Mordents:
Copperas and Alum in Civil War Era Newspapers
 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, September 17, 1860, p. 4, c. 1

Our Bailey Springs Correspondence.

                                                                                              Bailey Springs, near Florence, Ala.,  }
                                               
                                                            September 9, 1860.      
 . .           The Brick Spring (the well being formed of brick) has fine chalybeate qualities, is a fine tonic, and acts on the skin, liver, kidneys and bowels, being destitute of any astringent qualities.  This is also a wonderful water, and is strongly impregnated with iron.  In cases of general debility its effects are marvelous in its restorations.  There is also the marble or alum spring, the soda spring, and a large free-stone spring of the most delightful water, both of the former containing likewise great medicinal properties.
 

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATLANTA, GA], August 25, 1861, p. 3, c. 1

Something We Like.

                On yesterday we had the pleasure of "showing up" The Franklin Printing establishment to a party of ladies--among them Miss T., the daughter of an old friend--dressed in beautiful checked homespun; white, blue, copperas, and "Turkey Red" colors were beautifully woven into the fabric.  It really was refreshing.  Then it fit right.  It was not only spun and wove, but cut and fit by the accomplished wearer, who has just completed a collegiate education. . . 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, September 20, 1861, p. 1, c. 1
Recipe for Coloring Blankets.  Make a strong solution of Red Oak Bark, put a table spoonful of Copperas in the solution, boil a few minutes and stir well.  Put your white blankets in the solution and boil them half an hour; take them out and soak them in weak ley [lye] then rinse them well in warm soap suds and hang out to dry.
    
           These directions if followed will give a most desirable for an army blanket. 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, January 14, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
               
Copperas, almost pure, has been discovered by O. D. Sledge, Esq., on his plantation near New Market, in this county.  A specimen of it has been left at the Advocate office.  We trust he will go to work and prepare it for market.
                                                                               
[Huntsville (Ala.) Southern Adv., 8th.
 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], February 5, 1862, p. 3, c. 4

New Goods!

Just received and for sale--. . . Copperas; Indigo; Madder; Logwood; Venetian Red; Spanish Brown; . . . at R. M. Smith's Drug Store. 
Feb. 5 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, April 8, 1862, p. 1, c. 2

Alum and Copperas.

                                                                                                                Kingston, April 2, 1862.
Editor Savannah Republican:
               
Dear Sir:--There is a locality not far from this place offering extraordinary advantages for the manufacture of alum and copperas, and connected with these, if desired, of sulphuric acid.  The property can be bought low.  It is 18 miles from the State road.  The manufacture of the first two articles is very simple, and is within the reach of any sensible planter with negro labor.  The profits of the manufacture especially of copperas would be very great, its present price being exorbitant.  Our supply of it will soon be exhausted, and its want will be severely felt in dyeing clothes.  The manufacture of this article would be a public utility, besides being a source of large profit to the manufacturer.  I am prompted to address you this communication, in consequence of having learned that there are now numbers of negroes below Savannah who are without employment and a source of expense to their owners.  I have no interest whatever in the property referred to, other than the desire that it should be developed for the public good.  The cost of apparatus for the manufacture is small, probably not reaching one thousand dollars.  An examination of Ure's Dictionary will give information of the details of manufacture.  If this communication should reach the eye of any planter disposed to employ his negroes in this manufacture, I will cheerfully give him all the information in my power as to locality, &c.
               
I am, yours truly,
                                                                                                               
C. W. Howard.
 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, April 15, 1862, p. 2, c. 3

The Druggist and the Speculator.

                Speculator.—"Have you any copperas for sale, sir?"
               
Druggist.—"Yes, sir, a small quantity."
               
Speculator—"How many barrels?"
               
Druggist—"Six or seven."
               
Speculator—"What do you ask for it?"
               
Druggist—"Sixty cents a pound."
               
Speculator—"Well, I'll take it all!"
               
Druggist—("Smelling a rat.")—"But I can't sell it all to you, sir.  I must keep up a supply for my regular customers.  I will, however, think of your offer.  Call again."
               
Before the "call again" was made our clever and thoughtful Druggist ascertained that the greedy Speculators had combined to monopolize all the copperas in the city and raise its price from 60 to 75 cents.  They were, however, in part, balked in that speculation.
               
This is one only of the many schemes resorted to, almost daily, by the cormorants who are after the almighty dollar, all over the country.
               
Yesterday, bacon was sold from a wagon in this city, at 35 cents.  Just as soon as it was weighed, the purchaser refused to take less than 40 cents for it from those who witnessed the sale and purchase.
                                                                                                               
[Atlanta Intell.
 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, April 29, 1862, p. 2, c. 8
               
A Cheap Dye.—A gentleman has handed us a specimen of cotton yarn colored to represent copperas, which it does very closely.  The dye employed is very cheap.  It is made of red or black oak bark, the rough outside of which should be first trimmed off.  Make a strong decoction of the bark by boiling, and to a pot of about ten gallons, add a tablespoonful of blue vitriol.  The yarn to be colored should be put in and boiled for an hour or two, and then washed as much as you please.  The color will stand, and the yarn will be found soft and free from the hardness usual in copperas dye.—Exc.
 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, June 7, 1862, p. 2, c. 5

Cargo Sale at Auction of
4,731 Packages
English Goods,
Direct from London, and put up expressly for this Market,
By R. A. Pringle,
Jas. H. Taylor, Auctioneer.

