovienna                                                                                      Polacerski.
Duett, Vocal                                                                                     Mendelsohn.
Fantasia, Piano                                                                                 Gottschalk.
Potpourri, "Lucretia Borgia,"                                                              Domizetti
Song                                                                                                 A Lady.
Misereri, "Trovatora,"                                                                        Verdi.
Cottage by the Sea                                                                            Ballad.
Potpourri, National Airs.

Part II.

Grand March, "Armorer."
Chorus                                                                                     9th Wisconsin Sangerbund.
Song                                                                                                    A Lady.
Duett, Vocal.
Image of the Rose                                                                                Mozart.
Home, Sweet Home, Piano                                                                  Strakosch.
Anvil Chorus, Trovatore                                                                       Verdi.
           
The Concert will commence at 7 o'clock.
           
Tickets $1.00 each.
                       
            Col. Wm. Thompson, 1st Iowa Cav.,
                       
            Dr. H. M. Starkloff,
                       
            Dr. E. A. Clark,
                       
            Maj. C. J. Scannon, A. D. C.
                       
            Capt. C. H. Dyer, A. A. G.
                       
            Capt. A. E. Smith, C. S.,                   
                                               
                        Committee. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, November 12, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
           
Leslie's Magazine.—Blelock & Co. have this magazine for November.  If any of our lady readers have ever seen it, the mere announcement of its being for sale will be enough to prompt them to send for a copy.  Those who have never seen it should send and get a number to see how finely they can be got up.  Fashion plates till you can't rest—colored and uncolored—pictures of such loves of bonnets—such ducks of mantillas—such sweet caps!  No, you never.
           
Harper's, Atlantic, Godey's, Leslie's and Ballou's Magazines for November, are for sale at Blelock's.  They have some new novels by popular authors.  Go see them. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, November 19, 1864, p. 1, c. 5
           
A Raid by Rebel Women.—We are reliably informed that after the capture of Glasgow by Gen. Clark's rebel forces, about five hundred women from the surrounding country entered the town and plundered a number of the dry goods stores.  They helped themselves freely to hoop skirts, bonnets, shawls, ribbons, laces, &c., each one carrying off a load of plunder.  These female guerillas were as keen on the scent of calico and domestic as a hound after a fox.  They laid in their winter supplies, and dry goods are consequently not much in demand in the country back of Glasgow.  The rebel soldiers held the town while these squaws were engaged in their work of plunder, and made no effort to prevent it. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, November 19, 1864, p. 3, c. 4

The Dignity of Labor in the South.

            The New Orleans Times, which, by the way, is one of the most ably edited and high toned papers in the West, in the issue of October 25th, has an article with the above title, which we will transfer to our columns as soon as we can make room for it.  We desire to add our testimony to that of the New Orleans editor who says:  "No where is the toiler more respected than in the South."  This was one of the evils attributed to slavery, to-wit, that labor at the South was degraded by it.  This error was industriously and persistently circulated at the North, and it was true only of one kind of menial employment.  That was personal servitude.  "Gentleman's gentlemen" in the South were invariably black.  Outside of large cities a white valet, or body servant, was rarely to be seen.  No white man at the South would black the boots of another, or hire to him as a body servant.  That was considered beneath them.  But the consideration arose not from any belief that any kind of labor was degrading, but a belief that such service brought out the relation of master and servant too strongly for a white man to submit to.  It was, in fact, because labor was dignified at the South, that white men shunned those personal relations of inferiority.
           
We have lived in what are called the border States, where there were both large and small slaveholders, and in communities where there were many or few slaves.  In none of those owner of a few slaves often worked with them was white labor considered degrading [sic?].  The [sic] in the field, day after day, and except that the black man ate after the white man had eaten, the same dinner served for both.  But there was no degradation in this, or want of dignity.  The man who thus labored in the field with his hands, was considered the peer and equal of any other honest man.  The non-slaveholder who cultivated his farm filled as exalted a position in the South as any where else.  That the rich, aristocratic planter scorned him, or held him beneath him, was not generally true.  Indeed, at least one-half the slave owners began as poor men, either without slaves or with one or two.  Those who inherited slaves and plantations were, as a class, singularly free from that transatlantic aristocracy of caste that had separate tables for the laborer and his employer.
           
Our experience in this matter, and it agrees with others with whom we have conversed, is that the few who pretended to sneer at the white laborer, were those who came South and by marriage, or purchase, acquired property.  these put on airs, but they would have done so, had the property been of any other kind.
           
At the North, the generality of farmers sit down to the table with their hired hands and treat them as equals, but there are some, quite wealthy, who would not do this.  In the South, if a white man, mechanic, laborer, or trader, was in the house at meal time he was invited to the table.  If he was not, or if he was kept waiting for a second table, it was always deemed a personal insult, and sufficient to condemn any man in the estimation of the community.
           
There is in mankind, everywhere, a sort of obeisance paid to wealth.  It is a lamentable fact, that mankind will feed the fat calf, and make way for a rich man in preference to a poor one.  But even this spirit was not so observant at the South as elsewhere.  There was something in the very color of which a man was proud.  He looked upon the negro as of a class below him, and felt a consciousness of superiority.  There was another, and stronger reason for the dignity of white labor at the South.  It was the cheapness of land, and the custom of squatting.  A man could erect a log cabin, and his neighbors would help him do this; enclose a field, and have a home of his own.  At the proper time he would enter the land, and he became a landed proprietor.  No white man was really dependent on another.  A home and farm was within the reach of every man.  Custom aided in this.  In the older States, carpets on the floors, a parlor, painted houses, and certain comforts were considered indispensable.—Here it was not so.  Men worth thousands, lived in a double log cabin; lived and died without ever walking upon a carpeted floor, and never even whitewashed their dwellings.  Yet they lived well; had cribs full of corn; smoke-houses full of meat; yards full of poultry; pens full of cows; and fields, or rather the woods, full of hogs and horses.  It required very little to furnish a house, and the land lay open to the settler.
           
When a farmer's son married a farmer's daughter, they soon "set up for themselves."  The parents on either side would give their children a negro or two.  Generally a girl raised with the bride went with her young mistress, and a black boy who had been the playmate of the young husband, went off with "young master."  A clearing in the woods, a log cabin; a little help from the old folks, and, in a year or two the young couple had a farm and two or three more negroes.  It required industry, work, labor, toil, but so far from these being considered degrading, such men were everywhere considered the equals of any.  Even when the farmer did not own a slave, he was ranked with the best.
           
Aristocracy exists every where.  Where it is not of birth, it is of wealth.  Society will resolve itself into castes.  At the South there were two grades, and subdivisions of the whites were not permitted.  Indeed, it was a marked feature of southern manners that all white men were equal, and he would have been a bold man indeed who would have attempted to draw a line.
           
We have seen more of this mushroom aristocracy; more of these disgusting airs, and attempts to sneer at poor men, among shopkeepers, styled merchants by courtesy, and their wives, in one week, than we have seen among planters in all our lives.  Some fellow who had made money by measuring tape or molasses, or selling whisky by the small, would build him a fine house and get a carriage.  It was these men who attempted to draw lines.  Their wives, some schoolmarm or half bred girl—often a "promoted chambermaid," would stick up their noses and talk of society.
           
There is one thing about labor in the South that just now is not understood by those who are strangers among us.  It illustrates something that we have been trying to describe.  It is the apparent destitution and helplessness of the refugees.  Nine out of every ten of them had homes, farms, cattle, hogs, sheep and plenty around them.  Taken from them, they are utterly lost.  A northern man in their situation would hire out, turn his hand to something else and adapt himself to the changed circumstances.  But the southern man has always been, to a great degree, independent.  When a young man he may have worked out, but this was not often the case.  He has, all his life been his own master and when he chose, went hunting; raised his crop of corn, had his hogs and cattle and was untrammeled.  Taken away from these he is out of his element.  He is a landsman at sea—a sailor on shore.  It is as if an artist was set down among farmers to make his living by ploughing.
           
These poor men of the South were not vain but proud.  If the richest man in the State had called one a liar the rich man would have got a thrashing or at least a blow.  They knew their power at the ballot box, as the bone and sinew of the country.  There was a manly independence about them seen in no other country.  The four years of war have told fearfully on this class.  They are in the armies or driven from their homes—from the soil they owned and on which they stood in all the dignity of free men. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, November 19, 1864, p. 3, c. 6
                                               
                                    Refugee Committee Rooms,
                                               
                                    Little Rock, Ark., Nov. 18, 1864.
To Hon. Isaac Murphy,
                       
Governor of Arkansas:
           
The undersigned desire to present the following as a part of their operations from the 1st of July to the 31st of October, inclusive.
           
Holding our appointment from you, it is the wish of the committee that yourself, and those who sustain us, shall be informed of our labors.
           
Maj. Gen. Steele set apart one thousand dollars per month, for our use in aiding the sick and distressed—the widow and the orphan.
           
The committee acknowledges the receipt of various small amounts of money, contributed to them by strangers in the State of Ohio; but two of our own citizens have thought it proper to give aid to our own suffering people.  The committee cannot do less than call upon all who have clothing or money to spare to given them aid at once.  To think that we have but two "cheerful givers" amongst us, is discouraging to the cause.  Meador & Huyck kindly gave us, without asking, over fifty dollars.  This gave bread to many hungry women and children.  Let this liberality be imitated by others.
           
The winter is now upon us, and we are not prepared to meet the constant and pressing calls made upon us for relief.  We must have more help, or great want and suffering will be the result.
           
The following is a condensed statement of our work.  We have issued rations to two thousand five hundred and thirty-seven persons; have procured transportation to Cairo, St. Louis, &c., for thirteen hundred and eighteen persons, furnishing them with rations for the trip.  For a large number we have found employment and homes, many have died, leaving to be supplied this day, six hundred and sixty-eight who draw their daily supplies.
           
The ladies of the "Orphans' Aid Society," gave the committee a quantity of shoes, domestics, calicoes, &c.  These have been distributed by us.  Schools have been kept amongst them, and well conducted at the "Refugee Camps."  An orphan home is provided, and in successful operation.  Divine service is regularly and profitably held amongst them.  We have a regular supply of medicines, and a skillful person to administer to those who need his service.
           
The committee cannot close this report in justice to themselves, or those who sustain them, without mentioning the zeal you have shown in the cause of suffering humanity.  To Lieut. Col. J. L. Chandler, Provost Marshal Genl., and Capt. DeKay, Post Provost Marshal, we are under obligations for the promptness with which we receive our means.  Were it not for the wise provision made by the Commanding General, for the relief of those in distress; and the prompt aid we receive from those gentlemen named, the suffering among us would be alarming in its results, and sad to contemplate.
           
In conclusion, the committee would add that since the date of the statements, herein included, the number of persons applying for relief, is very much on the increase.
           
The committee will say for themselves, that about one fourth of all their time is taken in looking after, and in providing for the wants of this unfortunate class of people.  Our time is given freely.  Will our fellow-citizens look on and do nothing for our own suffering poor?  Will they look alone to strangers for aid, and fold their own arms in apathy and neglect, when hunger, nakedness, disease and death are amongst us?     
                       
                        Very respectfully, your ob't serv't,
                                               
                                    John Wassell,
                                               
                                    Pres't "Arkansas Relief Com." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, November 19, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
           
The Concert.—Notwithstanding the lowering aspect of the weather last night, the concert at the State House was largely attended.  The Representative Hall was filled to overflowing, and the beauty and fashion of the city, in the persons of handsome women, were well represented.
           
The concert was a pleasing and brilliant success.  The band has few equals anywhere.  The most intricate and delicate pieces of music were played with ease and grace and received the plaudits of those competent to judge.
           
The favorite was Miss Vance, whose singing was pronounced, by connoisseurs, to be nearly perfect.  We are not "cognoscenii" enough to express an artistic opinion, but we know the song was delicately sung, the voice clear and melodious, and the effect pleasing and brilliant.
           
We express the wish of those who were there in hoping that the Concert may be repeated, so that those who were prevented from attending last night, may have an opportunity to enjoy the rich treat.
           
In this case the management must give us a few more songs and familiar airs to please those whose musical education is not so far advanced so to enable them to understand the more difficult pieces. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 10, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
           
Fun Ahead.—The Steropticon which was to have arriv [sic] have arroven [sic], and will be exhibited next week.  The new Theatre opens next week also, and there is every prospect for fun during Christmas times.
           
Now, if they bring on some toys for the children, and Santa Claus gets here, we will have a merry time. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 10, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
           
Hard on the Children.—We are told that there are any number of boxes of toys, goodies, and Christmas tricks on the way here, or at the other end of the rail road, the owners of which are afraid they will be unable to get them here in time for Christmas.  The little ones are in suspense, for it is understood Santa Claus, saint as he is, has to come under the rule, and get permits like any other man.  Still we are in hopes the toys, etc., will come over in time. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 10, 1864, p. 4, c. 4

Look Out For
Edwards'
Great War Exhibition.
The Largest and Finest Stereopticon in
the United States.

Showing incidents of the American Rebellion, Lifelike Representations, Faithful Delineations and Masterly Executions of Art, Horrors of the Battle-Field, Correct Camp Scenes, Fearful Destruction of Life, Rebel Fortifications, Ghastly Appearance of the Dead Before Burial, etc., etc., etc., that cannot be imagined or described, but must be seen to be realized.  Together with views of all the prominent battles of the War, including Bull run, Gettysburg, Fair Oaks; Antietam, Savage Station, Lookout Mountain, the Siege of Vicksburg, Shiloh, Belmont and many others too numerous to mention.  These incidents were all taken upon the battle-fields, and are consequently correct representations.
           
Also a great variety of Comic, beautiful, amusing and interesting Stereoscopic French Views.
           
Also, will be exhibited the great

Japanese Cobra or
Jungle Serpent.

            The only one in America, together with a variety of other animals.
           
The above exhibition, now showing at Devall's Bluff, will exhibit in Little Rock, en route for New Orleans, in a few days, for a short time only.
           
November 21, 1864.

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 17, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
           
New Theatre.—This establishment opens to-night with an attractive bill.  Songs, dances and pantomimes will be presented and the lovers of fun and broad humor will have a chance to laugh without stint.
           
The building is large and capable of seating several hundred persons.  The troupe of performers was selected by the manager from the eastern cities and embraces some of the most popular performers in the country.  Of course, there will be a crowded house and a gay and festive time. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 17, 1864, p. 3, c. 1
           
The Ball Last Night.—An impromptu ball and supper, as a testimonial of respect to Gen. Steele, was gotten up yesterday by our leading citizens.  Through the tickets were not printed till late in the forenoon, or distributed till the afternoon, there were full rooms at the Anthony House, and Arkansas'
                       
                        "Capital had gathered then
                       
            Her beauty and her chivalry, and bright
                       
            The lamps shone o'er fair women and brave men."
           
Dancing began about 9 o'clock and was kept up until the small hours.  Hatch & Stevens, the proprietors of the Anthony House, spread themselves on the tables, in other words, surpassed themselves in spreading all the varieties and delicacies to be found, on their tables.  It was a feast combining all the substantials and all the fancy concomitants.  There was also, plenty of what Mr. Swiviller calls "the rosy" and "the sparkling."  Everybody had a delightful time and went home to "lay down to pleasant dreams."
           
We were glad to see this affair come off as it did, for one reason among others.  Grumblers and sore heads have accused every man or woman who paid respect to Gen. Steele, of being motivated by sinister motives and of fawning to power to gain favors.  On the eve of his departure, when, in a few short hours, he will cease to command here, no such motives can be attributed to those who pay him honor.  It was a mark of respect to the gentleman and a party was a pleasant way of testifying it. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 17, 1864, p. 3, c. 5

Mourning.

            The fashions of mourning the dead have been and are as various as the methods of putting them away from among the living.  The old Romans bottled their tears and put them into the tombs of the deceased, the Greeks mourned the departed in white, the Egyptians in yellow.  In ancient Jewery the relatives of the dead tore their gabardines and poured ashes on their caputs, and we believ that strict Hebrews do the same now.  Vermillion is the mourning tint of the Chinese, and the Turkish women grieve for their lords in blue.  It is only in the most enlightened lands that black is worn in memory of those who are supposed to have passed to a brighter world.
           
We modern christians are artist in our grief.  We have made affliction, for one sex at least, a sort of telegraphic system, with appropriate symbols for all the stages of anguish.  Our ladies mark with admirable precision the shades and gradations of their grief for the departed.  They may be said to have reduced mourning to an exact science—to have brought to absolute perfection the heraldy of grief.
           
