Paper Manufacturing and Paper Shortages in the South, 1861-1865

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, May 1, 1861, p. 2, c. 1

Burning of the Pioneer Paper Mill.

The paper mill three and a half miles from this place was totally consumed by fire on Wednesday morning last, together with all the paper and stock on hand.  The origin of the fire, we believe, is considered doubtful.  It may have been accidental, or it may have been the work of an incendiary.  The loss is estimated at $16,000.  There was no insurance.  We believe it is the intention of the stockholders to rebuild--we hope so, at all events, as it is a great convenience to us to have our paper manufactured at home. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 12, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
We are under the necessity of issuing but a half sheet this week.  It is well to recollect that paper is very scarce, and that unless the blockade is raised before long, many newspapers will have to suspend for want of the article, as we understand there is none or very little for sale in Houston or Galveston.  The Countryman will be as tenacious of life as any of them. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 19, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
The editor of the Brenham Enquirer learned in Galveston, that paper was expected to arrive from England, in November next, as orders for that article had been forwarded.  The Enquirer will be issued on a half sheet until Christmas. 

AUGUSTA [GA] DAILY CHRONICLE & SENTINEL, July 2, 1861, p. 2, c. 1

Advance in Rates of Subscription.

                The undersigned are reluctantly constrained to increase the subscription price of their respective papers.  This necessity arises from the diminished income of their offices, growing out of the stagnation of business generally, while the expenses are largely increased and cannot be curtailed without injustice to our readers.
Advertising, ordinarily so large a portion of a newspaper revenue, is almost wholly suspended and will continue so during the war, while the price of paper has largely increased, and our telegraphic expenses are nearly trebled. ...
From the 1st day of July our terms of subscription will be--

For the Daily One Year     -     -     $    8 00
"            "    Six Months         -           4 00
"            "    Three Months     -           2 00
"            "    One Month        -            1 00
For Tri-Weekly One Year -      -           5 00
"            "     Six Months        -            2 50
"            "     Three Months   -             1 50

The Weekly will be as heretofore, for one year $2 00.
All orders for subscription must be accompanied with the Cash.

James Gardner,
Proprietor Constitutionalist
Wm. S. Jones,

Proprietor Chronicle & Sentinel.

AUGUSTA [GA] DAILY CHRONICLE & SENTINEL, July 2, 1861, p. 1, c. 2

North Carolina Paper
Forest Manufacturing Company,
Forestville, N. C.
Manufacturer of Superior
Book and Newspaper, &c., &c.

Respectfully solicit Southern dealers to send them orders.  Samples and prices will be sent (postage paid) by applying to                                                                                           W. B. Reid, Supt.my16-1m 

DALLAS HERALD, July 10, 1861, p. 1, c. 3
As printing paper is scarce—very scarce—and as there are about seventy or eighty newspapers in this State, which use from twenty to fifty quires per week, and merchants and others who use wrapping paper to a considerable extent, would it not pay to establish a paper mill at Houston or Galveston?—Colorado Citizen.
We answer yes.  We think several paper mills could be well sustained in our State, and we do hope that some one will make a start pretty soon. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 17, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
We copy the following from the Galveston Civilian.  It is very appropriate at this time:
The Christian Advocate appears on a half sheet, though without proportionate diminution of interesting reading matter.  The scarcity of paper and of paying subscribers begins to tell on the newspaper business, and we fear that many papers will not stop the curtailing process at a half sheet.  The Richmond Reporter gives its present issue the name of the Half Loaf, though we doubt not the ample crops of Fort Bend county will keep the publishers fully supplied with the staff of life.  No people appreciate newspapers more highly than the citizens of Texas; and we trust that they will not neglect to sustain the press in the present crisis.  Good names on a list of subscribers will not do this.  It requires money, or something that will sustain life.  Country publishers can use much of the produce of the farm and workshop in lieu of money; and subscribers should make it a point to contribute such aid as is in their power, without waiting for that common bore, the dun, alike unpleasant to those who give and those who receive it. 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, July 22, 1861, p. 4, c. 5
Contemplated Paper Mill.—As so many questions have been asked us, recently, in regard to the new enterprise—a paper-mill—we will give a faint outline of its absolute necessity.  There is consumed, in Louisiana, in the course of one year, paper to an almost incredible amount, the most of which has, hitherto, come from the north—all of it outside of our own State; but all supplies are now cut off from the north, as the article is declared contraband of war.  There are in the Confederacy, some fifteen paper mills that produce, probably, 75,000 pounds daily, while the consumption is rated at 150,000 pounds daily, or just double the supply.  Now, if this enterprise is suffered to fall through, from lack of capital, there is great reason to apprehend an entire stoppage of newspaper publishing in this and other Southern States, and, also, great inconvenience will result from the want of even ordinary wrapping paper.  There is an actual cash market now existing for as much paper as a mill can produce in four months, and the business, besides being cash, is also very profitable.  We are glad to learn that at least two-thirds of the stock is already taken.—True Delta. 