               
On Wednesday morning, June 11, at 187 Meeting Street,  commencing at 10 o'clock.

. . . 6 casks Lump Alum 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, June 17, 1862, p. 2, c. 7
               
Epsom Salts.—Messrs. Sensabaugh, Mingus and Long sent us a specimen of Epsom Salts manufactured by them from a cave in Smokey Mountain, between N. Carolina and Tennessee.  They are now making 300 lbs of Epsom Salts, and 400 lbs. of Alum daily.  The salts are said to be superior to any heretofore sold in the South, and the Alum is equal.  The manufacturers say they will be able to supply the whole Southern Confederacy with these necessary articles.  Any one interested can take the Salts sent us, and try their effects.—Augusta Chronicle. 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [GRENADA, MS], June 28, 1862, p. 1, c. 8
Epsom Salts.--Messrs. Sensabaugh, Mingus, & Long, says the Augusta Chronicle, send us a specimen of Epsom salts manufactured by them from a cave in Smokey mountain, between North Carolina and Tennessee.  They are now making 300 pounds of Epsom salts and 4000 pounds of alum daily.  The salts are said to be superior to any heretofore sold in the South, and the alum is equal.  The manufacturers say they will be able to supply the whole Southern Confederacy with these necessary articles. 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], August 6, 1862, p. 3, c. 6
Copperas [sic], Copperas [sic]. --It is believed that a substitute has been discovered for Copperas [sic].  For sale by I. M. Kenney. 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], August 20, 1862, p. 3, c. 5

Just Received and for Sale,

. . . Copperas; . . . at R. M. Smith 8 Drug Store. No. 10 Broad street.
August 20. 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, August 26, 1862, p. 4, c. 5

Captured Goods.

                We have been asked to direct attention to the manner in which goods captured from the enemy are disposed of in some instances.  A correspondent cites one which came under his own observation, and doubtless others of a similar character are transpiring among Government agents.  After a lot of captured goods had been advertised and the community at this scarce time wrought to the highest pitch to obtain supplies, individuals were allowed to go through the goods and select such as they desired, much below what would have been obtained if the same goods had been offered at public auction.  The single article of copperas, which in our stores, where it is to be had at all, is worth from $5 to $8 per pound, was obtained by these individuals, in the manner alluded to, at the low price of 25 cents per pound.  Now, this is not right, and is robbing the Government to put money in the hands of private parties, who perhaps have no higher interest in the war than to make money by its continuance.—Richmond Dispatch, 18th

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [GRENADA, MS], September 1, 1862, p. 2, c. 8

By Br. Tardy & Co., Auc'rs, Mobile, Ala.
Cargo Sale of Foreign Importations, ...

. . . 7 bbls. Copperas, 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, September 20, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
               
Native Copperas.—We saw in a wagon on our streets, yesterday, a quantity of crude copperas, from Henry county, Ala.  It was represented to be nearly pure, and was selling for 50 cents per pound.  We did not learn what the extent of the supply in Henry county.  [Columbus Enquirer. 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, September 23, 1862, p. 3, c. 1
               
Native Copperas.—We saw in a wagon on our streets, yesterday, a quantity of crude copperas, from Henry county, Ala.  It was represented to be nearly pure, and was selling for 50 cents per lb.  We did not learn what was the extent of the supply in Henry county.
 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 11, 1862, p. 2, c. 3
               
Recipe for Dying Slate Color.—Equal portions of the inside bark of sassafras and willow, boiled in a brass kettle; strain the decoction from the bark, and add to two gallons of the fluid a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small portion of the latter. [sic?]  Have the wool well scoured, and taken out of a clean soapsuds; wring it dry and put it into the dye, let it boil a short time, raising it out to get air frequently; dry it and then wash it in suds until quite cleansed from the smell of dye.  It is a permanent color, and does not take a great quantity of the bark above names; it is richer than almost any other bark I have ever used.
               
The black jack will dye a good slate color, prepared in the same way, but not so permanent a color as the other.   

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, November 3, 1862, p. 1, c. 4
               
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.—Place in your kettle a layer of Walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.
               
The Walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn, just as they begin to fall from the trees.
 

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATLANTA, GA], November 7, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
               
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.--Place in your kettle a layer of Walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days, after which wash it and it will be a fine black.
               
The Walnut leaves should be gathered in the Autumn just as they begin to fall from the trees. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, November 8, 1862, p. 1, c. 7
               
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.—Place in your kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full; pour on water, till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before, and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days; after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.
               
The walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn, just as they begin to fall from the trees. 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, November 11, 1862, p. 1, c. 8
               
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black Without Copperas.—Place in your kettle a layer of Walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves, and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days, after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.
               
The Walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn just as they begin to fall from the trees. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, November 12, 1862, p. 1, c. 7
               
Confederate Dye.—To make a Beautiful Blue.—Take alder berries, mash them and press out the juice; to two gallons of juice add about one ounce of copperas and two ounces of alum.  Dip the thread in this thoroughly, and air it, and the dye is set. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, November 18, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
Copperas in North Carolina is made in Cleveland and Johnston counties, and alum is found in McDowell county and elsewhere. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, November 20, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
               
Copperas in North Carolina is made in Cleveland and Johnson counties, and alum is found in McDowell county and elsewhere. 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [GRENADA, MS], November 28, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
. . . Why have not our capitalists been able to see that it is equally wise and much more patriotic to use their surplus funds in producing such articles as lime, sulfuric acid, bleaching powders, copperas, alum, etc., than to invest their money in cotton, tobacco, wheat, flour and every other necessary of life, and hold them up for more exorbitant prices.  We have in abundance the crude materials necessary to make all the above enumerated articles so much needed.  The price for lime before the war was eighty cents to one dollar per barrel.  It has since been sold for seven dollars.  Sulfuric acid then cost from three to four cents per pound, and has been sold since the war for one dollar.  Bleaching powders once cost, by the cask, three and a half cents per pound, and now sells for seventy-five cents to one dollar.  The same of copperas and alum.  And strange to say, we have ample material for the manufacture of all these articles, and only the labor of men is wanting to make it available. 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, December 2, 1862, p. 2, c. 5
               
Substitute for Copperas.—We have received from good authority the following recipe, which answers every purpose, in dying, where copperas is used in setting colors, or for dying copperas color:
               
Half pint vinegar.
               
Half pint syrup or molasses.
               
Three gallons of water.
               
Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dying at one dollar per pound while this will answer every purpose.—Macon Mess.
 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], December 3, 1862, p. 3, c. 4

                                Just Received.

Madder                                                  Soda;
Copperas;                                              Ext. Logwood; . . . 
                                                               
at R. M. Smith's,
Dec. 3.                                                                    No. 10 Main St. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, December 10, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
Substitute for Copperas.—The following is a recipe which answers every purpose in dyeing where copperas is used in setting colors, or for dying copperas color:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing at one dollar per pound while this will answer every purpose.
 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
                                                                                               
Anderson, Grimes Co., Nov. 8 '62.
E. H. Cushing:--I send you the following: . . .
John H. Taylor of Georgia gives the above recipe, and says, many have tried it with complete success last season.
               
To dye cotton or wool brown.—A lady friend sends the following receipt for dying cotton or wool brown:
               
Take the bark of the root of a common wild plum—boil in iron or brass, as most convenient until the dye looks almost black.  Strain, and add a small quantity of copperas dissolved in a small quantity of the dye.  Add the article to be dyed.  Boil an hour or so.  Wring out and dip in strong cold ley [lye].  When dry, rinse in cold water.  This gives a genuine, bright brown, which is the prettiest contrast for blue; and when checked in together makes a dress becoming enough for the proudest Southern dame or belle.  Ladies, try it. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 17, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
               
The following is a recipe which answers every purpose in dyeing copperas color:  Half pint vinegar half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing at one dollar per pound, while this will answer every purpose. 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], January 21, 1863, p. 3, c. 7
Sundries on Hand, Just Received. . . .
Meal;                      Syrup;                    Copperas;                              Salt; . . .
Jan 21.                                                                                    I.M. Kenney. 

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATLANTA, GA], January 31, 1863, p. 2, c. 6

Cargo Sale of Imported Goods
By R. A. Pringle,
No. 137 Meeting Street,
Charleston, South Carolina,
James H. Taylor, Auctioneer
On Tuesday Morning, February 3, 1863, commencing
at 10 o'clock, will be sold,

Groceries.

. . . [illegible] bbls. Copperas 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [JACKSON, MS], February 18, 1863, p. 1, c. 6

How to Dye Different Colors.

. . .           4.  What is used for brightening and making the colors durable are called mordants.  The mordants used here are copperas, (sulphate of iron), blue vitrol, (sulphate of copper), alum, wheat bran, lye and lime water.  Those who cannot obtain copperas (now a scarce article) use the water from one of the mineral springs, which is strongly impregnated with iron. . . .
                6.  . . . Sassafras bark and roots are used for dying worsted a permanent and beautiful yellow and orange color.  Use a copper boiler, and five ounces of alum to one pound of wool or worsted yarns.
               
Kalmia, or dwarf laurel, dyes cotton a fine drab color.  Use a copper boiler.  The leaves and twigs of the kalmia and about one tablespoonful of copperas to three gallons of dye.  Scald the cotton material in the dye for twenty minutes, then rinse in cold water, and hang to dry in the air.
               