The sorrow stores, where tender remembrances is sold by the yard, do an immense business.  The death fashions change quarterly, like the ordinary modes, and the disconsolate spends hours together in gazing through their tears at the latest "sweet things" in the diminuendo department of "the trappings and the suits of woe."  Far be it from us to say that fashionable mourning does not serve to keep the memory of the loved and lost green in the souls of fashionable widows; but the question occurs, why should their sorrows, if deep and genuine, need keeping alive with emblems?  Why is it not permitted to go out by little and little in a quiet way, without the hoisting of a new flag every month or so to indicate the state of the lachrymal thermometer?  Can it be that the sumptuous changes which mark the gradual transitions from a chrysaloid state of black and black to full blown butterflyhood, are intended as hints that widowhood on the wing is social and desires companionship?  We have noticed that good-looking widows are almost invariably dressed with great care.  Their attire is fitted to their shapes with a nicety that the unafflicted cannot rival, and their drapery has a flowing grace about it that is rarely seen in the robes of gay and volatile maidens whose happiness has known no cloud.  We mention these phenomena without attempting to explain them.  They are beyond our philosophy.                               [Round Table. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 1, c. 2
           
Opening of the Varieties Theatre.—The work on the building on the corner of Main and Walnut streets, was sufficiently advanced to enable the proprietors to open their theatre on Saturday night.  Other improvements are to be made hereafter as regards an orchestra, ceiling and other matters.  On Saturday evening the establishment was crammed chock full, over a thousand persons being present, a good proportion of them being ladies.  The drop curtain, painted by Noxon, of St. Louis, and representing a steamboat race on the Mississippi, is really a fine work of art.  The scenery, painted by Mr. Ghie, is very natural, and does him great credit.
           
After an overture by the orchestra, an opening address written for the occasion by A. Brick, esq., was recited by Mr. F. Raymond, who is a fine reader and delivered the address with spirit.  We have been furnished with a copy of the address as originally written.  Mr. Raymond judiciously omitted the part of it, so written, which refers to the leopard changing his spots and the Ethiopian his skin, as being too broad for the ladies present.  The address was well received.  Then followed negro minstrelsy, dancing, wire walking, singing, gymnastic feats, and an extravaganza entitled "Troublesome Servants."  The whole wound up with a pantomime in which Mr. Donaldson performed the part of a Brazilian ape, in a manner at once natural and grotesque.
           
The company was selected at the North, and embraces some of the most noted and skillful performers in the country.  The object is to give a variety,--a series of entertainments embracing all kinds of humor and pathos, gracefulness, melody and wit.  The lover of broad fun will be suited in the songs, dances and jokes of the negro minstrels.  The lovers of grace will be pleased with the dancing and poses of the little Olive, and the classic posturing of Donaldson and son.
           
The proprietors have been at considerable pains and expense to furnish amusements and promise to present a variety, with a constant succession of novelties, and to avoid everything that will offend, while catering to the tastes of those who enjoy a hearty laugh.
           
We suggest to the manager that better ventilation must be provided, for a thousand people crowded together, with but two or three doors and open windows to admit fresh air renders them uncomfortable, besides being unhealthy.
           
The opening night was a decided success, for the performances were well received by a large audience both female and male,--soldiers and citizens.  Everything passed off happily and the managers are to be congratulated on the success of their enterprise thus far. 

Address
At the Opening of the Varieties' Theatre, written for
the occasion, by
A. Brick, Esq.
Delivered, Saturday, December 17, 1864. 

Though the world groweth old, and the night-stars at last,
that shall rise in the future, shall set in the past;
Though the earth's in commotion, and near, and afar,
There peals on the ear the dread tumult of war;
Still the light lingers yet on the eyes that are dear,
And sweet forms, that we love, yet remain with us here;
Bright wine is yet red,--the stars are still bright,--
And mirth, fun, and frolic, are with us to-night,
For pleasure still reigns,--and though man may decry it, he
Still seasons his life with the spice of variety! 

Since man was created—since woman was made,--
(That the latter don't stay so is truth I'm afraid,)
I mean, since the race of mankind was begun,
Both children and adults were seekers of fun,
With smiles for the future, though tears for the past,
And joy in the hours that steal from us so fast;--
For the gravest of all, if the truth be confest,
Are pleased with a joke and enjoy a good jest;--
And a laugh in its season is surely no sin;
There's no felony found in a smile or a grin;
The decorum that pleases is tiresome in chief,
So we novelties seek to find in them relief;
And the virtuous pleasures run into satiety,
So mankind, everywhere, still seek for variety. 

All Nature is but a huge merry go-round,
Where changes and novelties always are found;--
Philosophers tell us, since earth was begun,
It has constantly ran a big race round the sun!
So the moon round the earth,--And the stars in the sky
Are constantly waltzing in grand style, on high!
change is written on all things, at all times and places;
There are not two things alike,--not even two faces,--
So look where we will, however we try it, we
Finds Nature spreads out an infinite variety. 

"Stop, stop," says the critic, "firmly fixed are our lots;
Pray, tell me—the leopard, can he change his spots?
If that question to puzzle you does not begin,--
The Ethiopian there, can he change his skin?
I answer:  "The leopard without any bother
If he does not like one spot can go to another!
And the darkey can swop off his very black wife
And a "yaller gal" take to cheer his dark life!
For he wearies of sameness,--of course then, to try it, he
Changes his girl for the sake of variety!" 

As for your entertainment we labor and care,
I'll run over some dishes in our bill of fare:--
We offer wire-walking that will keep your eyes busy
To follow the motions of graceful Miss Lizzie;
With songs that will almost draw gold from a miser,
Who might well change his gold for notes of Freeberthyser!
Then acting so clever, and humor so hearty,
Will be shown by the pretty Miss Jennie Macarthy!
And fairy-like dancing,--'t would please the elite,
By the infant sylphide, Miss Olive la petite!
So much for the ladies.  Your eyes cast our bills on,
And you find the known name of the comic Frank Wilson,
Who would laughter create even under death's ribs;--
Then there's that son of Momus, the famous Clark Gibbs,
Who sings in all styles,--tenor, bass and soprano,
While musical Wallace plays on the piano!
In musical currency we offer fine gold
In the violin player, Frederick Rinebold!
Who shows how the powers of a fiddle may far go,
And whose skill's not excelled,--not even by Arlow!
Then stage manager Donaldson, of gymnastic the primest,
Man monkey, and actor, and queer pantomimist!
Last, but not least, in himself quite a fancy show,
We present to your notice the wonderful Angelo,
Whose feats are so wondrous, so graceful and rare,
That the ladies all style him "The Child of the Air"!
In the list I have sketched, I may say with sobriety,
There is talent, and skill, and a pleasing variety! 

We must not pass the managers by, Sirs, Oh!  No!—
Well, first there is Marshall, who is not a provost!
Who thinks in amusement and fun there's no sin;--
Who will not take you up, but who may take you in,--
Though, once in, you will find quite a pleasant society—
Who will all do their best to furnish variety
And then there's another, for we have too bosses,--
An ex-circus man, who is "heavy on horses,"
And in St. Louis lately, his feelings were hurt
At the Lindell Hotel, where they stole his clean shirt!
His efforts to please you, I'm sure you will like,
For a go-a-head fellow is citizen Huyck;
And who makes, of course, no pretensions to piety,
But loves money and merriment—cash and variety! 

In our new play-house here, it is well we renew,
The patriot vows to our lov'd country due;
And be serious awhile, that to each we may swear,
Our truth to the Union, so precious and rare;
That Union our forefathers gave us, to prove
The strength of their trials,--the depth of their love!
The whole land was theirs, with their blood it was paid for,
the whole thirty-six States, including Nevada;
For each added star then shall make, in its turn,
Our bright constellation with glory to burn;
With their whole mingled light into one halo thrown,
But each planet with fire and a light of its own;
While over them all, and surviving all wars,
Shall float the broad banner of stripes and of stars!
For we will not change that, in no age or society;
And on that one point don't go in for variety. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
           
Varieties Theatre.—Though it blew and blew and blew and friz last night, there was a goodly attendance at this establishment and the lovers of fun enjoyed themselves hugely.  The pantomime of the Skeleton Witness is a rich thing and Master Angelo was a very Puck for mischief.
           
To-night there is entirely a new bill to be presented; new songs, new jokes, new dances and new plays. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
           
The printers claim a holiday though Christmas comes on Sunday, and consequently no paper will be issued on Monday. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
           
In the notice of the opening of the Varieties Theatre on another page, the name of the artist, appears as Mr. Ghie, instead of Mr. McGhie. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 2, c. 6 – p. 3, c. 1

Our State.

            We find the following morceau in the Chicago Post:
           
"Up to the 20th, the Arkansas legislature had no quorum.  The beauty of that State is every man in there is a law, if not a whole gospel unto himself, and the mizzling of the legislature, (the word "mizzling" is used in an Addisonian not a Pickwickian sense), may create despair in Little Rock.  Suicide, saleraturs or sobriety, however, would be absurd at any time in Arkansas, the most laissez faire in or out of Christendom.  This reminds you of "a little story" about a man who came to Napoleon, not of France, but in Desha county, of the State, whose motto used to be regnant populi.  Exactly!  but you haven't time to listen to it just now."
           
After the reader shall have recovered from the paroxysm of laughter which so wit must inevitably occasion, we beg his attention to a few facts.
           
Arkansas, thirty years ago, being on the extreme frontier, was, like all frontier countries, the refuge of bad men driven from the older States.  So, many years ago, was Illinois, and later, so was Texas.  So is Arizona and so, with a few years past, was California.  The pioneers were rough, hardy and, the most of them, were uneducated.  Scenes of violence were common and there was a disregard of life and of law that made it anything but a desirable residence for a timid or order loving man.  In those days our State got a name abroad that has clung to it ever since, though the times and the people changed so that, as regarded violence and crime, our people would compare favorably, even with those of the land of steady habits.
           
For the ten years preceding the rebellion the progress of Arkansas was most remarkable.—Crime and vice were as infrequent as in other States, and we will not except any.  In one judicial circuit, which embraced seven counties, there was but one murder in five years.  Or rather, the judge who presided on the circuit, refers to his note-book and gives us the following as the crimes amounting to felonies in four years and ten months, in seven populous counties.  Murder, one; assault with intent to kill, five; adultery, one; larceny, other than horse stealing, four; horse-stealing, seven.  These were all, and a variety of crimes common in other places were not on the calendar.  These cases of horse-stealing were all committed by persons from other States except in two instances.  No crimes were permitted to go unwhipt of justice and none were committed that were not inquired into by intelligent and responsible grand juries.  This circuit was a fair specimen of the whole seven, except, perhaps the one that embraced Napoleon, at the mouth of the river.
           
One reason of this immunity from crime during the period was, strange as it may seem, the prevalence of crime in the earlier years of the State.  For, when the work of regeneration commenced and the better citizens determined to rid themselves of the bad ones, they formed vigilance committees and united to punish crime summarily.  The desperate were killed; the vicious driven off, and the country purged.  When the vigilance committees were dissolved and courts established, each citizen made it a point to arrest any wrong doer, confident of being sustained.  When a crime was committed there was no need for the sheriff to summon a posse, for the people, in most instances, would pursue and capture the offender and deliver him to the officer, while the latter was waiting for a writ.
           
Thefts were uncommon, because there was no necessity to steal.  Food was so cheap that none begrudged it, and a wayfarer might remain for weeks at a farm-house without being ordered away.  Land was cheap; log houses were easily put up, the neighbors assisting, and any man of energy could make a home.
           
The idea of Arkansas, abroad, was associated with that of bowie knives and pistols, and a journey through our State, prior to the war, by a northerner, was undertaken with such misgivings as one would feel now in traversing a guerrilla infested district.  In the older States an Arkansian without a bowie knife would have been as strange as an Irishman without his shillaleh, a German without his pipe, or Yankee pedler without clocks.  Yet, men have lived a score of years in Arkansas who never carried a weapon, or saw one used to destroy human life.  some of our citizens who have visited the North, found quite a drawback on the pleasures of traveling, in the unaccustomed scenes of violence they met with.  Within the past week we have conversed with two or three persons who spent part of the summer in Chicago, and who saw more crime there during their brief visit, than they had seen in Arkansas in all their lives.  If a tithe of the reports in the papers of that city be true, there is more vice and immorality there in a month than there was in our whole State in a year.
           
While the morals and manners of the people were thus good, as a matter of course education and religion advanced.  We had good schools, and they were increasing.  We had several colleges, and those at Fayetteville, with St. John's college at this point, would have been creditable to any State.  When the war came it found Arkansas growing more rapidly than any State in the Union.  Within ten years the taxable property of the State had increased from thirty millions to one hundred and sixty millions of dollars; her population had nearly trebled; two railroad lines were partially built and other surveyed; institutions for the education of the blind and for deaf mutes had been established, and Arkansas was rapidly rising in the scale.
           
Public morality was in keeping with all this.  Save the defalcation of Thornton, and the mismanagement, rather than the dishonesty, of bank officers, the public men of the State were honest.  Some three or four sheriffs became defaulters, but their securities only were the sufferers.  Such was the honesty and economy in public affairs that, during the first four years of Governor Conway's administration, the government was carried on at an average annual expense to each individual of less than seventy cents; and in the succeeding four years at less than a dollar.
           
Some few politicians in those days affected to sneer at Arkansas, but this was done for political effect.  She was making steady and rapid progress.  Since the war commenced politicians at home have talked and written of the ignorance of our people.  Of course, there were ignorant people here as elsewhere, but a reference to the census will show that we were not far behind our neighbors.  At least forty per cent of our white population were from the northern and eastern States and, surely, they were educated and all that sort of thing.
           
Such flings as that of the Post and other papers against Arkansas are underserved.  We could tell several little stories relative to the ignorance of northern men with respect to Arkansas.  It was laughable to see men come here from the eastern cities provided with knives and pistols and prepared for desperate encounters.  They seemed disappointed in not witnessing a murder and several fights every day.  Occasionally some runner or bummer or drummer from some commercial house, would come here and finding a quiet, orderly people, would grow bold and put on airs.  Perhaps, in his cups, he would grow saucy and impel some man to pull his nose or kick him.  He might return and tell of the barbarism of Arkansas, but the generality of those who visited us went back with a better and truer opinion of us.
           
This much we have to say to the Post and other witty slanderers of our State:  If it was not for the war, the consequent disagreeabilities, and we wished to select a home on account of the morality, honesty, sobriety and high moral tone of the people, and one where persons and property were most respected, we would infinitely prefer Arkansas to Chicago. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
           
The editor of the Bangor Times called an "Affghan"—which article now figures at all fairs—a "horse-blanket," and excited the indignation of the fair. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
           
A newly arrived London actress has enchanted the New Yorkers.  She made her debut at Mrs. Wood's theatre, dressed as a man disclosing limbs of such marvelous symmetry, that her success was immediate.  In the character she swore and smoked to perfection. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
           
In the southeastern part of Massachusetts there are twelve thousand women employed in the bonnet factories. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
           
The Paris ladies appear disposed to adopt for winter costume very short petticoats, very high boots and plaid stockings.  Many so accoutred may be seen on the Boulevards. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 5
           
Christmas Services at the Episcopal church—At 10½ A.M. and 7 P.M.—S. S. will meet at 3 P.M.
           
The church which has been closed for the past four months is now re-opened for regular services.
           
The interior has been re-painted and is being decorated with evergreen for the Christmas festival. It will accommodate from 300 to 400 persons, and it is desired that all who appreciate the privilege of Christmas worships through a pure comprehensive and Scriptural Liturgy, should feel free to enter and join in the services of Christ Church. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 5
                                               
                                    Head Quarters, 3rd Mo.  Cav.,            }
                                               
                                    Dec. 18th, 1864,                                 }
Mr. Editor—
           
While vast armies east and west, under heroic leaders, accomplish much, and by their majestic tread excite the admiration of the world, even in the department of Arkansas, there are enacted tragedies, and deeds of heroic valor, seldom equaled, never surpassed, and ever to be remembered.
           
And among such acts, doubtless none surpasses in bravery, that of a private of company "C," of this regiment, who, on the 25th of July last, being with his command on a scout, near Benton, spied the notorious rebel general Holt, who in flight attempting to shoot our hero, was by him shot through the body, and made the subject of a death-blow upon the head.
           
That private was Isaac Lucas, to whom Congress awarded a medal, as the merit of true patriotism; which was on Saturday last presented to the person just referred to, in presence of his comrades in arms, by Lieut. Col. John H. Reed, who by his soldierly bearing, indomitable endurance of rebel barbarity in Tyler, Texas, and gentlemanly deportment, has so endeared himself to the men of his command, and who said on the occasion:
           
"Fellow-soldiers—we are assembled to do honor to one of our number, who although, far from Washington, has nevertheless there recorded his name, to be held in everlasting remembrance.  I feel proud to be associated with such a hero, who has long since received the compliments of the Congress of the United States, and who is about to receive a medal awarded by that body.  Let no private soldier then despair of renown, but let us all be "heroes in the strife."
           
To Lucas, he said:  Sir, in the name of the American Congress, I present you with this badge of honor, hoping that you may ever wear it untarnished, and hand it down to your posterity, as an emblem of the discharge of your duty to a grateful country."  There ended one of the few immortal "scenes," which were not born to die."
                                               
                                                James H. Hargis. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 1, c. 2
           
The Military Prison.—We have been in the penitentiary.  Now, don't try to be witty or spiteful, and say we ought to have been there long ago.  The good Lord knows if we all had our deserts we might be in a worse place,--the legislature, for instance.
           
We had heard several statements in relation to the prisoners, and desired to see the inside of the prison, which, by courtesy, we were permitted to do, accompanied by an officer.  The interior is divided by a fence separating the federal from the rebel and citizen prisoners.  The former are in a new building in front of the entrance gate.  This building is arranged with a good deal of judgment, having a hospital, common room, dining room and cook room, in which latter are ranged just put up and where cooking can be better and more economically done.
           