DALLAS HERALD, July 31, 1861, p. 1, c. 8
The Indianola Courier has been compelled to suspend its issue until the blockade is raised or paper mills are established in Texas. 

AUGUSTA [GA] DAILY CHRONICLE & SENTINEL, August 8, 1861, p. 3, c. 1
Rags.--Save all your rags--cotton, flax, hemp, &c.--and send them to market, where you can realize three cents a pound.

The South wears out more such goods than two such Norths, and yet the North saves double the quantity of rags for making paper.  Let this be changed hereafter.  Save the rags to make paper, and thereby save money. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 21, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
Our War Size.—Until the prospect of getting more paper shall become better, the Countryman will be published at its present size.  We are enabled by this plan to put in more matter than on a half-sheet, and have less margin. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 28, 1861, p. 3, c. 1
The Corpus Christi Ranchero extra, of the 10th inst., says a large number of wagons from Bastrop arrived there for salt, and were loaded without delay.  The supply is inexhaustible, and Corpus is bound to enjoy an immense trade.  The Ranchero says Clark is largely ahead in that district for Governor.  The publication of the Ranchero is suspended for want of paper. 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, September 7, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
Scarcity of Printing Paper.—Our exchanges, with, we believe, only two exceptions, come to us, much curtailed of their late fair proportions.  The exceptions are the Marshall Republican and the Clarksville Standard.  These are like giants among Liliputians and are received by us with a feeling of wonder bordering upon awe; while our editorial pride revolts at the necessity of attempting to get up a readable weekly paper, in these stirring times, on a half sheet.
O, lucky, happy, Standard and Republican.  How we sigh for such ample columns as crowd your broad sheets!

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, September 7, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
The Quitman Herald, published by Sparks & Height, formerly one of the most belligerent, out-spoken States Rights papers in the State, died on the 14th ult.  Cause—lack of health, lack of paper, lack of money, &c.  Since the Herald was shorn of its Height by the war fever, the light of its Sparks has been growing dim.
It did not even give us the vote of Wood county, before its demise.  Can't one of its surviving neighbors in Upshur, Smith or Kaufman, supply the want for Wood and Van Zandt? 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 11, 1861, p.  2, c. 1
The Lagrange True Issue says that the States Rights Democrat of that place has indefinitely suspended.
We learn that the Brenham Enquirer has suspended for want of paper, and the Ranger has been removed to Washington.  The Richmond Reporter, alias Half Loaf, has also been suspended. 

ATLANTA SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY, October 2, 1861, p. 1, c. 1

Half Sheet To-Day.

                And brown at that.  The paper maker has disappointed us.  We have made every possible effort to get paper, and have failed.  It is not at the mills, or elsewhere within our reach. 
We have no assurance of paper--even for a half sheet--for tomorrow.  We have it promised to us for Friday's issue.  We shall get it earlier, if possible; but if you get no paper tomorrow, you may know it is for the want of paper.

ATLANTA SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY, October 6, 1861, p. 3, c. 2
Rags.--Save all your rags--cotton, flax, hemp, &c., and send them to market where you can realize three cents a pound.
The South wears out more such goods than two such Norths, and yet the North saves double the quantity of rags for making paper.  Let this be changed hereafter.  Save the rags to make paper, and thereby make money.