Willow.--The bark dyes wool and linen a deep blue black, and dyes cotton a dark slate color.  Use an iron boiler.  For black, three ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye; for slate color, one ounce of copperas is sufficient.  Boil in the dye for twenty minutes, rinse in cold water and hang to dry.  The dye may be deepened by a repetition of the same process in fresh dye.
               
Red Oak.--The bark and roots dye a fine shade of chocolate brown.  Use an iron boiler, two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye.  Boil twenty minutes in the dye and rinse in cold water.  This dyes cotton.  The Spanish oak dyes another shade of brown.
               
White Oak.--The bark dyes cotton lead color.  Use an iron boiler; two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye; scald in the dye twenty minutes, and rinse with cold water.  Oak bark will not dye wool.
               
Pine bark--all the varieties found in our woods--dyes cotton slate color, combined with the Kalmia it dyes dove color.  For each color put one ounce of copperas to four gallons of dye, and boil in it for twenty minutes.  Rinse the slate color in cold water and the dove color in cold lye.
               
Sweet gum bark dyes cotton dove color.  Use a copper boiler; a spoonful of copperas to three gallons of lye, and scald in the dye for twenty minute; rinse in cold lye water , and hang to dry in the air.
               
Guinea Corn.--The seed dyes wool lead color, and will not dye cotton.  Use an iron boiler, a little copperas, and rinse in lye.
               
Maple--The bark dyes both wool and cotton a fine dark shade of purple.  Use an iron boiler and two ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye; scald in hot dye for twenty minutes and rinse in cold water.
               
Beech.--The bark dyes dove color.  Use an iron boiler and one ounce of copperas to four gallons of dye; rinse in cold water, or in lye for another shade.
               
Sumach--The leaves and berries dye black.  Use an iron boiler, and four ounces of copperas to four gallons of dye.  Boil the cotton yarn or cloth in the dye for an hour, and rinse in cold water.
               
Walnut.--The bark and roots dye cotton fawn-brown and root-color, according to the portion of bark or of roots and copperas used.  The leaves boiled in dye color cotton purple and wool black; when used without boiling the leaves dye wool fawn-color.  The green shells of the full grown nuts dye black with copperas.  What is dyed black must be rinsed in cold water; the cotton to be dyed purple must be rinsed in lye.  The fawn, brown and root color must be rinsed in cold water.  The proportion of copperas used for black is two ounces to four gallons of dye; for the other shades use much less copperas. . . .
--Charleston Courier. 

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATLANTA, GA], February 24, 1863, p. 2, c. 5

Cargo Sale of Goods, Imported Ex British
Steamers.
By R. A. Pringle,
137 Meeting Street,
Charleston, South Carolina,
James H. Taylor, Auctioneer.

                On Thursday, 26th February, 1863, commencing at 10 o'clock--

. . . [illegible]0 bbls Copperas 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, March 3, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
Here is your Chance!!!  Received and for sale--copperas; chewing and smoking tobacco; crockery and glass ware; needles; pins and silk sowing thread; ribbons and trimmings; assorted colored lining silk; black vails [sic]; very rich laces; buttons; cinnamon; spice; cloves and starch; leather; shoe pegs and shoe thread; Lowells; &c. &c., by S.  Schatz, corner of Jefferson and Pine streets, mar3. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, March 14, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
The following is a recipe which answers every purpose in dyeing copperas colors:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing, at a dollar per pound, while this will answer every purpose. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, March 20, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
The following is a recipe which answers every purpose of dying copperas color:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing, at one collar per pound, while this will answer every purpose.
 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, April 7, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
Just Received, and for sale, upper leather, sole leather, shoe pegs and bristles; also, copperas.  S. Schatz, corner of Pine and Jefferson sts.  apr7. 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, April 9, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
Blockade Goods!!  Just Received:--. . . 500 lbs Copperas . . .  which will be sold for cash only, at the sale room of E. Lewis.  apr9. 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, May 1, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
Just Received.  300 pounds Spanish Castile Soap; 5 tierces new rice; 2 chests green tea; 500 lbs. English copperas; 50 gross blockade matches; which will be sold low at the Salon Room of E. Lewis.  may1. 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, May 7, 1863, p. 1, c. 1

Substitute for Copperas.

To the Ladies:  Copperas is composed of Sulphuric Acid, or Oil of Vitriol and Iron, and is called by chemists Sulphate of Iron.  A better material for dyeing, and the one invariably used by dyers is called Acetate of Iron, and is thus prepared:
    
           Take common vinegar, the stronger the better, put into it rusty nails, or any pieces of rusty iron, and let it stand several days; the vinegar will eat off or dissolve the rust, and when it ceases to act on the iron, pour off the clear liquor and use it as you would Copperas, and you will find it a much better article and cost you nothing.
                                                                                               