We passed into the yard where the rebels are confined.  There are over a hundred of these there; some twenty or thirty being officers.  The prisoners looked better than we were prepared to see; many of them being ruddy and free from that pallor, that seems inseparable from imprisonment.  Some appeared the worse for wear and had a sallow look, the result of disease contracted in the service.  The hospital for rebel soldiers had but few patients in it.  The building in which the rebels stay, is the former workshop.  We see that sash and glass are being put in, to afford a protection from the wintry winds and a degree of comfort.  A liberal use of whitewash gives the rooms a clean and light look.  There were no prisoners in the cells, that we saw, they being reserved for refractory or dangerous characters.  The room of the rebel officers struck as being less clean than the rooms set apart for the privates.
           
In one place we were shown where the prisoners had attempted to tunnel out, by digging a hole underground from the interior of the building, so as to come out under the wall on the outside.  This attempt was discovered and frustrated.  Another attempt was made to get on the roof of the main building and, by throwing a rope, with a hook attached to the top of the wall, to escape in that way.  Other attempts were made, evincing daring and ingenuity, but were foiled by watchfulness.  We were shown a rope ladder, made from old matting, with sticks for steps, and an iron hook on the end, to catch on the top of the wall to aid escape.  Since the prison was used by the authorities as a military prison the escapes have been very few, and the deaths below the usual proportion of deaths in military prisons.
           
We noticed a great many improvements both outside and inside the walls.  Cleanliness, order and discipline are preserved in the interior and a reasonable degree of comfort.  Of course a prison is not a first class hotel and luxuries are not to be expected, but were no evidences of cruelty or harshness for the sake of harshness.
           
The whole arrangement as regards safety, order and discipline, reflects much credit on the superintendent, Capt. J. L. Hodges, and upon Sergeant Myers, who manages the details.  The hospitals are well conducted and are under the charge of Dr. M. B. Greeley, of the 3rd Michigan, and Dr. E. W. Mills, U. S. Vols. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 1, c. 2
           
Quarter-Master's Hospital.—There are about 2,000 men employed in the Quarter-Master's department here, principally by Capts. Haskell and Pratt.  There is a separate hospital for these, situated on Markham street, below the steamboat landing.  The officers are Surgeon W. A. Cantrell; Hospital Steward, Dr. R. W. Flower; Druggist, Dr. J. W. Brand; Ward-Master, Thos. Street.  We spent an hour quite pleasantly, yesterday afternoon, going over the establishment with Dr. Flower.  The rooms are tastefully decorated with evergreens, wreaths and mottoes being plenty, and the leaves so arranged as to form letters.
           
Everything is neat, clean, quiet and orderly.  We failed to detect any unpleasant odor, so common in hospitals, or any untidiness.  The cots and bed clothing were clean, and everything wore a cheerful look.  The facilities for affording ventilation are very good, while books, papers and writing materials are provided for convalescents.
           
The arrangements are admirable and reflect great credit on the officers of the hospital.—There are about seventy patients now, though the number has been as high as one hundred and seventy.  In the ward for wounded men, we saw one poor little fellow whose thigh had been crushed on the railroad.  He appeared to be doing very well, though he looked very pale.
           
The floors are as clean as those of New England kitchens, the walls white, and there was that air of cleanliness, order and quiet that gave it a home look.  The establishment is a credit to the department, and shows that sickness can be relieved of much of its suffering by prompt treatment and kind attitudes. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 1, c. 4
           
Varieties.—A new bill to-night, with the extravaganza of "Jack Rag and his Statues," posturing, wire-walking, dancing, singing and the whole to conclude with the farce of "Quarrelsome Servants." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 1, c. 5

Worth, the Woman's Tailor at Paris.

            The Paris correspondent of the Boston Gazette, says:
           
"Worth, the woman's tailor, has returned to town, and commenced his season.  Do not wonder if I mention him next after divorces, he has caused more divorces than any other man in Paris; for if your wife's ball dress is not made and put on by him, she is disgraced, and if he does not make them you are ruined.  Is it his fault that his rates of charging are so high?  Make the days 48 hours long and relieve him of the vulgar wants of sleeping and eating, he will abate 50 per cent. of his prices.  Seduce his customers into paying cash, and he will make a farther reduction.  The Empress has owed him $40,000.  The Princess Clothilde, $10,000.  The Princess de Metternich, $20,000.  A debt of $1,000 makes no more figure on his books than the one year's subscription of a delinquent patron of your paper does in the Gazette office.  I should not like to say what rent he pays—you would be sure to make an ironical gesture not very complimentary to my regard for truth.—The state saloons of the Tuilleries are not more splendid.  Gilding is lavished on them, the door curtains are Beauvais tapestry, the window curtains and furniture are of the finest Lyons brocade, and the furniture is Boule, each console between the windows being worth $600.  He has in one of his many rooms a buffet constantly spread where the best sandwiches, the choicest sherry and Maderia, and the most delicate cakes are served in profusion to his customers.  He is constantly surrounded by twelve beautiful young ladies, selected for the perfection of their shape as well as face.  They are attired in the height of the mode in silk dresses, which cost four dollars a yard, costly Etruscan ear-rings, bracelets and rings.  They are part of the furniture of the place; they are here what osier mannikins [sic] are in inferior shops; the dresses are hung on them that Worth's patrons may see the effect produced.  No dress ever quits his establishment priced less than $200—in gold mind ye!  we don't take your greenbacks here!  Whenever a ball is given at the Tuilleries, or at any of the embassies, you may count two hundred carriages at his door from as early as six o'clock in the evening.  Each lady receives a number and is called in turn.  They come with their hair dressed, their petticoats and corsets on, wrapped in a second-rate dress, until he is ready to receive them.  You may wonder that ladies should consent to expose their persons to the fingers and eyes of a man.  He is not a man in their eyes—nothing but a tailor—a tradesman—and what high born person ever stooped to inquire to what are sex such a plebian belonged?  One had as soon think of inquiring into the sex of the dog with whom his wife went into the woods for a walk, or of the cat who sleeps in my lady's chamber.  Worth, a few years since, was a mere shopman in Gangerlin's shop in the Rue de Richelieu.  He saw there the extent of feminine folly, and determined to profit by experience.  He has now a beautiful country seat which cost him $80,000, and on which he has spent $60,000.  He keeps a carriage and pair equal to anything in the imperial stables.  He has a first rate cook, has a cellar which is daily improving, and is making money as fast as possible. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
           
The Little 'Uns.—Least in point of size, but not in ability, is the troupe of performers at the Varieties Theatre, in this city, are La Petite Olive and Le Petit Angelo.  They add very much to the attractions of the establishment.  Little Miss Olive is a charming dancer, has an astonishing variety of dances and a knowledge of the different steps.  Her motions are very graceful and light, and her demeanor at the same time vivacious and modest.  She is a songstress too, and plays a part in a farce or comedy with a grace and spirit.
           
Master Angelo is an active, sprightly lad, who has achieved quite a reputation, one of his feats, that on the flying trapeze, having won favorable notices from the papers in the large cities, handsomely engraved medals from his admirers and other tokens of approbation.  He reads well for his years; has a fine appreciation, good imitative powers and the ability to make a good actor.  Withal he is handsome and has fine manners off the stage and is a favorite off as well as on the boards.
           
Olive and Angelo appeared the other night in a Chinese dance; a medley of graceful and grotesque motions, combining some difficult as ludicrous steps, that was really a treat to see.
           
The flying trapeze act of Master Angelo consists in a series of leaps through the air from one swing to another; a feat that makes
                       
                        "the bravest hold his breath
                       
            For a time."
           
It has not been performed here, as the machinery, or appliances are delayed in transportation, and are not procurable in the city. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

A New Year Offering.

            We have been furnished with a copy of the following circular which is to be sent by the Relief Committee to the Ministers officiating in the different congregations of this city, requesting that the offerings of New Year's day be devoted to the relief of the destitute.
To the Rev. ________
           
Dear Sir:  The undersigned desire to call your attention and that of your congregation, to the great distress, want and suffering of a large class of houseless and homeless people in our midst.
           
There are about seven hundred persons, and the number is daily increasing, partially provided for by the committee.
           
They are composed almost exclusively of women and children—in other words, widows and orphans.
           
They call upon us for bread and clothing.—We have at the present time none to give them and no money to buy anything for them.
           
So far, though the committee has been engaged in this work for more than six months, nothing has been given by the congregations of this city.  In the name of Him who says:  "He that giveth to the poor, lendeth to the Lord," we now appeal to all the churches and worshiping assemblies of his community, to send us such a liberal offering as they may find it in their hearts to give.
           
The committee respectfully and earnestly commend this subject to your attention and would recommend that a collection be taken up in your church on Sunday next, in behalf of our suffering fellow beings, who are left entirely at our mercy, and are perishing for lack of bread.  And that their wants be made known to your generous christian people through this letter, accompanied by such other information as you may possess.
           
I am Respectfully,                            
                                               
            Your obedient servant,
                                               
                                                John Wassell,
   
                                                                                             President Ark. Relief Committee.
           
L. Bartlett, Sec'y.
           
Note by the Editor.—We hope each person who attends church next Sabbath, will put some money in his pocket, to be given in aid of these people.  It is a duty we owe as citizens beside the higher duty as christians.  Talk of it, think of it, and be liberal. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

Something About Bridesmaids.

            Next to being a bride herself, every good looking young woman likes to be a bridesmaid.  Wedlock is thought by a large proportion of the blooming sex to be contagious, and much to the credit of their courage, fair spinsters are not at all afraid of catching it.  Perhaps, the theory that the affection is communicated by contact is correct.  Certainly, we have known one marriage to lead to another, and sometimes to such a series of "happy events" as to favor the belief that matrimony, as John Van Buren might say, "runs like the cholera."
           
Is there any book entitled "Rules for Bridesmaids" in secret circulation among your ladies?  It seems as if there must be, for all the pretty hench-women act precisely alike.  So far as official conduct is concerned, when you have seen one bridesmaid you have seen the whole fascinating tribe.  Their leading duty seems to be to treat the bride as "a victim led with garlands to the sacrifice."  They consider it necessary to exhort her to "cheer up and stand by."  It is assumed, by a poetic fiction, that she goes in a state of fearful trepidation to the altar, and upon the whole would rather not.—fair aids provide themselves with pungent essences, let she should faint at the "trying moment," which, between you and us, reader, she has no more idea of doing that she has of flying.  It is true, she sometimes tells them that she "feels as if she would sink into the earth," and that they respond "poor, dear soul," and apply the smelling bottle; but she goes through her nuptial martyrdom with fortitude, nevertheless.
           
In nine cases out of ten the bridegroom is more "flustered" than the fragile and lovely creature at his side; but nobody thinks of pitying him, poor fellow!  All sympathy, compassion, interest, is concentrated upon the bride, and if one of the groomsmen does recommend him to take a glass of wine before the ceremony, to steady his nerves, the advice is given superciliously—as who should say, "what a spooney you are, old fellow."
           
Bridesmaids may be considered as brides in what lawyers call the "inchoate" or incipient state.  They are looking forward to that day of triumphant weakness which it shall be their turn to be "poor dear creatured," and Preston salted, and otherwise sustained and supported, as the law of nuptial pretenses directs.  Let us hope they may not be disappointed.

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 2, c. 6
           
The Parisian ladies have adopted the very pleasant custom of coloring the hair of their dogs to correspond with the color of their dresses. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
           
Gibbs'.—The bookstore of Blelock & co., at Fulton's old stand, on Markham street, three doors above the Anthony Hosue, has passed under the control of Mr. Geo. H. Gibbs, former partner, who now owns the establishment.  He is an energetic man, and clever as the day is long.  The magazines for January have been received, and late papers are received by every mail boat.
           
He has a fresh supply of stationery, paper, and late publications.  We notice some of the recent publications, about which the reading world is making a stir.  Among these are "Margaret Denzil's History," and a new work by the author of Beulah, entitled "Macarie." [sic—Macaria]
           
In re-arranging the store we see one large show-case devoted to the display of gold pens, of which there is every style and size and patent.  There is, also, a fine assortment of cosmetics.  Go and see the new stock. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
           
Sacred Music.—The leader of the Choir of St. Andrew's Cathedral, (Roman Catholic), is Professor E. Wiedemann, who is a fine organist.  On Sunday last, the splendid twelfth mass of the immortal Mozart was rendered in a manner worthy of the great Master.  Prof. W. showed a pure appreciation of this gem of music.  Several solos were finally [finely?] executed and it is seldom that sacred music has been so finely, and purely rendered in our city.
           
We are told that the mass will be repeated on next Sabbath. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
           
Miss Lizzie Donaldson.—The performances of this lady on the slack wire, at the Varieties Theatre, have elicited deserved applause.  She walks, kneels, sits, and turns upon the wire, all her motions being free and graceful, and made, apparently, without effort.  Among other things, is the placing of a glass filled with water in a hoop and swinging this gracefully about, without spilling the water.  The swinging, with one foot on the wire is a pretty feat and never fails to call down the house.  In addition to this, Miss D. is a clever performer in farces and comedies, and has a vivacity and piquancy that renders her personations very attractive. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 4, c. 1
           
A Card.—The ladies of St. Mary's Institute gratefully acknowledge the receipt of one hundred and twelve ($112) dollars, from Mr. Addis, being his portion of the receipts taken in on the night of the 17th inst., at the Little Rock Theatre, for the benefit of the orphans.
           
Little Rock, Dec. 26th, 1864. 

] [LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 4, c. 4

Belle Boyd's Husband Captured.

            The Washington Star of the 7th inst., contains the following:
           
"S. Harding, who married, in Europe, Belle Boyd, the notorious Confederate female spy, was captured on Friday at Martinsburg, Va., and sent to this city on Saturday by General Stephenson, commanding the Post at Harper's Ferry.
           
"This man Harding formerly belonged to the United States navy, and was placed on board the prize steamer Greyhound (on which Belle Boyd was a passenger,) with instructions to carry the vessel into one of our ports, but on the trip he permitted the captain of the Greyhound to escape, for which, it is said, he was dismissed the service.
           
After Belle Boyd was restored to liberty she went to Europe, where she and Harding were married.  Harding says that since his marriage to Belle, she has been discarded by the rebel sympathisers in Europe, but notwithstanding she circulates in the best society.  He himself has instructed her to have nothing further to do with the rebel cause.  Harding's relatives reside in Brooklyn, N. Y., and he alleges that they are displeased with him on account of his marriage with Belle.
           
"Harding asserts that his wife is still in Europe, and is writing a history of her life and adventures, and that he is engaged in writing a novel, the title of which is 'The Wreck.'
           
"Harding gives as a reason for going to Martinsburg that he wished to bring away his sister-in-law, Manie Boyd, whom he desired to take North for the purpose of educating her.  His statements are discredited however, and the military authorities believe that Belle herself is lurking somewhere in the vicinity in which Harding was captured.
           
"Harding brags of his wealth, but when searched only fourteen dollars was found upon him.  He is a medium sized man, with dark hair, dark hazel eyes, and thin, smooth face.—He dresses tastefully in broadcloth, wears a tall beaver, and carries a cane.  He cannot be called handsome, but his actions indicate that he thinks a great deal of himself, and he appears to have the gift of 'gab' in abundance, and while being conveyed to the Old Capitol, he conversed freely with the officer having him in charge, and boasted of his wealth and education. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 4, c. 4
           
Cut Out.—It is many years since I fell in love with Jane Jerusha Skeggs, the handsomest country girl by far that ever went on legs.  By meadow, creek and wood and dell, so often we did walk, and the moonlight smiled on her melting lips, and the night winds learned our talk.  Jan Jerusha was all to me, for my heart was young and true, and loved with a double and twisted love, and a love that was honest, too.  I roamed all over the neighbors' farms, and I robbed the wildwood bowers, and tore my trowsers and scratched my hands, in search of choicest flowers.  In my joyous love I brought all these to my Jerusha Jane; but I wouldn't be so foolish now if I were a boy again.  A city chap then came along all dressed up in store clothes, with a shiny hat and shiny vest, and a moustache under his nose.  He talked to her of singing schools, (for her father owned a farm,) and she left me, the country love, and took the new chap's arm.  And all that night I never slept, nor could I eat next day, for I loved that girl with a fervent love that naught could drive away.  I strove to win her back to me, but it was all in vain—the city chap with a hairy lip, married Jerusha Jane.  And my poor heart was sick and sore until the thought struck me that just as good fish remained as ever was caught in the sea.  So I went to the Methodist church one night, and saw a dark brown curl, peeping from under a gipsy hat and I married that very girl.  And many years have passed and gone, and I think my loss my gain; and I often bless that hairy chap that stole Jerusha Jane. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, December 31, 1864, p. 4, c. 4
           
How to Act When the Clothes Take Fire.—The following, which we copy from the Scientific American, should be cut out and preserved.
           