E. N. Elliott, Chemist. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, May 16, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
Substitute for Copperas.—To the Ladies:  Copperas is composed of sulphuric acid, or oil of vitriol and iron, and is called by chemists sulphate of iron.  A better material for dyeing, and the one invariably used by dyers, is called acetate of iron, and let it stand several days; the vinegar will eat off or dissolve the rust, and when it ceases to act on the iron, pour off the clear liquor and use it as you would copperas, and you will find it a much better article, and cost you nothing.                         E. N. Elliott, Chemist.
 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, May 16, 1863, p. 2, c. 3
               
Substitute for Copperas.—Prof. E. N. Elliott publishes the following in the Natchez Courier:
               
Copperas is composed of sulphuric acid, or oil of vitriol and iron, and is called by chemists Sulphate of Iron.  A better material for dyeing, and the one invariably used by dyers, is called Acetate of Iron, and is thus prepared:
               
Take common vinegar, the stronger the better, put into it rusty nails, or any pieces of rusty iron, and let it stand several days; the vinegar will eat off or dissolve the rust, and when it ceases to act on the iron, pour off the clear liquor and use it as you would copperas, and you will find it a much better article. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, May 22, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
               
Cargo Sale.—Messrs. LaRoche & Bell, Wednesday last, sold the cargo of the steamer President and others from Nassau.  The following prices were realized:  . . . Copperas, 75 cents to $1 per pound; . . .
 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, May 26, 1863, p. 1, c. 6
               
Substitute for Copperas.—To the Ladies:  Copperas is composed of sulphuric acid, or oil of vitriol  and iron, and is called by chemists sulphate of iron.  A better material for dyeing, and the one invariably used by dyers, is called acetate of iron, and is thus prepared:
               
Take common vinegar, the stronger the better, put into it rusty nails, or any pieces of rusty iron, and let it stand for several days; the vinegar will eat off or dissolve the rust, and when it ceases to act on the iron, pour off the clear liquor and use it as you would copperas, and you will find it a much better article, and cost you nothing.                                                         E. N. Elliott, Chemist.
 

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATLANTA, GA], June 5, 1862, p. 2, c. 5

Cargo Sale at Auction of 4731 Packages of
English Goods, direct from London, put up
expressly for this Market.
by R. A. Pringle,
At No. 137 Meeting Street,
Charleston, S. C.,
J. H. Taylor, Auctioneer.
On Wednesday Morning, June 11th,

1862, commencing at 10 o'clock.
. . . 6 casks Lump Alum 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, June 9, 1863, p. 3, c. 4
               
Alum.—We have in our office a specimen of  crude native alum, which was found in York District, S.  C., on the lands of Mr. O. Spratt, about one-fourth a mile from his ferry.  Two of his sons being in a hail storm sought shelter under a shelving rock.  Exuding from the crevices of the rock they found the crystals.  The extent of the mine is not known.  We presume it will be immediately explored.—Mountain (N.C.) Eagle.
 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], June 17, 1863, p. 1, c. 6
Receipt to dye black.--We publish for the benefit of our lady readers, the following receipt which has been furnished us, to dye cotton a beautiful jet black color:
                1 pot of red oak ooze; 1 do. of maple dye; 1 do. of strong copperas water.
    
           Dip the hank in the red oak, and next in the lye, and then in the copperas water five times.  Then dip in the maple, lye and coperas [sic], five ties.  It is no humbug.  Try it. 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, July 7, 1863, p. 1, c. 3

From the Richmond Christian Advocate.

                For Making Copperas.—Take a stone jar, fill it with pieces of rusty scraps of iron, fill the jar with very strong vinegar, cover it, and let it stand for two weeks.  One quart is equal to a pound of copperas. . . .
               
You can publish these or not, just as you choose; they have been fully tested.
                                                                                                               
Your brother,
                                                                                                                       
Geo. C. Vanderslice.
 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, July 8, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
The Texas Republican speaks of a copperas mine, which is being worked five miles west of Larissa, in Cherokee county, and says the deposit is said to be large, and pronounced by judges a good article.  It sells for two dollars a pound.
 

DALLAS HERALD, July 8, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
               
Copper Mine.—Messrs. Clement Alexander, and Dodson, are working a coperas [sic] mine five miles west of Larissa, in Cherokee county.  The deposit is said to be large.  We have a small jar containing a specimen of the coperas [sic] they are turning out, and which is pronounced by competent judges to be a good article.  Persons interested will do well to call and look at it.  They are selling this coperas [sic] at two dollars per pound.—Marshall Republican. 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], July 13, 1863, p. 4, c. 3

From the Richmond Christian Advocate.

For Making Copperas.--Take a stone jar, fill it with pieces of rusty scraps of iron, fill the jar with very strong vinegar, cover it, and let it stand for two weeks.  One quart is equal to a pound of copperas. . . .
                You can publish these or not, just as you choose; they have been fully tested.
                                                                                                               
Your brother,
                                                                                                               
Geo. C. Vanderslice. 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], July 13, 1863, p. 3, c. 5
New Goods.  Soda, Bluestone; Bengal Indigo' Black Pepper; Coperas [sic]; Arrow Root; Maccaboy Snuff; Prices Glycerine [sic]; English Mustard; English Table Salt; Lead Pencils; Toilet Powders; Lily White; Dressing Combs; Toilet Soap; Brown Windsor Soap, &c.
For sale at                                                              R. M. Smith's.
July 15. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 29, 1863, p. 2, c. 4

To Dye Copperas.

Mrs. Jane Waters, of Hart county, has sent us a sample of thread dyed a copperas color by a new process, which is as follows:
                Find a spring or stream of chalybeate water, stir it up, then take a tub full and let it stand until it settles.  Pour off the clear water, and wash the thread or cloth in the dregs.  It will not fade.  Mrs. W. says some of her neighbors have tried it and found it will set dye--which we do not doubt, as it is the very thing of which copperas is made. 

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATLANTA, GA], August 2, 1862, p. 2, c. 6

Dye Stuffs, Drugs, &c.
at Wholesale

. . . 800 lbs. Lump Alum, 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, September 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 7
               
A Mountain of Alum.—The Marion (N.C.) Enterprise speaks of a mountain twelve miles South of Morganton, which exudes alum from the rocks on both its sides, evincing the fact that the whole mountain is filled with the triple sulphate of alumina and potassa.  The editor says he has often seen baskets full of pure alum taken from the rocks in dry seasons. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, September 11, 1863, p. 2, c. 1

Communicated.
How to Dye Wool Gray.

                In the course of some experiments by my wife last year, in regard to dying wool and cotton, it was ascertained that if wool be immersed in a decoction of the sliced fruit of the pomegranate, prepared in an iron vessel, a permanent and beautiful and beautiful gray color will be the result, which may be varied from the lightest drab to a deep black.  The lighter shades require no mordant, the black should be set with copperas.  The shade, of course, will vary with the changing proportion of fruit and water.  By this simple process the tedious labor of hand-mixing is saved, while perfect uniformity and regularity of color is obtained.
               
Cotton thread may also be dyed blue by soaking well in the juice of elderberries, washing in warm suds, and setting with copperas.  Previously to immersion in the warm suds, it is a royal purple.  Though not a fast color, it is as permanent as any of our indigenous dyes. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, September 23, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
               
There has been discovered lately, on the Attascosa creek, immense quantities of copperas in its native state.  Good judges of the article say that it is of a most excellent quality.  Preparations are being made to extract and chrystalize [sic] it for market.—S. A. Herald.
               
There is no doubt but we have vast quantities of copperas in Texas.
 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, October 1, 1862, p. 1, c. 3
                RECIPE FOR DYING SLATE COLOR.--Equal portions of the inside bark of sassafras and willow, boiled in a brass kettle; strain the decoction from the bark, and add to two gallons of the fluid a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small portion of the latter.  Have the wool well scoured, and taken out of a clean soapsuds; wring it dry and put it into the dye--let it boil a short time raising it out to get air frequently; dry it and then wash it in suds until quite cleansed from the smell of dye.  It is a permanent color, and does not take a great quantity of the bark above named; it is richer than almost any other bark I have ever used.
                The black jack will dye a good slate color, prepared in the same way, but not so permanent a color as the other.
 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], November 4, 1863, p. 3, c. 6
Coperas [sic].--The article I have is an excellent substitute for bluestone.
Nov. 4.                                                                                                                   I. M. Kenney. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 25, 1863, p. 4, c. 1

How to Dye Wool Gray.

In the course of some experiments by my wife last year, in regard to dying wool and cotton, it was ascertained that if wool be immersed in a decoction of the sliced fruit of the pomegranate, prepared in an iron vessel, a permanent gray color will be the result, which may be varied from the lightest drab to a deep black.  The lighter shades require no mordant, the black should be set with copperas.  The shade, of course, will vary with the changing proportion of fruit and water.  By this simple process the tedious labor of hand mixture is saved, while perfect uniformity and regularity of color is obtained.
                Cotton thread may also be dyed blue by soaking well in the juice of elderberries, washing in warm suds, and setting with copperas.  Previously to immersion in the warm suds, it is a royal purple.  Though not a fast color, it is as permanent as any of our indigenous dyes.--Mobile Reg. 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, December 1, 1863, p. 1, c. 3
                Black Dye.—Put a quarter of a pound of extract of logwood in three gallons of water, boil it thirty minutes, add two table spoonsful of copperas, put in your thread, boil fifteen minutes, take out, wash in strong soap, then air and rinse in clear water.
               
Yellow Dye.—Take of each a lot of sassafras, swamp bay and butterfly root, put in four gallons of water, boil until strong, then strain and put in your thread or cloth and boil it thirty minutes, take out and air fifteen minutes, put in a table spoonful of burnt copperas and two of alum and boil fifteen minutes, then rinse in clear water and let it dry.
               
Five pounds of thread can be dyed in any of these.
               