Three persons out of four would rush right up the burning individual, and begin to paw with their hands without any definite aim.  It is useless to tell the victim to do this or that or to call for water.  In fact it is generally best to say not a word, but seize a blanket from a bed, or a cloak, or any woolen fabric—if none is at hand, take any woolen material—hold the corners as far apart as you can, stretch them out higher than your head, and, running boldly to the person, make a motion of clasping in the arms, most about the shoulders.  This instantly smothers the fire and saves the face.  The next instant throw the unfortunate person on the floor.  This is an additional safety to the face and breath, and any remnant of flame can be put out the more leisurely.  The next instant immerse the burnt part in cold water, and all pain will cease with the rapidity of lightning.  Next, get some common flour, remove the water, and cover the burnt part with an inch thickness of flour, put the patient to bed, and do all that is possible to soothe until the physician arrives.  Let the flour remain until it falls of itself, when a beautiful new skin will be found.  Unless the burns are deep no other application is needed.  The dry flour for burns is the most admirable remedy ever proposed, and the information ought to be imparted to all.  The principle of its action is that, like the water, it causes instant and perfect relief from pain by excluding the air from the injured parts.  Spanish whiting and cold water, or a mushy consistency, are preferred by some.  Dredge on the flour until no more will stick, and cover with cotton batting. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 7, 1865, p. 1, c. 1
           
A Georgia correspondent of a Boston paper tells the following:
           
I met one little fellow at Huntsville, five or six years old, who is a true child of the times.  His father is in the rebel ranks—a violent secessionist; but the boy has so many friends among "the Yankees" that he has been sorely perplexed how to please both parties.  At last he hit on a plan of his own accord and invention that is both original and efficient.  "I'm a Union rebel!" he says when asked what he is, "and I hurrah for Jeff. Lincoln!"
           
That boy, if he lives, will surely make a most available candidate for the war and peace democracy. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 7, 1865, p. 1, c. 4
           
Strange Birth.—The Sandusky Register of Monday has the following:  "We are credibly informed that one day last week one of the rebel officers in the 'Bull Pen,' as our soldiers call lit, otherwise is one of the barracks in the enclosure on Johnson's Island in which the rebel prisoners are kept, gave birth to a 'bouncing boy.'  This is the first instance of the father giving birth to a child we have heard of; nor have we read of it in the books.  The officer, however, was undoubtedly a woman." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
Varieties.—There was a crowded house last night at Wilson's benefit.  To-night a very attractive bill is presented with the new play of the French Dancing Master, and the usual variety of songs, dances, etc. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
Josh Billings Insures his Life.—I kum to the conclusion lately that life was so onsartin, that the only way for me to stand a fair chance with other folks was to get my life insured, and so I called on the agent of the Garden Angel Life Insurance Co., and answered the following questions, which were put to me over the top of a pair of specks by a slick little fat old feller, with a round gray head on him as ever any man owned.  1.  Are you mail or femail?  if so, how long have you been so.  2.  Had you a father or a mother?  if so, which.  3.  Are you subject to fits?  if so, du yu have more than one at a time.  4.  What is your precise fiting wate?  3.  Did you ever have any ancestors?  and if so, how much.  6.  What is your legal opinion of the constitushunaltiy of the ten commandments?  7.  Du yu have any nightmare?  8.  Are you married or single, or are you a bachalor?  9.  Du yu believe in a future stait?  if yu du, stait it.  10.  Have you ever committed suicide?  and if so, how did it effect you.  After answering the above questions, the slick little fat old feller sed I was insured for life, and probably would remain so for some years.  I thanked him and smiled one ov my most pensive smiles. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 4
           
We have received Mobile papers of the 17th, (Saturday) from which we extract the following intelligence:
           
It was Gen. John Adams, and not Gen. Wirt Adams, who was killed at Franklin.  Gen. Wirt Adams is in Mississippi.  Gen. John Adams was an old United States officer, and resided at Memphis.  He leaves a wife and several children.
           
Yesterday morning, about 8 o'clock, another batch of Federals was brought in by Waynesboro road, having been captured near Louisville.
           
They numbered one hundred and twenty-two men and boys, and a more motley looking set we have never seen.  Old and young were there, and nearly every nationality in existence was represented.  Their general appearance told very plainly that the quartermaster and commissary department of their corps had been sadly neglected, as they were badly off for clothing and shoes, and all seemed to have an enormous appetite.  This party was sent to Columbia for safe keeping.  Most of them belonged to the infantry branch of this service.
           
The Augusta Constitutionalist states that seventeen car loads of English blankets recently passed up the road direct for Lee's army.
                                               
                                                            [Memphis Bulletin. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 5
           
Lemon Gingerbread.—Grate the rind of two or three lemons, and add the juice to a glass of brandy; then mix the grated lemon in one pound of flour, make a hole in the flour, pour in a pound of treacle, half a pound of butter melted, the lemon juice and brandy, and mix up all together with half an ounce of cayenne pepper.
           
Cream Pie (Fine).—Half a pound of butter, four eggs, sugar, salt and nutmeg to your taste, and two table spoonfuls of arrow-root wet; pour on it a quart of boiling milk, and stir the whole together.  To be baked in deep dishes. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 6
           
A letter from a rebel soldier to the "beloved of his soul," said to have been intercepted, contains some touching paragraphs.  He says:  "My quarters in camp are passable, but the quarters in my pocket are not.  Last night I had a mud puddle for my pillow, and covered myself with a sheet of water.  O long for more whisky barrels and less gun barrels, more biscuits and less bullets.  How I wish you were here.  the farther I get from you, the better I like you." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 7, 1865, p. 3, c. 4

In Behalf of Shoddy

            We confess to an amiable weakness in the shape of a liking for the Shoddy family.  We cannot help thinking that the Shoddies are so good as some of their relatives, or progenitors, to wit:  The Parvenu, Upstart, and Codfish families, and nearly, if not quite as deserving and certainly better bred, than their rivals, the suddenly-grown rich family of Petrolla.
           
Perhaps, some of the feeling we have for the Shoddies is a sympathy for the persecutions they have suffered.  For more than a year, the comic papers have made fun of the family; the other papers have, alternately, ridiculed or abused them, so that not a day passed but the world laughed at, sneered at, cursed, abused or caricatured them.  Novels were written about them and tales without number.  Their actions were watched and commented upon; their privacy was invaded; their furniture inventoried and described; their domestic secrets were exposed, and their conversations reported.  Shoddy is a persecuted individual and we feel disposed to say a few words in behalf of Shoddy.
           
But, that we may not be misunderstood, we admit that this extensive family has, among its members, some great scoundrels, and we will go as far as any other man in denouncing these.  We have no word of defense of them or their conduct.  They are rogues,--villains,-- and we feel disposed to call them as many hard names as an ex-rebel turned Unionist, calls every honest and loyal man he may meet.  The numbers of the Shoddy family who sold the government rotten cloth, made of rags picked to shreds and then pressed so as to resemble cloth; who furnished painted pasteboards and called it leather; who gave "sow belly" for prime mess pork; shorts and middlings for superfine flour, and caused the boys in blue to suffer, they are nothing more or less than thieves and swindlers.  They are a shame to the Shoddy family and a disgrace to humanity.
           
But, the majority of the members of the Shoddy family are those who have made money on contracts, or work, for the government.  "It is an ill wind," says the proverb, "that blows no one any good" and the war, that prostrated some kinds of business, invigorated others.—Shoddy, the gunsmith, who barely earned a living in his shop, found his business increasing, that orders flowed in, so that he hired journeymen and got apprentices, enlarged his shop, took contracts and grew rich.  Shoddy, the ship-builder, was appealed to come to the help of the government and build a monitor or get iron-clad and, working night and day, he too grew rich.
           
Shoddies, in various other branches of business found the war created a demand for their wares, or their labor, and being men of energy went to work and got wealth as the reward of their industry, or their skill.  Others of the family took large contracts, and by boldness, sagacity, industry and energy, made money on them.  These are the ones who are the butts of ridicule.  Some poor devil, taken from a poorhouse and helped along in the world till he puts on broadcloth and airs, and signs himself "Jenkins Snob, esq," is horrified to find that Mrs. Shoddy rides in a fine coach, and yet does not know the size of the glove she wears, and that the Shoddy girls, though dressed in silk, eat peas with a broad bladed knife.  Mrs. Shoddy, we are told, is fat and vulgar; the Misses Shoddy are port and awkward; the young male Shoddy is fast and boisterous, and the head of the family is pompous and full of display.  The latter buys a house with a brown stone front, who used to live in a little shop; he buys a cellar full of wines while he cannot tell claret from Burgundy; he buys fine pictures when he does not know the name of one of the old masters, and takes the whole family to the opera, where he has a box, and where, not one of them can appreciate a note of the music, or understand a word of the songs.  Well!  Shoddy has made money, and he spends it.  If he had staid in the old shop, bought beer or Cincinnati whisky, and ten cent lithographs, and had taken his family to the Bowery theatre, wouldn't Snob have called him a low, stingy, degraded old wretch, without a soul to enjoy his wealth; and keeping that fine woman, his wife, and those poor ladies, his charming daughters, out of the high sphere they were so eminently fitted to adorn?  Such, you know you would.
           
We should remember that shoddy pere, in thus liberally spending his money is benefiting hundreds. He maintains and feeds servants; the butcher, baker, and other tradesmen and mechanics are helped by him; artists and merchants are encouraged, and instead of putting his money at usury, or hoarding it in the cellar, he sends it abroad to fall into the hands of the industrious or the shrewd.  What though Shoddy buy a book he cannot understand!  It will, some day, fall into the hands of a scholar who can read it.  What though he has wines whose bouquet and aromas he cannot appreciate!  He will invite us to dinner some day, and we can do his wine justice.  What though he sits and yawns at the opera!  He is patronizing art and encouraging a taste that will grow in the land, and of which his grand-children may be heirs.
           
And Mrs. Shoddy too, who wears silks and sits down to expensive dinners where the dishes are called by strange names.  Sure, she may, in her soul, prefer to be dressed in a loose calico robe, and sit down to her favorite dishes of pork and beans, or beef and cabbage, but if she now spreads herself in crinoline, who has a better right?  Did she not, when she and John Shoddy were first married, do all her own work?  Did she not do every stitch of her own sewing and washing and ironing until after Angelina was born?  Then, you know Mr. Shoddy's circumstances grew so that he got a help for her.  Surely, one who has toiled and worked as she has, is the very one that should now be resting and enjoying herself.
           
And these men who sneer at Shoddy, is not envy at the bottom of their criticism?  Is there one of them who would not be rich if he could?  Shoddy took a contract and made money.  Well, what do men take contracts for?  Shoddy was lucky, in buying when a certain article was low and selling when it was high.  Ah!  are you sure the luck was not sagacity or foresight?  "Shoddy," say they, "is an upstart; is illiterate; can neither dance a polka or a waltz; cannot tell a Scotch jig from a hymn by Handel, and bows awkwardly."  Is that all?  "Why no, to be sure he is energetic, prompt, decided, sagacious, shrewd and liberal."  Such being the case, Shoddy is not so bad after all.  And perhaps, when we come to know Mrs. S., and the Misses S., and S. the cub, we may find the old lady good hearted and kind; the girls lively, loveable and modest, and their brother, fond of a drive, a pretty face, a lively book and company; liberal and impulsive; in fine, a jolly, good fellow.
           
There are other Shoddies.  We have mentioned the fortunate ones because the world notices only them.  There are hundreds of the family who are not noticed.  These are the unfortunate ones.  These are the ones who buy "long" and sell "short."  They take contracts that don't pay.  They spend their lives in stemming the current.  They work and toil, and worry and fret without profit.  They are ruined by some delay in government and have to sell their vouchers at a discount and lose by the bargain.  Accidents, fire, water, the loss of a battle, or the failure of a friend, strips them and throws them back to begin the world anew.  Their names are seldom seen in the papers, except as parties to a lawsuit, losers by some disasters or in some such notice as this:
           
"Suicide.—Peter Shoddy, a well known citizen, committed suicide last night at his residence, by blowing out his brains with a pistol.  Pecuniary embarrassments are said to have been the cause, as he was unfortunate in some government contracts taken by him.  He leaves a wife and several children."
           
At least we can feel sorry for the widowed wife and orphaned children, left penniless.  Let us hope that Uncle John, the successful, will open his doors and give them a home.  Indeed, we have faith that he will, for he may be given to display, but for all that old Shoddy is liberal and will do a good part by them; and so open an account with Heaven, with this and other good acts to be posted on the "Cr." side. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 1, c. 1

Culled Pussons.

            The number of freed people among us and their behavior in the new condition of things, are subjects worthy remark.  Their conduct, on the whole, and as a general thing, has been so worthy of commendation, that, as public journalists, we cannot consistently pass it by.
           
We doubt, every much, if any people, anywhere, at any period, ever experienced so radical a change in their condition, and leaped, at once, from a state of servitude to a state of freedom, with less manifestation of exultation and with fewer excesses committed by them.—We write now of the colored people of Arkansas, and claim to be competent to judge, having lived here before the rebellion, during the first year of its existence, and since the occupation of this city by the Union army.  We are mindful, that, in some localities, there were cases of negroes offering indignities to, and committing outrages upon, white people, and some went so far as to commit murder and arson; but they were counselled to do this by bad white men, or a number of the worst of their color got together and encouraged one another to acts of violence and deeds of blood.  However, with these exceptions, we are led to believe that the negroes freed by our armies have, under the circumstances, behaved remarkably well.
           
Here and elsewhere where we have been, we have watched the conduct of the negroes, and were gratified without being surprised.  Suppose, for the sake of an illustration, an army could occupy New York city and declare all the bound apprentices released from their indentures.  While many would remain with their masters and mistresses, the reckless and vicious would run into extremes; would burn and kill; would rake up some grievance and, in revenge for some real or fancied wrong, clamor for blood.  The case of the Russian serfs is not similar, for the change there was only in name.  there was no forcible separation; the master and the serf remained upon the land; caste existed, and the aristocracy kept up barriers between them and the common people.
           
Here, some negro men talked fiercely for a while, but soon found that those who gave them liberty did not intend to give them license.—Some negro women grew saucy and put on defiant airs—even sought occasion to talk spitefully to white women, to show off.  This was all very natural and the wonder is that there was not more of it, for, it must be remembered that, as a class, the negroes were uneducated.  It is worthy of note that these saucy ones now were the saucy ones in the days of slaveholding.—They were petted and pampered by their mistresses; were idle house servants, kept partly for show, and talked contemptuously of "the poor white trash."  They put on airs in old times and elbowed poor white people as far as they dared.  They had no respect for a white man who did not own negroes, and thought themselves a grade above poor white people.—The real slave—the field hand, or plantation negro, is the one who bears his freedom best and means to accept it quietly and gratefully.
           
A few had an idea that freedom was a condition without labor, but these were not many, and they were soon undeceived.  The most of them had seen free negroes and knew they had to work.  In all the cities and towns there were numbers of nominal slaves, who were really free, and who hired their own time.  Of late years, laws were passed to prevent this, but the laws were avoided.  These slaves, in name, rented houses, furnished them and managed their own affairs.  The change to this class was not very great, for, in becoming free though they were relieved from paying a certain sum to their masters or mistresses each week, they lost protection and care in sickness and in age.
           
The deportment of the negroes in their new relations of life illustrate two facts which may be noticed.  Northern people who had never had an opportunity of seeing the practical workings of slavery, had no adequate idea of it.  Some really believed that the negroes were marched to work and a negro driver stood over them with a heavy whip; that they toiled all day and were then handcuffed, taken to meals, and, at night confined in cells, or tied hand and feet, and released in the morning to be led to daily toil.  They had no idea that a laboring man in the North did twice as much work in a day as a negro did, and that the latter went to his home or quarters at night, and danced or slept, or went off on a visit to neighboring plantations.  Here, and on small plantations, the negroes were the best, or richest, dressed among us.  On Sunday, a visit to the negro church would enable one to see more silk, satin lace and broad cloth than could be found among a congregation of so many whites.  One instance occurs to us which we will relate as a sample.  In 1858 or '59, we desired to purchase a silk dress for a lady.  Going in to Fulton's we examined some silks and satins.  Among them was a richly figured satin, the price of the pattern being eight-five dollars,--in gold,--but it was not for sale, having been bought in New York, especially for a colored lady,--a slave—who had sent the money by Mr. Fulton.
           
The slaves had money.  The merchants who got the negro trade was lucky.  A poor white man was not so good a customer, not having as much money to spend, as many of the negroes.  The old account books of the merchants will show that their best customers were the negroes, the most of whom had open accounts and long credits.  Whippings were infrequent.—Hundreds of slaves—nay, the majority of them, were not whipped after reaching man's or woman's estate.  The most severe whippings among them were the negro parents whipping their children.  When we remember that crimes that were punished, when committed by a white man, by fine or imprisonment, were punished in the negro by whipping, it will be seen that hard flogging was sometimes necessary.  Hard masters and cruel ones often whipped negroes unnecessarily and severely.  There is no doubt of that.  It was one of the evils of the system, which we are now haply rid of.  The general treatment of them was good—and hence the erroneous idea that slaves would rise, or when freed would seek to kill their owners, had no foundation in fact.  Many slaves yet remain with their former owners who pay them wages.  Others who have left their former owners sometimes go to see them and chat pleasantly of old times.  They are generally respectful and good humored.  The first point which is demonstrated, is that the slave was not so debased, or in such strict and severe bondage as the outside world had been led to suppose.
           
The second point is that the negroes are not disliked by their former owners and masters, nor do they dislike them as much as they are hated by the poor white men of the South.  The loyal Arkansians who never owned slaves, have but little love for the negro.  This feeling is intelligible to us, but is a mystery to those who come from abroad.  But the poor, or non-slaveholding white man remembers that, in the days of slavery, these house negroes talked of him as poor white trash and treated him with contempt.  He knew that the slave holder would let him suffer rather than the slave.  He has felt that his poverty has been a mark of reproach by these very negroes.  It is these pampered negroes who now put on airs and are disposed to go beyond bounds, that the "mountain fed" take a particular delight in cursing.  The loyal men of the South are anxious to give the negro his freedom, but they intend he shall work and not take a position above them.  The negroes have found this out and that is one reason for their subdued and quiet tone.
           
But yet another and stronger and better reason, is the wise policy pursued by our government and those in authority.  The negroes are given to understand that they are free to earn their livings, but not free to live in idleness.—They are taught the products of their labor are now all their own, but that they must labor if they would eat.  They are, at the same time, advised and controlled.
           
We think we see in the good behavior of the negroes and their cheerful acceptance of the conditions imposed on them, a hope for the favorable solution of the question:  "what will become of the negroes?" 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 1, c. 1
           
An Englishman has taken the pains to weigh the clothes worn by a lady of eighteen, of average size, and says their weight is 14½ pounds.  He thinks there is no doubt that by continually carrying this burden about them, ladies waste their physical strength. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 1, c. 1
           
Varieties Theatre.—To-night Miss Annie Morgan takes a benefit.  She appears as Parthenia, in scenes from the play of Ingomar, and as Gertrude in the farce of Loan of a Lover.  Between the plays a variety of songs and dances will be presented, and Mr. Bell will introduce his trick dog Bruin.
           
With any differences between Miss Morgan and the managers of the Little Rock Theatre we have nothing to do.  We know that she is a charming actress and deserves a handsome benefit, and we believe the gallantry of our officers, soldiers and citizens will give it to her.
           
She appeals very earnestly in her friends to come forward to-night and help to fill the house. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 2, c. 2-3
[Summary:  Character study of Albert Pike] 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 2, c. 3
           
Varieties Theatre.—The bill to-night contains many novelties, and a series of sketches, farces and extravaganzas, among which are "The Barber Shop in an Uproar," "Clubs are Trumps," "Irishman's Troubles," "French Dancing-Master," and "Turning the Tables."
           
The piece of the French Dancing-Master is a fine piece of acted humor, and is gracefully and spiritedly presented.
           
To-morrow night, Mr. Oliver Bell takes a complimentary benefit.  He has got up a host of novelties.  The new trick pantomime of the "Magic Trumpet" will be presented.  The trained horse Brilliant and educated mule will be exhibited.  The Motley Brothers, the Hungarian Dancer, Clark Gibbs in a riding act, Oliver Bell in a comic dance, and a variety of other attractions are to be given.  There will be the biggest sort of a house. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 2, c. 5

A Novel Challenge.

            The Macon Telegraph prints the following challenge:
           
I, Captain John Travis, will shoot against any man as follows:  My opponent to shoot a rifle two hundred yards, off hand, without a rest—twenty shots each—string measurement, from the break of the ball.  I to shoot a cannon (to be presented to Major General N. B. Forrest) two hundred yards, against the rifle, my opponent to give me three inches on each shot.  The match to come off five days after acceded to.  Forfeit twenty-five hundred dollars, for play or pay.  The money is ready at Montgomery Hall.
           
The match to come off in this city or vicinity.  Very respectfully.
                                               
                                                            John Travis. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 2, c. 6

Make Room for the Ladies, Gentlemen,
If you Please.

            Miss Dix is lecturing in the eastern cities, on the employment of women.  She enumerates quite a number of positions that can and ought to be filled by females.  She ridicules the idea of a stout, two-fisted fellow behind a counter, to measure off calico and tape, or weight sugar and spice.
           
In discussing this subject, the customs in Europe are frequently cited, and this was done before the war, when the causes that drove women there into active life did not exist in this country.  The fact that our women were not clerks, book-keepers, small merchants, and in other like situations, was proof of the prosperity of the country, and that the natural preponderance of the male sex existed among us.—This war has caused the deaths of half a million of men.  If we admit that two hundred thousand of these would have died if the country had remained at peace, we have three hundred thousand able men taken from the population.  In the northern States, the loss has been supplied by immigration, but over half as many female as male immigrants arrived on our shores, so that the disproportion between males and females still exists.
           
Thousands of women have lost their normal protectors and those whom they were dependent upon.  These must labor for their support, but, if they all depend on the needle, that branch of business always overcrowded, then becomes more so, and the remuneration gets down to starvation point.  It is evident, then, that new fields of labor must be opened to the workers pressing upon us.
           
Heretofore this was not necessary for, in our country, a home was within reach of every industrious man.  This led to marriage and our women were provided for.  In Europe, and in France for an especial instance, the numbers of men slain in the wars reversed the natural proportion of women to men, so that the former were in excess of numbers.  These stepped into positions heretofore filled by men, and filled them so well that they hold them yet, though years of peace have brought the two sexes nearly equal in point of numbers.
           
Besides the urgent reason of necessity for finding various employments for women, other than those customary with us, there is another which has never been given the prominence in the argument it really deserves.  It is this:  We have a vast domain, the greater part of which is uncultivated.  Tillable land is not only within the reach of every man, but it actually given to him in the West, if he will settle upon and improve it.  In Europe, where the land is all owned by proprietors and cannot be purchased by poor men, the latter are forced to trades and professions.  There is an excuse for an able bodied man in Europe being a "counter jumper," or man milliner, for farming is out of his reach.  Here the soil waits for an occupant and invites toil to be repaid by an ample harvest.  There need be very little competition between the sexes for employment in this country, fortunately, all able bodied men can find employment for the next half century and on farms of their own, if they are energetic.
           
The sooner all our young men learn that toil is honorable; that the hard and horny hand is the true badge of nobility; and that farming is the noblest and healthiest occupation in the world, the better for us all.  They must learn to yield places they now fill, to the gentler sex.  The positions to be filled by women are numerous.  Clerks; book-keepers; telegraph operators; editors; newspaper correspondents; postmasters; keepers of retail stores; indeed a variety of professions must give way, in whole or in part, to the fair sex.
           
At Washington, we are told, in the seats of the reporters of the congressional debates and proceedings, women may be seen.  They make excellent stenographers.  One of the cleverest and raciest of the Washington correspondents was Mrs. Don Platt [Piatt?].  Some of the first papers of the Union have female correspondents in Washington and other important posts, and much of the spirited writing we read is from female pens.  Indeed, a female correspondent writes the most charming, gossiping, sparkling letters that are published.  It must not be supposed that they do not attend to graver matters, such as finance, history, and statistics.
           
The leading journalist of France, was indebted to the letters of his wife, for the great reputation of the Presse, and its circulation rose so as to lead the other papers because of the popularity of her charming letters.  In England, on many of the railways, women are found selling tickets, keeping books and filling other situations.  One would be surprised to hear how many of the small trade stores in European towns are owned and managed by women.  They buy and sell; keep accounts; and are generally more successful than the males.
           
The invention and introduction of sewing machines will throw, as it has thrown, many seamstresses out of employment.  Other situations must be found for them.  Parents must educate their daughters to become book keepers, editors, reporters and business women.
           
Make way for the ladies, gentlemen—"Place aux dames." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 3, c. 4

?

            In our day and time we have had many questions put to us, and think we have a right to ask a few.  Whether we shall get answers to them or not is immaterial; at all events, we will relieve our mind by asking them.  Editors and postmasters are asked more questions than other people, but the postmaster has the advantage of us.  The questions put to him can be answered by saying "no letter for Smith," "mail goes out at 8 P.M.," or "nothing for you to-day, Miss."  But it would take an encyclopedia to answer the questions put to an editor.  We do our best and give our opinion on all things from rats to elephants and from politicians to patriots.  Now it is our turn to interrogate.
           
Why is it that Tom, and Dick and Harry, who were poor boys and with agreeable manners, willing to accommodate, and considered no better than other people, should put on airs when made government clerks?  Why should they answer a soldier or civilian abruptly, or rudely, when addressed in a respectful manner?  Does service at a desk create bile and induce melancholy?
           
Why is it that nobody ever goes to Washington, from Arkansas, without having an interview with the President?  Does Mr. Lincoln send for each Arkansian who may chance to visit the national capitol?  Of course, we firmly and religiously believe that Mr. Lincoln did say all these things our friends say he did say to them, in the flesh, but we are puzzled to know why he spends so much valuable time in giving audience to persons from our State?
           
When our friend Jones asks our friend Smith if he knows General  A. or B., or some other high dignitary, why does Smith reply with limitation that he has met him, or "slightly?"—Smith knows that we all know that he does not know the great man.  Why not say so?
           
Why do all actors say "chee-ilde" for "child, "juke" for duke, and "me" for my?  Why does the venerable old gentleman stand gasping and exclaiming "Kee-um to me ar-rums, mer le-ong, le-ost chee-ild?"  Why does a stage father, when particularly pleased with his stage son, hug himself with his left arm and say, "Damme, you dog?"
           
Why is it that every orator, in stating a doubtful point, must assert that it is as plain as the sun at noonday?  Is the sun always to be seen at noon?  And do the orators look at it?
           
Why is it that every correspondent who writes for the papers, on any matter of finance, or mathematics, or philosophical question, must preface it with the remark that "every school-boy knows" it?  The school-boy don't know any such thing.
           
Why is it that people, pretending to have common sense, will go buy of merchants who do not advertise?  Do they not know that men too stingy to let people know they have goods to sell will be the very ones to ask the highest price?  And why is it that people, who have wares and merchandise to sell, refuse to make the fact public?
           
Why is it that every extremist now claims to have been always a union man, when all of his neighbors know he was a loud-mouthed secessionist?  Why not come out frankly and say he was in error, and repents of it?  Why not be sorry, and not try to cover his sin by denouncing his neighbors, who were more loyal than he was?
           
Why is it that small politicians, traders in principles, and political Jim Crows, are angry with us because we do not follow them in all their turnings?  why is it that some become excited and shed tears of joy at the success of Pinchbeck or Bugus?  It is evident that honest and true men would better fill their places, then why go into paroxysms when P. or B. addresses his fellow citizens on the state of the country?
           
Why cannot people tell the truth?  Why do we quarrel and wrangle when we should be friendly?  Why indeed, do not all imitate our example of a virtuous and steady life?
           
Finally, knowing these questions would not be answered, why did we ask them? 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 3, c. 4
           
Miss Annie Morgan.—This charming actress is to take a benefit to-morrow (Saturday) night, at the Varieties Theatre.  She is an excellent comedienne, full of life and fun, and acts naturally and gracefully.  She has catered for the amusement of the public during the past season, and made many friends and admirers.—They should see that she has a full house, and a benefit worthy of her talents.
           
She is getting up an attractive bill, which will be worth more than the admission price, besides a really gallant man would always give that amount to see and be talked to by as handsome a woman as she is.
           
A Card.—Miss Annie Morgan respectfully announces to the Little Rock public that the performance at the Varieties Theatre, on Saturday night, are to be given for her benefit.
           
This benefit was to be given at the other Theatre but she has been deprived of this, and now appeals to her friends.  She has used her best endeavors to please; is at a distance from home; has not the disposition nor the natural protectors to enforce justice, and now throws herself upon the generosity of the public.
           
She will present one of the most attractive bills of the season, and hopes to great all her friends on the occasion. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 14, 1865, p. 4, c. 1
[Summary:  Long editorial on "The Negro Character"] 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 1, c. 5
           
A letter writer says of Cairo, Ill., "It is without exception the filthiest hole in existence.  It is the end of the world, the tail of creation, the finis of the sphere, the dirt-box of the globe." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
Kate Leslie.—This popular and charming singer and actress, is to make her courtesy to a Little Rock audience to-night, at the Varieties Theatre.  Her reputation is a very wide and favorable one, and the management, believing that the way to make the theatre pay is to secure the best talent that can be brought here, have engaged her and other star performers.
           
We anticipate a crowded house to witness the first appearance of Miss Leslie. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 2, c. 1

Report of the Arkansas Relief Committee.

To His Excellency Isaac Murphy,
                       
            Governor of Arkansas:
           
The Arkansas Relief Committee, receiving their appointment from you, make the following abstract report for the six months beginning July 1st, and ending Dec. 31, 1864:

Treasurer's Report.

Received, $1,000 per month, from the Provost Marshal, by order of
           
the Commanding General                                                                        $6,000.00
Received of Dr. Meador and Huyek                                                                           53.00
Rec'd of B. F. Hatch, A. Q. M.                                                                                  10.00
"           A. G. Nye, Marietta, Ohio                                                                             66.50
"           Mrs. Smith, Treasurer Ladies' Aid Society                                                    156.00
"           B. N. Martin, Cor. Sec'y Board of Aid to  Refugees                                       50.00
"           the same by Hon. T. Warner                                                                         100.00
Advanced by Treasurer for provisions                                                               ____344.13
Total                                                                                                                    $6,779.63
           
This amount has been expended as follows:
To pay for Provisions in same time                                                                        $5,916.21
"           Dr. Ivins and Assistant for medical attendance, care and
                       
superintendence of encampments, 6 mos.                                           625.00
"            Disbursing Agent, labor and stationery                                                          193.62
"           Mrs. White, Matron Orphan's Home                                                       ____44,80
                                               
                                                                            $6,779.63
                                               
                                                R. L. Dodge,
                                               
                                                            Treasurer.
           
The report of the disbursing agent shows the average number of persons supplied, (women and children,) from this source in whole or in part has been over 700 for the six months.  The amount of means placed in the hands of the committee had been greatly deficient to satisfy their wishes, or the necessities of the recipients in this county.  The privilege however of purchasing provisions from the commissary department has largely increased, the amount obtained over purchases, which would be otherwise made outside.  You will see by the Treasurer's report that he has advanced $344.  This occurred from the increased number of applicants and the inability to deny pleading want.  To re-imburse this amount out of the anticipated appropriation, will leave but $656, for the following month.  This deficiency however will be supplied by the generous sympathy and arrangement through Col. Benham, chief of subsistence, to furnish rations for dependent families of soldiers, some three hundred to four hundred in number.
           
Apparent necessity has required many indigent refugee families to be transferred to the Northern States where provisions are more plentiful, some with, and others without, their consent.  Aside from military considerations the policy may well be questioned.  Most of them, if not all, have homes and lands in the country from which they have been driven by a guerrilla warfare, and to which they hope to return in peace at no distant day.  But the committee are not disposed to offer other reasons or interpose objections to the policy until larger provisions are made for their care and support—though if the widows and orphans, made so by the war, must flee from their country to an untried climate, we should pray that it be met in winter or unclothes.
           
Respectfully,
                                               
                                    John Wassell, Pres't.
           
L. Bartlett, Sec'y. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 2, c. 5
           
Tom—Don't you think some verses would touch her.  Charley—a beautiful poem?   Charley—Oh, hang your verses, Tom.  If you want to enjoy life, drop poetry and gals altogether, and join a fire company. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 3, c. 2
From the Houston News, 20th ult.

Latest from Texas.

            Some unwarrantable outrages were committed in this place, and vicinity, on last Sunday night by members of Terry's squadron, "Wharton's Scouts."  One rascal bursted two caps at a lady as he was passing the street; another fired two shots at Mr. Jasper Smith, who was standing in his door, the balls passing through the window and wall into the house.  We will recur to this subject next week.
                                               
                                                [Henderson Times. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 4, c. 2
           
Man never so dearly worship woman as when they are surrounded by the wondrous folds of a delicate semi-transparent muslin dress.  They may respect them in calico, they may adore them in velvet, but they love them in muslin. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 4, c. 2
           
Female correspondents in Europe are thought more reliable, as they never miss the males, and are never "tight" except when laced. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 28, 1865, p. 1, c. 1
           
Varieties Theatre.—Kate Leslie, the celebrated vocalist and comedienne, made her first appearance in this city, at this establishment, on Saturday night, and was received with enthusiastic applause. We are not musical connoisseur enough to describe the voice or character of singing, but those who know these things tell us she is one of the sweetest and most cultivated singers they ever heard.  Her repertory of songs is very extensive and the lovers of music and singing, will have a chance of hearing one who has received the approbation of musical critics in the northern cities.—Besides singing, she appeared as Nan, in the play of "The Good for Nothing."  It will be seen that she is on the bills again to-night.
           
Mr. Hannon, a jig dancer, and actor of repute, also made his appearance, and gave the audience a jig in excellent style.
           
The management have made some changes in their company, and during the week a dozen or so new performers of known talent and ability will be here to form a part of the theatrical company.
           
Those fond of good singing and dancing will not miss an opportunity of seeing Miss Leslie and Mr. Hannon in their spirited performances. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 2, c. 2
           
Benefit of Clark Gibbs.—On Friday night Clark Gibbs, the popular performer, takes a benefit at the Varieties Theatre.  He deserves a bumper.  No one has labored harder and more successfully to please the public.  He is always ready, full of fun, and up with his parts.  He is Ethiopian all over and clean through, and can make a corn-field darkey ashamed of himself.  Having pleased others so much, it is but fair they should please him by purchasing tickets for his benefit.  He is getting up a rousing bill, full of fun and comicalities.  We predict the most crowded house of the season on Friday night.
           