To Dye a Blue Color Without Indigo.—Make a strong dye of red oak bark, another of maple bark, and have in a third vessel of weak copperas water, and in a fourth vessel a weak lye.  Wet your cotton thoroughly in each vessel of dye, and rinse it out in the order in which they are mentioned, having each fluid as hot as the hand can bear, repeating the process until the color is sufficiently deep.
               
By making the thread a deep copperas color first, and then going through the process, you can have a good black color 

WEEKLY COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, December 1, 1863, p. 2, c. 4
               
To Dye Cotton or Wool.—A lady sends the following recipe for dying cotton or wool brown:
               
Take the bark of the root of a common wild plum—boil in iron or brass, as most convenient, until the dye looks black.  Strain, and add a small quantity of copperas dissolved in a small quantity of the dye.  Add the article to be dyed.  Boil an hour or so.  Wring out, and dip in strong cold ley.  When dry rinse in cold water.  This gives a genuine, bright brown which is the prettiest contrast for blue; and when checked in together, it makes the dress becoming enough for the proudest Southern dame or belle.
 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 9, 1863, p. 4, c. 1
                Black Dye.--Put a quarter of a pound of extract of logwood in three gallons of water, boil it thirty minutes, add two tablespoonsful of copperas, put in your thread, boil fifteen minutes, take out, wash in strong soap suds, then air and rinse in clear water.
                Yellow Dye.--Take of each a lot of sassafras, swamp bay and butterfly root, put in four gallons of water, boil until strong, then strain and put in your thread or cloth, and boil it thirty minutes, take out and air fifteen minutes, put in a tablespoonful of burnt copperas and two of alum, and boil fifteen minutes, then rinse in clear water and let it dry.
                Five pounds of thread can be dyed in any of these.
                To Dye a Blue Color Without Indigo.--Make a strong dye of red oak bark, another of maple bark, and have in a third vessel of weak copperas water, and in a fourth vessel of weak lye.  Wet your cotton thoroughly in each vessel of dye and rinse it out in the order in which they are mentioned, having each fluid as hot as the hand can bear, repeating the process until the color is sufficiently deep.
                By making the thread a deep copperas color at first, and then going through the process, you can have a good black color. 

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, February 11, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
L. E. Welch, Druggist, Albany, Ga.  On hand and for sale the following articles:  . . . Alum, Copperas, . . . I make great effort to keep on hand every Drug and Medicine the community needs, and that the present state of the country affords.  Prescriptions carefully compounded. 
feb 11.                                                                                    L. E. Welch. 

NASHVILLE DAILY UNION, February 13, 1864

Fresh Groceries
Just Received by
R. A. Barnes & Co.,
No. 47 and 49 South Market Street.

. . . 5 bbls Alum
10   do   Copperas . . .
 

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, March 3, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
Sal. Soda, cooking soda, black pepper, spice, blue stone, alum, logwood, Epsom salts, castor oil, mustard, castile soap, toilet soap, toilet powder, tooth powder, combs, knives, &c, &c., just received at the drugs store of L. E. Welch. march 3. 

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, April 21, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
               
Dye Stuffs.  Indigo, Ext. Logwood, Copperas, Blue Stone, Alum, Spanish Brown, Venetian Red, Yellow Ochre, Cochineal, Vermillion, Verdigris, Annotta, &c, &c.  apr 21.  For sale by L. E. Welch. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, June 6, 1864, p. 1, c. 6
               
Little steps towards Southern independence.--The following list of manufactories of general utility, not heretofore made in the South, is copied from exchanges within the past few days, says the Charlotte Bulletin.  It shows that our people are really making some progress towards the independence that we have heard talked of so much.  We have not included the cotton and woollen mills dotted here and there in all the States, or the iron establishments, or the Government works for making arms, powder, etc.
               
We have not doubt there are many other establishments of which we have seen no notice, that are adding to the resources of the country, by making articles that we have heretofore depended upon the Yankees to furnish us: . . .
                Several Copperas Mines, extensively worked in Rutherford County, N. C.
               
One Copperas Mine in Chesterfield, S. C. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, June 8, 1864, p. 1, c. 4
                                                                                               
Bonham, May 28th, 1864.
               
. . . The ink with which this note is written was made by boiling a very prevalent weed of our prairies and adding a small quantity of copperas to the decoction as a mordant.  There is no further need of quartermasters paying a thousand dollars a bottle for ink.  A lake of it might be made about here.  Our women have been dying their garments with it.  One girl said "she went into the woods, in a dress dyed with it, the other day, and the birds all went to roost;" and I don't know what all happened.  The dye is ordinarily called "Lincoln's Blood."                                         B.
 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, July 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 5

Drugs, Chemicals, &C.