Varieties Theatre.—Notwithstanding the severely cold weather, a tolerably full house greeted the first appearances of the new performers last night.  Marie, the songstress, was too unwell to appear.  Sadie and Hattie Rogers gave us several fancy dances.  They dance like tops—or, if that simile don't suit, like a French girl to whom dancing comes as natural as whistling to a darkey—or to be poetical, they dance like moonbeams on rippling water.  Well-formed, handsome and graceful, they are destined to become great favorites.
           
Oscar Willis, Messrs. Corcoran, Powers and Rogers, all gave the public a taste of their qualities.  Willis is well known to the Little Rock public as a first-rate performer.  The others are excellent performers in their line.
           
In addition to these attractions, Kate Leslie sang some songs in her charming style; Little Olive danced two of her graceful dances, and that Black Momus Clark Gibbs was "thar."  See the bill for to-night. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 2, c. 6
                                               
                                    Little Rock, Ark., Jan. 20, 1865.
           
Our citizens will remember that several thousand dollars were collected from them last year to be sent to the President of the Western Sanitary Commission.
           
This is now bringing a return in the way of clothing for the destitute refugees under the care of the Arkansas Relief Committee.
           
The committee hereby acknowledge the receipt of the following articles from Mr. Jas. E. Yeatman, Prest. W. S. C.
           
71 pairs Women's Hose; 48 pairs Child's do.; 59 pairs Women's Shoes; 36 pairs Children's do.; 601 yds. Calico; 396 yds. Domestic; 196 yds. Checks; 89 yds. Grey Flannel; 30 Flannel Shirts; 369 yds. Linsey.
                                               
                                    John Wassell,
                                               
                                    Prest. Ark. Relief Committee.
           
L. Bartlett, Sec'y. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 3, c. 2
           
An Urgent Appeal for Immediate Relief.—Within the past week some 300 refugees, women and children, have arrived here by the boats from up the river.
           
Scarcely any men are with them, only those who, from sickness or old age, are unable to labor.  There is one aged 83, another 89.
           
The husbands, brothers, sons and fathers of many of these people are in the service of the government, and where they can render them no assistance.
           
Their sufferings have been increased greatly by the attack made upon them on their way down, and by the plunder and burning of one of the boats, they are necessarily left in a most destitute condition.
           
Contributions of second hand clothing, or any material which can be made up for children, will be gladly received at the Room of the Relief Committee at the State-house.  We trust that every one will do something in this direction at once.           

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, January 21, 1865, p. 3, c. 2

            Gibbs' Benefit.—To-night has been set apart for the benefit of this popular performer.  He has got up a rousing bill.  "The arms of Horace Greely," is worth the admission price.  There are new dances and songs, and, among the latter, Mr. Raymond gives an original song, entitled "Sherman's March."  Oliver Bell will introduce his trick mule; the Rogers sisters sing and dance; La Belle Marie and Kate Leslie sing, and La Petite Olive, the graceful favorite, gives us two dances and a song.  They present a laughable piece called the "Haunted Sutler's Store," the whole to conclude with the "Masquerade Ball."
           
There will be bushels of fun and a crowded house. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 4, 1865, p. 2, c. 2

Humbug.

            The Boston Pilot, in one of its clever editorials, lately characterized this as the age of humbug.  Says the editor:  "We are living in the age of humbug.  Humbug has entered into all the affairs of life."  This, with due respect, is, in good part, humbug.  Every now and then, editors, in different localities, break out in fresh places.  Different ones tell us that this is the age of brass, or the age of progress, the age of steam, the age of freedom, or some other kind of age, about all of which there is a great deal of humbug.  The past century had as much proportionate progress as the present has.  The next century will have its relative degree of progress.  Probably, in the year 2000, men will correspond with each though at opposite extremities of the globe, by some spiritual means.  The air will then be traversed as land and water now are.  By some newly discovered terrible forces whole armies can be destroyed at a blow.  Science will have unlocked many of her numerous stores.  We will be looked upon as poor benighted people of a twilight age cackling over such primary discoveries as the telegraph, steam power, photography and monitors.  There may be more chivalry in one age; more steam in another; more freedom in another, and even a greater degree of progress in another.  But humbug is common to all ages and to all claims.  It is in proportion to the number of human beings, whether they are savages or highly civilized.
           
Humbug pervades religion, morals, science; in fact, all that men do, or say, or think.  The medicine man of the savage, and the very reverend of the fashionable church are all tinctured with humbug.  The barbarian herbalist who uses his charms or poultice of bruised leaves, and the graduated practitioner who writes his prescription in the dog latin of the apothecaries are, to the same extent, humbugs.  The patent medicine man, who has a specific for all ailments has his counterpart in the poor savage who believes his medicine store, or amulet, or juices of some herb, will heal all diseases.  Religion has its hypocrites; patriotism its pretenders; science its charlatans; medicine its quacks, and all things their humbugs.  Says Hudibras:
                       
"Doubtless the pleasure is as great,
                       
In being cheated as to cheat."
           
There is a vast deal of truth in these lines.—Men like to be humbugged.  The worst and bitterest enemies we ever made were those when we shoed them that they had been humbugged.  They were more ready to forgive the one who cheated them, than we, who had exposed the cheat.  We have a striking instance of this at present.  A year ago we saw a knot of political gamesters, known to us as thimble-rigging blacklegs, putting their heads together to humbug and cheat the people of Arkansas.  They dressed themselves in the garb of loyalists, dubbed themselves unconditional unionists, and went about singing psalms in praise of each other.  They got control in part of the new State government.  When the legislature met they tried to get control of that.  We warned the members of them and their schemes, and they failed for a time.  By swindling they got in some stool pigeons, and finally succeeded in cheating some honest and ignorant men till they carried their point.  Day after day, we told these deluded victims they would be cheated, and that, if they were cajoled by these fellows they would disgrace themselves and the State.  Just as we predicted, they have well night ruined the State, ruined themselves, and not one of the fine promises made to them has been kept.  They were woefully and shamefully cheated.—As this fact becomes clearer and more apparent every day, do you suppose they feel grateful to us for our efforts to preserve them from disgrace?  Not a bit of it.  It is human nature to be angry when a man discovers he has been making a fool of himself, and especially to be angry at the friend who tried to prevent him from being bamboozled.
           
The world is governed by humbug, from great things to small.  Solomon sums up human life, after tasting power and pleasure, and with the greatest means of the world at his command, as "vanity of vanities," which phrase may be compressed into the one word—humbug.  All great events in history were humbugs.  The siege of Troy was a humbug.  The crusades were a gigantic humbug.  Wars are grand humbugs.  some humbugging love affair; some trivial question as to the humbug of rank; some humbug interpretation of a letter or speech, has set kingdoms at war and changed the current of events.  In matters of science,--even the most exact ones,--humbug flourishes.  Astrology, that for centuries employed so much learning, turns out to be a humbug.  The philosopher's stone is ditto.  Sorcery, divination, witchcraft and the thousand beliefs of the middle ages, were all humbugs.  The world likes to be humbugged.  A man is taken sick, sends for a physician who examines him, tells him that it is a mere cold, prescribes some hot tea, rest, abstinence from food and next day the man is well.  The doctor is paid his fee grudgingly as he did nothing.  Another with precisely the same symptoms send for Doctor Humbug.  The latter feels his pulse, examines his tongue, looks grave, asks serious questions, prescribes blisters and plasters and purgatives, throws the man in bed for a week and brings the poor fellow out pale and reduced.  The patient thinks there is no doctor like Humbug; avers that he saved his life and pays a heavy bill with satisfaction.  Two men are sued.  One employs a lawyer who, when the case is called puts in a little plea or demurrer, sustains it by a few words and the plan being good, the case is won and defendant discharged, grumbling at having to pay ten dollars to a man for writing ten lines and speaking ten words.  The other employs Lawyer Humbug, who lets all defects in the plaintiff's declaration go unquestioned, calls a jury, examines witnesses and makes a speech of hours in length.  The second defendant will tell you that he lost his case and he had to pay Humbug fifty dollars, but then Humbug is a splendid lawyer, and it was worth fifty dollars to hear him abuse the plaintiff for so many hours.  An orator addresses the people seriously and calmly.  He advises a moderate sensible course.  He reminds them of their duties, and their interests.  Orator Humbug arises.  He is for secession or union, the case may be, unconditionally, to the extreme, at once and forever.  He howls, raves, fumes and foams at the mouth.  He clamors for blood and the ruin of all who dare to differ from him.  The calm counsels of the wise man are unheeded and the crowd shout for Orator Humbug.
           
Neither is humbug confined to any class of society.  The poor and ignorant with their simplicity and credulity, their superstitions and traditions, have no more than the dwellers in the fashionable world who are surrounded by tinsel, gilded dress and humbuggery of all kinds.
           
Humbug, an expressive English word, is not so much a form of falsehood, or another name for untruth.  It is that species of falsehood by which men are imposed upon.  But, of all its forms, none is worse than where the humbugger humbugs himself.  When the courtesan persuades herself that she is virtuous, or as much so as other women; when the rogue convinces himself that he is hones; the hypocrite that he is religious at bottom; the demagogue that he is a patriot, and the fool that he is wise, then it becomes mischievious [sic] as well as disgusting. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 4, 1865, p. 2, c. 3
           
Valentines.—Go to Gibbs' and see the Valentines.  "The trick of delicacy," for that is a true translation of the Greek, and was never more clearly exhibited.  Go see the embossed envelopes, all that art or grace can do.  Just think of five, ten or twenty-five cents to get such a work of art. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 4, 1865, p. 2, c. 3
           
Varieties.—This popular place of amusement was crowded last night, and the actors all performed well their parts.
           
The grand trial jig dance for the silver goblet, Lanigan's ball, and many other attractions are on the bills for to-night.  The managers are using every exertion to please, and thus far have met with decided success.
           
Friday night is set apart for the benefit of Mr. Frank Raymond.  He is an actor of no ordinary merit, and withal a clever gentleman, who has labored faithfully and successfully to amuse the public.  Let him have a rousing benefit, he richly deserves it. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 4, 1865, p. 2, c. 4-5
 
. . . It would be strange if, after all, in this vagrant theory of Manley's there should be a depth of philosophy we have not dreamed of.  Every now and then reformers get crazy on the subject of ameliorating the condition of certain portions of the world.  Yet, after all, when we have given men enough to eat, and the chance of self improvement, we have done all that can be done.  If all were made equally rich, or the wealth of the world equally distributed to-morrow, there would be just as much unhappiness on the earth.
           
Reading, to-day, an English publication that treats of the different classes of laborers in the world, one is astonished to learn that the Russian serf is apparently the happiest of all, and that in those countries boasting of the greatest freedom, the condition of the laboring poor is most deplorable.  African slavery, in North America, has its death blow.  It lingers yet in the unconquered rebel States.  Its fate is written so that all can read.  Yet, in looking at the defunct institution, with all its errors, its vices, and outrages against natural sentiments, we must admit it gave the negroes their dull share of happiness.  By freeing them we enlarge their capacities for enjoyment, but we add to their cares, their responsibilities, their anxieties and their troubles.  We of the South know how idle are the tales of slaves being whipped every day, and chained every night.  We know that, as a class, they had their limited capacities for enjoyment filled to the full.
           
We are no believers in the often and loudly repeated formula that this government or that government makes a people happy.  There is just so much happiness in the world, and every man strives for his share.  The uneducated negro finds it in a banjo; educate him and he will find it in the fiddle; educate him yet higher and he may enjoy an elaborate oratorio, performed by a full band.  Yet he may not be the gainer thereby.
           
The gourmand over the turkey, and truffles, and bottle of Champagne, may not relish it half as much as the peasant over his dish of tripe and cabbage, and mug of ale, or glass of wine.  Where one finds happiness, another turns away in disgust, and one asserts that to be meat which another declares to be poison.
           
We are growing in the belief that there never was a truer axiom than that which reads:  The best government is that which governs least."  Men left to themselves will secure their share of happiness.  All that governments can do, or should do, is to throw off all restrictions and oppress, or control as little as possible.  Statutes may be framed so as to allure a people to make themselves happy, but no special enactment that a man shall be happy, will not make him so, if a death penalty shall be annexed.—for says dear old Goldsmith:
                       
"In every government, though terrors reign,
                       
Though tyrant kings, or tyrant laws restrain,
                       
How small, of all that human hearts endure,
                       
That part which laws or kings can cause to cure.
                       
Still to ourselves in every place consign'd,
                       
Our own felicity we make or find;
                       
With secret course, which no loud storms annoy,
                       
Glides the smooth current of domestic joy,
                       
The lifted axe, the agonizing wheel,
                       
Luke's iron crown, and Damien's bed of steel,
                       
To men remote from power but rarely known,
                       
Leave reason, faith, and conscience, all our own." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 4, 1865, p. 3, c. 1
           
Theatre.—At the Varieties last night, the plays were rendered with more than usual energy, and received with merited applause.  The unpleasant weather, and unfavorable circumstances, have not in the least abated the efforts of the energetic managers, nor the faithful labor of the excellent performers.
           
To-night is the ladies' night, and for the benefit of Mr. Raymond, who is worthy the best patronage of the public.  His bill is the most attractive of the season.  The splendid Ethiopian burlesque of Mazeppa—Parlor entertainments—the Happy old Man of 65, an excellent act, and many other attractions.  Each of the audience will also be presented by Mr. Raymond with a copy of the celebrated song of "Isabella, with a Gingham umbrella, and her Father kept a barber's shop in Milwaukee."  Get seats early, for there will be a rousing house to-night. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 4, 1865, p. 4, c. 1
           
The following item from the Arkansas paper [Washington Telegraph], is suggestive:
           
"A few pairs of cotton cards will be exchanged for pork at the rates of 200 lbs. for each pair.  Enquire at this office."
           
Before the war a pair of cotton cards were worth 60 cents and pork eight cents a pound.  Two hundred pounds of pork would then buy from twenty-five to thirty-five pairs of cards.  Now, it seems, it buys only one. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 11, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
Theatrical.—At the new theatre to-night, the managers present the grandest attraction of the season—O! HUSH.  The Ethiopian burlesque opera, with all the original music, is to be rendered by the whole company.  Those who attend will laugh, and grow fat.  In addition to this, see the usual attractions. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 11, 1865, p. 2, c. 4
           
Why Thread is Dear.—In the good old times, before the days of prohibitory tariffs, the price of spool cotton was as low in this country as in England.  "Coates" was sold at four cents a spool.  Notwithstanding the advance in cotton, the retail price in England is still two pence (2d), a spool for the best threads, or only four cents in American coin.  Making due allowance for the rise in exchange a spool of thread would not cost us more than nine cents, if it were not for the excessive tariff.  The other six cents which we pay when we give fifteen for an American thread, is the profit of our spinners, for that is about the mount which the foreign maker pays into the United States Treasury.  [New York Evening Post. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 11, 1865, p. 2, c. 5
           
Freaks of Fashion.—A New York fashion writer says:
           
At a large wedding reception, the other night, I mentally selected a few costumes remarkable for exquisite taste as deserving description.  An exquisitely fine white tarlatane, high corsage made in close puffings over low lining, long sleeves to correspond, and the skirts precisely similar, like a pile of fleecy mid summer clouds; over this was worn a gored light blue silk skirt, open to the belt in front, and gradually sloping away to nearly a point behind.  Turquois [sic] pins supported the waterfall, the hair in front frizzled and combed over a low cussion [sic], ornamented with pink rose bud and blue forget-me-nots.  Another distingue dress was of amber silk festooned in deep scallops, over a white puffed tarlatane dress, an amber silk bodice in deep points over the puffed waist, and whenever trimming was admissible it was in black velvet.  The really beautiful black hair of the fair wearer was frizzled, twisted, rolled and pulled away until the original beauty disappeared in this abominable fashion, which so few faces in unclassical American can bear. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 18, 1865, p. 1, c. 1
           
Theatrical.—At the new theatre Saturday night, O! Hush, the burlesque Ethiopian opera was presented to a large and appreciating audience.  It was musical, natural and full of fun.  Kate Leslie as Rose, delineated with wonderful adaption, the Ethiopian maid of sixteen summers, and Oscar Willis, could only be excelled as Suff, by the original old Daddy—Rice, the author of the play.  all the other characters were well rendered by the different members of the company.  The piece by special request, will be reproduced to-night, with the usual additional attractions.  The theatre building is soon to receive additional improvements, and new and splendid attractions, are to be offered by the energetic managers, who are doing, and will continue to do their best, for the public amusement. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 18, 1865, p. 2, c. 4
           
Hook and Ladder Company.—We are told that the Hook and Ladder fire company, received yesterday from New York, an entire uniform, new and beautiful.  The whole outfit is complete, and will add greatly to the appearance of this excellent company.  The officers of the company promise us a good turn out in a few days.  It is an excellent company, composed of our best citizens, and is always on duty in time of necessity. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 18, 1865, p. 2, c. 5
           
Necklaces.—Le Follet declared itself very happy to see the decided return of necklaces; they are not confined to evening wear, but accompany morning toilets, though, of course, in a modified form.  The long chains of beads have become excessively vulgar; one row close round the throat, with a medallion, is sometimes worn.  But the most elegant of these collars are of plain ribbon velvet, fastened with a snap, and ornamented with gold coins or small sprays of steel work.  Cameo or portrait medallions are much worn; they are suspended from the collar or from a small chain. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 18, 1865, p. 3, c. 2
           
Theatrical.—It was announced by the managers of the New Theatre the other day that they would discontinue, for a time, the nightly exhibitions.  The company, however, is keeping up the amusements every night.  We dropped in last evening a few moments, and they had a rousing house, and very interesting exhibition, of fun and humor.
           
To add to the attractions of the occasion, while the play was progressing, in came that same Hook and Ladder Company, of which we made mention yesterday, all dressed to death—new clothes—red shirts, and yellow belts,--pantaloons all alike, and great big hats, to keep the flying missiles of fire away in time of labor.  We suppose they had held a meeting at their hall to try on the "new clothes," and were so well pleased that they wanted to favor others with the sight.  It is, without doubt, nice as can be.
           
Our old friend, J. A. Henry, wears the "Foreman's" belt, but we can't see why they don't call him Captain.  He looked like he was trying to be young again. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 25, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
Alice Kingsbury.—This very popular and good actress closes a brief and successful engagement at the Little Rock Theatre to-night.  She has charmed the lovers of amusements, and created a sensation seldom known before in Little Rock.  We have seen her in several characters, in which she excels, but as Cricket, in Fanchon, she is most superior.  The piece was rendered night before last to a crowded house.  Last night the Child of Savanna, for a farewell benefit, was the play.  The whole audience was elecgrified.  The part of Telula is seldom better sustained.  She is a lady of beauty and fascinating appearance, easy manners, scarcely of medium size—sentimental, beaming eye which is fired rapidly be every emotion of thought.  If she has faults, and all have some, it is a want of easy and natural outflow of speech.  Her pronunciation is clear and distinct, but her voice sometimes a little cramped.  Alice Kingsbury will long be remembered, and ever welcome by the people of Little Rock. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 25, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
More Prisoners from Clarksville.—Last Sunday, the Carrie Jacobs brought up eight more prisoners from Clarksville, all but one heavily ironed, and safe to be implicated in the cruel outrage of Mrs. Seth Howell and other ladies.  Their names are as follows:
J. B. Mills, Sergeant 14th Kansas cavalry.
Adam Scott,                             "
H. Lowery,                               "
Wisener Condray,                    "
Gaines Simeo                           "
C. Allison                                 "
Smith Russell,                           "
E. L. Rucker, Co. I, 6th Kansas cavalry.
           
If these, and the other six brought up last week, are guilty of the awful crimes charged against them, there is scarcely any punishment too severe for them.  If they are innocent, they are deserving of sympathy for their needless suffering.
           
But that crimes of the most unnatural and barbarous kind have been perpetrated, and against highly respectable widow ladies, is a fixed fact.  One of the victims has since died and another had her leg amputated.  It remains to fasten guilt upon the real culprits.  Occurrences of such infamous character are but too readily seized upon by rebels, not only to declaim against Union soldiers and citizens, generally, but also against the cause they advocate.  It is useless to conceal that the burning, abusing and robbing of those unfortunate women will be made a pretext by the rebel guerrilla bands, hovering in this part of the State, for severe retaliatory measures, and many a brave soldier, or staunch Union man, will be made to suffer for the crimes of others.
           
Let justice be done.
                                               
                                    [Ft. Smith New Era, 18th inst. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, February 25, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
The reception at the White House, this evening, was the most brilliant of the season.  To interest your lady readers, I may state that Mrs. Lincoln wore a rich lilac colored dress, trimmed with black velvet and narrow ribbon; the skirt being set with white satin and velvet formed in the shape of diamonds, a head dress of point lace and feathers; necklace of pearls; breast pin; white kid gloves and fan.  Gen. Grant and lady, and Vice Admiral Farragut and lady, were among the distinguished guests.
                                               
                                    [Wash. Cor. 11th

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 4, 1865, p. 2, c. 3
           
The Theatre.—The Little Rock Theatre, has changed hands recently, and is now conducted by Messrs. Dewey & Wyatt.  The former managers, though retired from the management remain as members of the company, and appear nightly on the stage, comprising a part of the best Theatrical company outside of Cincinnati or Chicago.  The energetic management are entitled to great credit, for the taste and judgment displayed, and all the players are worthy the highest praise.
           
Mr. Orlando Brace, the funniest man in the world, and star comedian, is playing to crowded houses.  This is the fifth night of his engagement, and the play is the American Cousin.  No scroll of our pen, can add to the well merited fame of Mr. Brace,--go see him for yourself.
           
Seventy-six, the Sea of Ice, and the best selection of sensation pieces will soon be produced. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 4, 1865, p. 2, c. 6
           
Inauguration Ball Cards.—the vignette, which encloses the form of invitation and names of managers, consist of a representation of three distinct layers of rock, inscribed with dates of three great eras in our history, viz:  1777-83, 1812-15 and 1860-65.
           
At the sides, from blocks of granite which rest upon these strata of rock, arise two lofty columns, the one on the left being gracefully entwined by the national colors, and surmounted by an American Eagle, in the act of destroying a serpent; while the column on the right is entwined by a scroll on which are inscribed the sentiments, "E. Pluribus Unum," and "We are one and indissoluble," and surmounted by an eagle bearing in tis talons a bundle of arrows and an olive branch.
           
Just beneath the superscription, "National Inauguration Ball," are good likenesses of Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, in medallion form, which are joined by a staff on which is suspended a liberty cap, and whose sides are embellished with olive branches.
           
Doubtless these cards will be highly prized by those who may be so fortunate as to receive them. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 4, 1865, p. 3, c. 1
           
What War Does.—A correspondent of the Newburgh Journal of the 11th inst., says that he saw in that village, on that day, the widow and two children of a soldier, who had died while bravely battling for his country, turned into the street by her landlord for want of a month's rent, on the day it was due—and one of the children too sick to raise its head from the pillow.

And Then on This.

            Your paper is such a friend to the soldiers that I am sure you will publish a few words in behalf of their wives.  I am a soldier's wife, with five little children and an orphan sister to support.  My husband has been a prisoner for nearly a year, and I have never received money or help of any kind from the government [of] the county of Henrico, in which I live, or the city of Richmond.  I have an old father-in-law who has four families, besides the families of two sons in the army, to aid.  He cannot do all this, even though he gives us all he has.  I write this to suggest that the government open a store at which we may buy food, cotton and shoes, at government prices.  We look to it alone.  The rich do not aid us.  I have parted with my jewelry and part of my clothing and furniture, and my children often go to bed hungry.  I trust that the government will open some way to us by which we can obtain the necessaries of life.
                                               
                                                A Soldier's Wife.
                       
                                                                                    [Richmond Dispatch. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 4, 1865, p. 3, c. 3
           
At a very fashionable Hebrew wedding in Hartford recently, the bride was dressed in an elegant and expensive lilac-colored moire antique dress, richly trimmed.  On her head, she wore a coronet of green leaves and orange flowers, falling from which was a white lace veil of delicate texture, enveloping her whole figure.—One of the bridesmaids was also dressed in a very rich silver-gray moire antique dress.  The occasion was one of much interest. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 11, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
We learn that the men of the second Brigade, 1st Division, captured at Marks' Mill, last summer, have all been exchanged. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 11, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
Theatre.—The star comedian, Orlando Brace, is drawing full houses at the Little Rock Theatre.  He is one of the best actors that ever appeared before an audience in this city, and is supported by a most excellent company.  Frank Raymond, formerly of the Varieties Theatre, is in the company, and other talented artists, whom we shall have occasion to notice hereafter.  The play to-night is The Taking of Savannah, a very popular military piece.  Secure seats early, to make sure of a chance to see it. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 11, 1865, p. 2, c. 6

Dry Goods in New York.

            Coton Goods generally are 2 1/2@5c. per yard lower this week than last, with the exeception of Prints, which were reduced in advance.  These remain steady, but will advance even in Richmond was to be evacuated tomorrow, for the good reason that they cannot be produced with cotton at present rates.  It was surmised, that the large supplies of cotton which lately arrived from Savannah, would be the means of giving us cheap cotton and cotton goods, but such does not appear to be the fact.
            All that we can say with any degree of accuracy is, that goods is cheaper to-day, both cotton and woolens, than they can be produced to pay a profit, and should any activity set in soon there must be a general hardening of prices.
            The closing quotations for the Atlantic cottons are as follows:  AA 37 inch heavy Sheetings, none; PA 37 do. do., none; AH 37 do. do., none; PH 37 do. do., none; AD 37 do. medium do 40c; AP37 do. light do., 35c.; AV 30 do. heavy Shirting, 38 1/2c.; AL 26 1/2 inch fine Sheeting, 35c.; PL 36 1/2 do. do., 34 1/2c.; ALL 36 1/2 inch do. do., 28c.; PLL 36 1/2 do. do., 27 1/2c.; AE 33 do. do. 32c.; PE 33 do. do., 31 1/2c.
            Toward the close a better inquiry is noticeable among the jobbing trade, both for cotton and woolen fabrics, but there is no rushing trade or general activity.  The indications are, however, of increased activity very soon.  Cotton goods appear to have touched bottom this week, and must advance.  Woolen fabrics maintain their price for all desirable styles, and are sold close up to their production, especially fine fancy Cassimeres and Coatings.  Indifferent woolens are slow of sale, unless at a concession in prices that would be somewhat ruinous to manufacturers at a season when labor, wool, oils, drugs and dyes, coal, and everything that enters into the cost of production commands a gold value higher than at any time this season.
            Prints.--We left the Print market at the date of our last report in a depressed and utterly demoralized condition, as could be inferred from the prices then printed; but the trade very soon availed themselves of the low scale, and purchased all the available stock at our current figures, in the cheapest mart.  Others who remained obstinate and would not reduce their quotations, of course could not do any business.  On Monday morning the excitement continued, and the entire stock on the floor of a leading jobbing house was soon cleared out.  There were congregated there and around the building from 250 to 500 purchasers and lookers-on, and up to one o'clock the excitement ran high, not knowing what the next invoice of gods would open at.  At the appointed hour the whole floor was again covered with prints and the prices remained unchanged, although there was a heavy loss on the goods.  The trade were well aware of this, and availed themselves of the opportunity of purchasing liberally.  The house in question, (which is A. T. Stewart & Co's,) it was thought had no such stock to dispose of, but the other leading houses soon discovered their error, and finally concluded that if they were to transact any business, they had better meet the market also, no matter how severe the loss.
            There is certainly a scarcity of dress goods in the country at this moment, and it would puzzle a Philadelphia lawyer to tell why prints are selling so low, that the printers and jobbers are losing five cents per yard on all the goods which now find their way into consumption.  It certainly puzzles us, but we have no interest in the matter beyond giving current rates at the moment we go to press.
            We have to notice considerable activity in the market, however, since the close of the Boston sale, and this activity has extended not only to the jobbers, but to the agents, with few exceptions.  Sprague is the most noticeable one.--The last sale this printer made of his goods, we think, was at 43c., and the next sale he is likely to make, probably on the 1st prox., will not be under 30c. per yard.  The Merrimack reduced the price of their goods yesterday to 30c. and 27c. per yard, and have disposed of all the goods they want to at present.  To-day they sent word to all the jobbers that their prices would be advanced 2c. per yard to-morrow.
            The Pacific Mills have been disposing of their goods at 25c., and raised their prices this evening to 27c.  The American have been selling freely at 27@28c., net, 3 per cent. off.
            At the close, the American Prints have been advanced to 30c., regular; Conestoga to 30c., and Garner & Co.'s as follows:  Madders, 27 1/2c.; Amoskeag pink, 26 1/2c; do. purple, 25 1/2c.; do.  Shirting, 24 1/2c.; do. dark, 24 1/2c.; do. light, 24 1/2c.; do. Mourning, 23 1/2c.; Swiss ruby, 25 1/2c.; Dutchess B, 22c; Lowell dark, 23c.; do. light, 23c.; Naumkeag, 23c.; York mourning, 23 1/2c.  The Lawrence have all been closed out at 25c. net, and would now bring 26 1/2c.  This company have now changed to a heavier cloth, which will hereafter be known as Concheco L.  The Concheco Prints are out of market.
            Mous de Laines.--The violent decline in the price of Prints has forced the agents of these goods to reduce their prices 5c. per yard, which is a fearful loss.  This may be a God send to the poor, but it is certainly an awful loss to the manufacturers, who positively lose from 5c. to 7c. per yard on the sale of their goods.  But we notice considerable more alacrity at the decline, viz:  33c. for De Laines, and 35c. for Challies and Armures.  All the companies are now offering an elegant assortment, but the Pacific are the most generally admired, and while they cater to all the best  French styles, they place their goods upon the market at half their cost.
                                                                                                                    [Economics, 25th.

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 25, 1865, p. 1, c. 6           
                                               
                                                            Cairo, March 15.
           
Five hundred more exchanged and paroled prisoners from Tyler, Texas, came up on the steamer Hannibal from New Orleans, about half belong to the 77th Ohio and the remainder to various other western regiments. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, March 25, 1865, p. 2, c. 5
           
Refugees and rebel deserters arriving in Chattanooga, says the Gazette, from the northern countries [sic] of Georgia, report a terrible state of affairs existing through that region.  The whole country is teeming with gangs of marauders, composed of deserters from the rebel army and rebel citizens, who roam over the land, robbing, plundering, and even murdering defenceless men and women.  The thieves even stoop to rob the women of their clothing and children of their shoes.  Life is cheaply held, and the rights of property are disregarded. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 1, 1865, p. 2, c. 2
           
What has become of the famous Texan rangers?  In the first years of the war, they confronted our armies every where, and were distinguished for audacity, dash and endurance.  For a year past, they have had no military record, and no mention is made of them in the East or in the West.  Have they "played out?" 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 1, 1865, p. 2, c. 5

The Hangers-on of the Army.

            I have used the word "bummer" in my accounts, and it has been suggested that many of your readers do not know the meaning of the term.  It has now a recognized position in the army lexicon.  Any man who has seen the object that it applies to, will acknowledge that it was admirably selected.  Fancy a ragged man, blackened by the smokes of many a pine knot fire, mounted on a scrawny mule, without a saddle, with a gun, a knapsack, a butcher-knife, and a plug hat, stealing his way through the pine forests, far out on the flanks of a column, keen on the sent of rebels, or bacon, or silver spoons, or corn, or anything valuable, and you have him in your mind.  Think how you would admire him if you were a lone woman, with a family of small children, far from help, when he blandly inquired where you kept your valuables.  Think how you would smile when he pried open your chests with his bayonet, or knocked to pieces your tables, pianos and chairs, tore your bed clothing in three inch strips, and scattered the strips about the yard.  The "bummers" say it takes too much time to use keys.  Color is no protection from these rough-riders.  They go through a negro cabin in search of diamonds and gold watches with just as much freedom and vivacity as they "loot" the dwelling of a wealthy planter.  They appear to be possessed of a spirit of pure "cussedness."  One incident of many will illustrate.  A "bummer" stepped into a house and inquired for sorghum.  The lady of the house presented a jug, which he said was too heavy, so he merely filled his canteen.  Then taking a huge wad of tobacco from his mouth, he thrust it into the jug.  The lady inquired, in wonder, why he spoiled that which he did not want.  "Oh, some feller'll come along and taste that sorghum, think you've poisoned him; then he'll burn your damned old house."  There are hundreds of these mounted men with the column, and they go everywhere.  Some of them are loaded down with silver ware, gold coin and other valuables.  I hazard nothing in saying that three-fifths (in value) of the personal property of the counties we have passed through is in Sherman's army to-day.
                                               
                                    [N. C. Cor. N. Y. Herald. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 1, 1865, p. 2, c. 5
           
Deserters from Texas.—the number of refugees and deserters coming in from the State is very great.  By all routes they come trooping; some float down Red river in dug outs, some walk across the country; some arrive crowded and jammed away by scores in the reeking holds of sail vessels.  They burrow under guard-houses, they poison the blood-hounds, they wade through long bayous to throw them off the trail, they swim, the climb trees, they walk, they run, they lurk in swamps and bogs, whistled over by musquitoes, crawled over by "varmints"—in all ways and in all means they flee away from the cursed rebel despotism which prevails there.  Nor are they all of the meaner sort:  two days ago there arrived here a Capt. Art Mead, formerly rebel Provost Marshal at Brownsville, Texas, and a Major Vandegraff, of some Texas regiment.  Many of these men are Germans from West Texas, who had been conscripted, and who hated the rebellion from the beginning, and fought against it from within it, and whom the rebels hate most cordially.  It awakens by turns one's laughter and his righteous indignation to listen to the broken English of these deeply wronged men, relating the outrages they have seen and suffered.
                                               
                                    [New Orleans Cor., Cin. Com. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 1, 1865, p. 3, c. 1

Correspondence of the Cincinnati Commercial.
Corruption and Villainy Unparalleled.

                                                                                    Fort Smith, Ark., March 5, 1865.
           