The undersigned have received a large supply of DRUGS, CHEMICALS, &c. from Mexico, carefully selected there by a professional man, sent there expressly for that purpose, which they are selling at comparatively moderate prices.  Among other things, they have on hand--
Ether, Opium, Iodine, Iodide Potash, English Calomel, Blue Mass, Nitrate of Silver, Copaiva, Gum Camphor, Quinine, Chloroform, Morphine, Copperas, Chlorate of Potash, Spirits of Hartshorn, Soda, Epsom Salts, Castor Oil, Dover's Powders, Rhubarb, Strychnine, Cream of Tartar, Borax, Carb. of Magnesia, Wright's Pills, &c. &c.
The undersigned have also always on hand Pure Strong Alcohol, which they manufacture at their own distillery.
                                                                                                               
Koester & Tolle.
New Braunfels, July 6, 1864
 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], August 24, 1864, p. 3, c. 6

Goods--Goods!

Salt, by the sack or pound; Soda, by the keg or retail; Tobacco by the box, or 20c worth; Coperas [sic], Bluestone, Logwood, Borax, Epsom Salts, Alum, Black pepper, rice, ginger, spice, starch, Bar, Toilet and Castile soap; Pocket and Case Knives; Fine, coarse and pocket combs; Pocket Glasses; Spurs; Curry Combs; Paper, Envelopes; Pens, Pencils; &c, &c., &c 

DALLAS HERALD, October 1, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
               
The Macon Messenger says, it has received from good authority the following recipe, which answers every purpose in dyeing, where copperas is used in setting colors, or for dyeing copperas color:  Half pint vinegar, half pint syrup of molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing at the present price while this will answer every purpose.
               
In the absence of quinine, an effective substitute would perhaps be acceptable to some of our readers.  Red pepper tea and table salt answers every purpose for chills.  Say a table spoonful of salt to a pint of tea, commencing some hours before chill time, and drinking copiously of the beverage, never fails to keep off the chills.  This is from an intelligent physician, who uses it very successfully in his practice. 

SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], October 12, 1864, p. 3, c. 5
More New Goods.  Bleached homespun, spool thread, flax thread, fig. blue indigo, madder, coperas [sic], logwood, bluestone, cotton cards, best article, cavalry spurs.  Pocket and case knives, tooth brushes, sealing wax, gum camphor, pepper, spice, alum, castor oil, spts. turpentine, pistol caps, tobacco, sperm candles, factory thread, for money or barter.
                                                                                                               
I. M. Kenney.
Oct. 12. 

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, October 13, 1864, p. 3, c. 2
Dye Stuffs.  Blue stone, copperas, Ext. Logwood, Indigo, Spanish Brown, Venetian Red, Red Lead, Vermillion, Cochineal, Yellow Ochre, &c, &c.  at drug store of L. E. Welch.  September 8th, 1864.

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, November 10, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
Dye Stuffs.  Madder, indigo, copperas, ext. logwood, blue stone, Spanish brown, venetian red, yellow ochre, alum, cochineal.  L. E. Welch.  Albany, Nov. 10, 1864. 

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, November 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 4
For Sale.  75 bales yarns--6 to 14's; 5 bales of sheeting, 1 6-6 sheeting; 100 bushels rye, 100 yards bagging, 6 bbls. sorghum syrup, 100 bushels oats, alum, Virginia and coat salt, 40 kegs nails--6's to 20's.  Apply to J W. Fears & co., Macon, Ga. Nov. 17th 1864. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, March 1, 1865, p. 2, c. 2
               
Blessing of the Blockade—Texas Home Industry.—We have on our table a group of nineteen samples from the looms of a single plantation, embracing such a variety of quality, material, color and fabric, as to command the admiration of all who see them. . . .
               
The slaves that do the labor in these manufactures were born in the family, and readily learn to perform each their special part in the work.  The intelligence and supervision has been furnished by the lady of the manor, and not a hired assistant in any department has been employed; and only two articles have been purchased to enable them to obtain these results, namely, the cards and the copperas.  The latter of these is abundantly produced in the hills of Texas, and is being rapidly brought into market.  The latter [former], we hope, soon to see manufactured within the State. . . .
 

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, March 2, 1865, p. 1, c. 2
Slate color on cotton or woolen.--Take beech bark, boil it in an iron kettle, skim out the chips after it has boiled sufficiently, then add copperas to set the dye.  If you wish it very dark, add more copperas.  This is excellent for stockings, as it does not fade. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 1, c. 2
               
Recipe for Dying Slate Color.—Equal portions of the inside bark of sassafras and willow, boiled in a brass kettle; strain the decoction from the bark, and add to two gallons of the fluid a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small portion of the latter.  Have the wool well scoured, and taken out of a clean soapsuds; wring it dry and put it into the dye, let it boil a short time raising it out to get air frequently; dry it and then wash it in suds until quite cleansed from the smell of dye.  It is a permanent color, and does not take a great quantity of the bark above names; it is richer than about any other bark I have ever used.
               
The black jack will dye a good slate color, prepared in the same way, but not so permanent a color as the other. 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, March 22, 1865, p. 2, c. 5

Groceries! Groceries!

Crushed sugar, brown sugar, candles, starch, coffee, soda, copperas, indigo, black pepper, spices, nutmegs, glue, cloves, rice, fresh cove oysters, french peaches, Pine Apple, &c.  for sale by  Sampson & Henricks.