The report of General Herron's inspection of the district is before the country, and, as far as it goes, is a true history of the frauds and speculations on the Government, on the part of prominent officials at this place.  Ever since the occupation of this place by the Federal troops, there has been a system of frauds practiced on the Government.  At no time has there been any restraint on the troops.  All have been plundered, and robbed, and left destitute, and many have been driven from their homes, whose fathers and sons have been fighting in our cause, by then in Federal service.  This policy has continued until the country is depopulated, and thousands of starving women and children driven into our lines to be fed.—While the outrages were being perpetrated, officers occupying high places refused to listen to the pleadings of distressed women and children, but were busily engaged as silent partners, aiding to run off to Kansas the stolen plunder.—For eighteen months immense trains have been hauling supplies from Leavenworth, Kansas, to Fort Smith, a distance of 375 miles, requiring escorts of  200 to 300 men to guard them.  Each one of these trains have been loaded back with cotton, furniture, and other stolen plunder, gathered up in the interim by a band of petty thieves, who have been hanging on to the combination of citizens and officers who have been swindling the Government, and are paid by them.  These escorts furnished protection for the 25,000 head of cattle which had been driven out of this country, four-fifths of which have been stolen from the people, besides the thousands of horses, mules and carriages which have been run off—to say nothing of an immense quantity of ladies' clothing, bedding, &c., which have been hauled to Kansas by wagon loads.  All these things have been done with the sanction of the military authorities here, who have received their per cent. of the stealings.  When officers are guilty of such practices, is it to be expected the private soldier will not become demoralized?  They were used to cut hay for contractors, who received $20 per tun [sic] for it—they were used to drive the cattle which they were required to steal, which the contractors sold to the Government at ten cents per pound, and they were used to collect abandoned property which they knew was sold on private account, and the money transferred to the pockets of their officers.  Under these circumstances the men of the army became demoralized.  They would steal the public property they were detailed to guard, and have become lost to all discipline or restraint, and after devastating the country, pillaging and plundering until there was nothing left, they united in small bands, and overran the country to hunt gold, which they imagined was buried in the earth.  Women, whose loyalty can not be questioned, have been tortured by these men in the most barbarous and fiendish manner, to compel them to tell where they had concealed their money.  In one instance, only a short time since, a band of fifteen or twenty men, of the 14th Kansas Cavalry, visited several houses where the women and children were left alone.  Gold was demanded on pain of having their houses burned.  The women replied that they had no gold, but were willing to give up all else they had.  After being most shamefully outraged, these fiends caught the women and held their feet on burning coals to compel them to tell where their hidden gold was.  In some instances they obtained small amounts, but carried their tortures to such an extent that one woman died, another had her leg amputated, and several others were burned to the knee so badly that they will be cripples for life.  These outrages, which would disgrace a band of savages, were perpetrated by soldiers in United States uniforms, and, worst of all, an officer of the 14th Kansas Cavalry, and the Rev. Mr. Hutcheson, an ex-chaplain, are implicated.—Large quantities of the stolen plunder was found in their possession.  They with about fifteen men, were arrested, and sent in irons to Little Rock for trial, where it is hoped, they will all be hung.
           
After long months of despair, a change has been made.  Brigadier General Eli Thayer, who has commanded the District of the Frontier for over one year, has been superseded by Brigadier General Cyrus Bussey, who assumed command on the 13th of February.  Gen. Bussey has served three years in Arkansas, commencing with the battle of Pea Ridge, in which he bore a conspicuous part; has participated in all the important campaigns through the State, and through the siege of Vicksburg, and afterward the expedition to Jackson, as Chief of Cavalry to Gen. Sherman, returning to Arkansas with the army that drove out the rebel army and occupied Little Rock, where he has since served until ordered to this command.  He has been here three weeks, and already the sky is brightening—a finer atmosphere prevails—hope is once more buoyant and discipline is being restored.  The magnitude of the duty to be performed can scarcely be estimated, but we feel confident the firm hold policy which has been announced, will cure all the evils.  Gen. Bussey's moral character is without a single blemish, and his appointment to this command, in view of the duties to be performed, is certainly a compliment of which he may well feel proud.  The people are stimulated to go to work, and the work of reconstruction has fairly begun.—The Augean stable will be cleaned, and discipline restored. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 8, 1865, p. 2, c. 1

Fall of Richmond.

            Yesterday was a day long to be remembered in the city of Little Rock.  Evidence of the fall of Richmond was received the day previous, and confirmed yesterday morning.  It was agreed, by common consent, that it should be a jubilee—no one objected, and every body was in perfect good humor—not a difficulty was known, or angry word heard in the city, that we are aware of.  All were merry with thankfulness that the great Babylon of rebellion had fallen.  The discipline of the city was most excellent, but there was no need of any rigid rules of order.  Every body appreciated the fact that it was a merry harvest of thanksgiving over the greatest event of the great rebellion, and none were too merry to appreciate it.
           
At early morning the loud cannonading announced the Department commanders' heart-felt joy, and the truth that Richmond's fall was a fixed fact.  The military and the civilians all were glad.  At night, without any preliminary order, or notice to call attention to the matter, the houses of government and citizens were brightly illuminated, and every demonstration of patriotism made manifest.  At the State House a large concourse of people, mostly of citizens, assembled to give expression to their feelings.  D. B. Lamb was made chairman, Gov. Murphy, Maj. Ham, Dr. E. D. Ayres, C. C. Bliss, J. H. Butler, L. C. White, Hon. E. H. Vance, and John Wassell Esq., were appointed vice presidents.  Dr. Jennings, J. W. Denby, and Mr. Jordan secretaries.
           
W. O. Stoddard, United States Marshal, was charged with the duties of committee of arrangements.  The large audience was addressed by the following gentlemen:
           
Orville Jennings, W. O. Stoddard, Robert A. Howard, Esq., Maj. Ham, Col. Johnson, Mr. Butler and O. P. Snyder.
           
The speeches were earnest and patriotic.—We have not time or space for a review of what was said.  We may refer to the subject again at another time. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 8, 1865, p. 2, c. 6
           
The People of Fredericksburg.—A correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce, who accompanied the recent expedition to Fredericksburg, thus speaks of the people and their feelings about the war:
           
The people in the town were all women or old men and boys, and appeared to be very destitute.  I saw many women dressed in clothes made of cotton duck tents.  The men wore garments which looked like faded revolutionary relics.  A few people were well dressed but most bore marks of deep poverty.  All the men with whom I conversed were reconstructionists, and all the people seemed glad to see us, and hoped we would remain.  One gentleman, who came fro Richmond the day before, who was said to be a man of wealth and influence, told us that he had good reason to believe that the war would end in four weeks by the submission of the rebel leaders.  All were agreed that this campaign would finish up the Confederacy, the most bitter secessionists only claiming that the South had vindicated their pluck and endurance. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 8, 1865, p. 2, c. 6
           
The Savannah ladies say they have regularly received the Paris fashions and many foreign fabrics through the blockade.  They have been as well informed respecting style of dresses as people at the North, but the enormous prices demanded for fabrics have checked any attempt at extravagance in dress.  The correspondents say "the ladies wear jockey hats, hoop skirts, and other fashionable inventions of the milliner and mantua-maker.  They do not indulge in jewelry to any extent, but dress neatly and without any attempt at display.  The ladies are contented.  Their hearts are enlisted in the cause of the South, and they are willing to make any sacrifice that may be necessary to establish her independence." 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 15, 1865, p. 3, c. 2
           
The Celebration Last Night.—Pursuant to notice yesterday morning, the entire city was illuminated last night, and the most enthusiastic demonstrations of rejoicing made, in testimony of appreciation of the great victories recently achieved by the armies of the Union.  The richest profusions of flags and lights were visible in all parts of the city, and universal rejoicing prevailed.
           
A very large flag was suspended across Markham street, in front of Gen. Reynold's headquarters.
           
The 12th Kansas, a splendid regiment, was out in torch-light procession, with most appropriate transparent devices.  "The success of our cause the hope of the world," was displayed, in large letters.  "How are you Maximillian?" was a most significant motto, and shows that the war spirit is not yet fully satiated.  If the country's honor and integrity demands other defences, after the rebellion is over, thousands of brave voices will respond with the argument of sword and bayonet. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 15, 1865, p. 3, c. 2
           
Helena.—Through the kind remembrance of Capt. Harding, commissary at Helena, we are favored with photographic views of the city.  They were taken while the town was flooded.  Men in canoes and flat boats are seen in the principle streets, busily engaged in such business transactions as are necessary, whether it rains or shines.  The Headquarters of Gen. McCook, are not surrounded by water, but it verges upon his gateway.  To one well acquainted with Helena, the views are quite interesting. Many thanks to the Captain.
           
From the picture we infer, in the small boats, hard by a place that has some appearance of a commissary's place of deposit, and it may be possible that those barrels contain what is called "commissary" and that it is an exhibition of the difficulty of getting it out. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 15, 1865, p. 3, c. 1
                                               
                                    From the Memphis Argus.

Guerrilla Life in Arkansas.

            We have authentic information of the following occurrences:
           
On Thursday of last week, Captain Brenker, and eight men of Jo. Shelby's guerrilla outlaws, who for some time past have been operating in Northern Arkansas, crossed White river below Clarendon, and entered Monroe county.  They first proceeded to Mr. S. Peppers' plantation, near which they found a furloughed soldier named Keep, whom, without provocation, they murdered in cold blood.  Keep was stripped, tied to a tree and made a target for their pistol balls.  He received several shots, one of which took effect in his mouth and killed him.  Mr. Peppers was taken out of his own house and killed, receiving a ball in his breast.
           
During their stay, which lasted several hours, the guerrillas maltreated quite a number of citizens, beating them with clubs and the butts of their carbines and pistols.  Women were insulted, and the entire neighborhood for a time under a perfect reign of terror.
           
As soon as the murderers left, a few rebel soldiers in the vicinity and a number of citizens organized, mounted and pursued them. They overtook them about twenty miles from Duncan's Prairie, and immediately attacked them.  The fugitives scarcely attempted to return their fire, and made every effort to escape, but the fresh horses of the pursuers rendered the attempt futile.  They were shot down without mercy or distinction of persons, and not one escaped the fate they themselves meted out to Peppers and Keep.  The Captain and his eight men were all killed within a space of six or eight miles, and left where they fell, the indignant pursuers not deigning to bury them. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 15, 1865, p. 3, c. 4
           
Game is having a holiday down south.  Deer and bears are reported to have reappeared in districts where they had not been seen for many years prior to the commencement of the war.  Quails and rabbits literally swarm in the desolated settlements of Virginia, and it is stated that last summer partridges actually made their nest in some of the streets of Charleston. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, April 22, 1865, p. 1, c. 1
                                               
                                    Little Rock, Ark., April 14th, 1865.
Dr. Meador—
           
The teachers and scholars connected with the colored schools in this city, determined not to let the occasion of yesterday's rejoicing over the success of Gen. Grant and the brave troops fighting for Union and Liberty, pass, without demonstrating in some manner the joy and gratitude of their hearts, and suggested to Major Sargent, Supt. of Freedmen for the State of Arkansas, that he would propose something which would be proper and profitable to carry out their wishes.  It was determined that a mass meeting of the children and teachers be called and the Governor and some of the leading members of the State Legislature, now in session at the Capitol, be invited to visit and address them.  An impromptu gathering was had at 3 o'clock P.M., at the clock Church, turned over to Maj. Sargent, for educational purposes, by order of Maj. Gen. Steele, and now occupied by Rev. D. T. Allen, Mrs. Allen, Miss Call and Miss Vickey, teachers of the colored children in that ward.
           
The scholars of the different schools were marched into the church conducted by their teachers, all dressed in their gala out-fits, and presented a seat, tidy and cheerful appearance.  The meeting was called to order by Maj. Sargent, and opened by singing a patriotic song by the children, led by Mrs. Allen and Lieutenant Brady.
           
Chaplain Grant Supt. of scholars, was then introduced and made some very pertinent and encouraging remarks, and was followed by His Excellency, Hon. Isaac Murphy, Gov. of the State of Arkansas.
           
Short addresses were then attentively listened to, from Hon. Jas. H. Butler, Representative from Phillips county, and Rev. Chas. H. Roe, d. D., from Scotland, Capt. Demby of the Ark Journal, and others.
           
The speeches and remarks were interspersed with singing, and all allusions to "Old Abe," the "Proclamation," "Grant and Sherman," loudly applauded.
           
I will not attempt to give you a report of the words uttered by the speakers on this occasion, and will only add that they had the ring of true metal, and were in consonant harmony with the feeling notes of the cannon which were on the river bank, belching forth their thunder tones of recent great victories over rebellion, slavery and opposition.
           
It may be pertinent to add, that there may be a significant historic interest connected with the fact that at the very moment when the victories for fealty to law were being celebrated in the Capitol of a former slave State, when two years ago it was a felony to teach colored people to read, the highest Executive officer of that State was addressing the children of colored schools, and encouraging them to renewed application in matters pertaining to their advancement in education, and sustaining the devoted self-sacrifice of the teachers engaged in this work, by his co-operation, counsel and advice.
                       
                        Yours, &c.                              W. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 6, 1865, p. 1, c. 4

(Communicated.)

            Sir:  Yesterday the 27th day of April, the colored citizens of this place met at one o'clock P.M. at the colored Methodist church, to pay their last tribute of respect to their lately deceased friend, that great and good man Abraham Lincoln, late President of the United States of America.
           
The meeting was called to order by Maj. Sargent, Supt. Freedmen, for Dept. of Ark., and after the performance of a solemn dirge, by the colored brass band, of the 60th U. S. C. I., the people bowed before the throne of Almighty God in fervent supplication and prayer, by Rev. Joe. Grant, Superintendent colored schools.
           
Appropriate remarks were then made by Lt. Brady, Mr. Petty, Rev. Wm. Andrews, (colored) interspersed with music by the above mentioned band, the regiment band of 57th U. S. C. I., and congregational singing in which the whole assembly joined.
           
At five o'clock, the rain having partially ceased falling, the assembly adjourned to the State House, to pay their respects to the Gov., who, next to the lamented Lincoln, has a deeper place in the heart and affections of these people, than perhaps any other living man in our midst.
           
The remarks of His Excellency, Gov. Murphy, were of feeling, of kindness and encouragement, and deeply affected all who had the pleasure of hearing them.  These freed people were incited to endeavor by imitating the life of him they this day mourned, to be kind, compassionate, industrious and true;--true to themselves, to the nation and to their God.  His allusions to some of the mottoes on their various transparencies present, such as "He has made us free, may we be worthy of it"—"He is dead, but his deeds life," &c., were very beautiful and impressively expressed.
           
Following the Governor, came Judge _____, and Col. Bishop of the Arkansas State Legislature, and Maj. Murphy of the 60th U. S. C. I.
           
At six o'clock P.M. Maj. Sargent remarked, that in-as-much as the blessings of Almighty God were invoked at the assembling together of this people there would be an appropriateness in dismissing in the same manner, after which the assembly quietly dispersed, each feeling that it was well he had been present on this exceedingly interesting and impressive occasion.
                                               
                                    Yours, &c.,                 W.
           
Little Rock, Ark., April 28th, 1865. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 6, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
           
The May Festival.—We had the pleasure of being present last night, at the May Festival of the students of Mrs. Howard.  It was a most interesting exhibition.  some thirty odd little girls, extremely handsome and beautifully attired, and adorned with flowers, appeared in tableaux, and in recitation.  The May Queen, Miss Amanda Cribbs, and king among the roses, Master Harry Webster Crowl, previously selected by unanimous vote of the students, received the honors in a dignified and very amiable manner.  It would be hard to discriminate who best performed their parts, but all will admit that there was one little master, Johnny Handy, as young America, who has the sprouts of elegance budding for future maturity.
           
After the exhibition a rich and bounteous feast of good things was indulged, and all adjourned—the young ladies [sic] and lassies happy as could be—men fretted with the cares of life wishing to be young again—and parents, glad and happy to have bright eyed boys and girls in the excellent school of Mrs. Howard.  She is a most superior teacher—an accomplished scholar, and has the happy faculty of directing the thoughts of young children to learning and discipline. 

[LITTLE ROCK] NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, May 6, 1865, p. 3, c. 3

Flag of Second Brigade.

            Last evening at four o'clock, by invitation of the officers of the 2d Brigade of cavalry, we were out to witness the raising of a liberty pole and flag at the Brigade Headquarters.  It was a very nice affair.  Quite a large crowd assembled on the grounds.  The brass band of the 11th Missouri afforded good music.  The raising of the flag was superintended by an experienced sailor.  The location is an elevation a little south-east of St. John's College, in a nice grove of timber.
           
The 2d Brigade is of the Cavalry Division and is composed of the 1st, 3d, 8th, and 11th Missouri, numbering over 3,300 good soldiers commanded by Col. W. F. Geiger, of the 9th Missouri.  Col. Greiger is, at present, absent, and the Brigade is commanded by Col. Reed.  The flag-staff is over one hundred feet high.  On the top are crossed sabres draped in black for the lamented President Lincoln.  From the position where this flag is erected, six others are visible in the distance, the most of them flags of the cavalry regiments or brigades.  The cavalry of Missouri composes a prominent part of the Army of Arkansas.  They are brave soldiers, and well officered.