CHARLESTON MERCURY, October 7, 1861, p. 1, c. 2

Our Reduced Sheet.

To-day we being to print The Mercury upon a sheet considerably smaller than that which we have hitherto used.  In this measure of economy we have been preceded by too many of the public journals of the Confederate and United States, to make any detailed statement of the reasons which have led us to this step, either necessary or desirable.  It will be enough to inform our readers that, in the present stagnation of trade, the advertising business, which is the sustaining element of newspaper incomes, has, in great measure, been cut off.  In view of this fact, we have not felt warranted in continuing the issue of so large a paper, at an expense at once needless and burdensome. 

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, October 9, 1861, p. 1, c. 2
                Stern necessity compels us to appear before the public this week on a half sheet.  It is no fault of ours.  We almost "compassed sea and land" in search of paper, but could find none in the Southern Confederacy, and we were afraid to go to Doodledom after it.  We are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Winter of the Bath Mills, S. C., for the loan of a small lot--he had none for sale.
                We may possibly have to appear again on a half sheet next week; but after that, we hope to be able to avoid doing so again.  We regret the necessity exceedingly--we never expected to see the Watchman thus cut down; but it could not be helped.  We were obliged to yield.
                One third of the papers in the Confederate States have been entirely discontinued; while of the remainder, more than one half are published either on a half sheet or have been reduced in size.
In order to secure a supply of paper, we shall be obliged to reduce our size for the present.  The great decrease in our advertising patronage, however, will enable us to give our readers more reading matter than we did in our mammoth sheet in more prosperous times.
                We trust that we shall not lose one subscriber from this cause.  We adopt the plan not to defraud them, but because necessity drives us to it.  It will now cost us more to furnish them with a smaller paper than it did to supply them with a large one; while our receipts from advertising have been cut down at least two-thirds, with a large falling off in job work.  As soon as circumstances will permit, we will resume the large size. 

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, October 16, 1861, p. 2, c. 5

To our Patrons.

We present the Watchman this week on a smaller sheet than formerly.  We regret the necessity which compels us to adopt this course; but it is imperative.  We could not procure a supply of paper of the large size in the Confederate States--while the increased price of paper and all other supplies and our diminished receipts from advertising, which is the main support of newspapers in this country, rendered it quite impossible to continue our mammoth sheet.
                Our advertisements occupying now so much less space than formerly, we will be enabled to give our readers the current news of the day *at the old price*, notwithstanding everything else has advanced.
                It will be perceived, likewise, that although reduced in size, our paper is now larger than some of the oldest papers in the country, published in large cities.
                . . .  Those indebted to us, who find it inconvenient to pay in money, may send us any kind of country produce--corn, wheat, flour, oats, rye, butter, hay, shucks, fodder, chickens, eggs--any thing that can be eaten or worn, or that will answer for fuel.  Now, there is no longer any excuse for delinquents.

CHARLESTON MERCURY, October 29, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
Hard Times for Newspapers.--That old and excellent daily, the Nashville Union and American, has made a heavy curtailment in the size of its sheet.

SAN ANTONIO HERALD, November 2, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
The want of bleaching powder is now the chief obstacle to the manufacture of paper in the South.  That which has been used--"Tennant's--came from New York, where it was had from England, at a very low price.
Prof. Darby, of Auburn, Alabama, writes to the Houston Telegraph that he has succeeded in making pure sulphuric acid from iron pyrites, which are in abundance in Alabama, and he will have no difficulty in making sal soda, chloroform, nitric acid, muriatic acid, and bleaching powders for paper making.--[Galveston News.

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, November 9, 1861, p. 4, c. 2
           The want of bleaching powder is now the chief obstacle to the manufacture of paper in the South.  That which has been used--"Tennant's"--came from New York, where it was had from England, at a very low price.
           Prof. Darby, of Auburn, Alabama, writes to the Houston Telegraph that he has succeeded in making pure sulphuric acid from pyrites, which are in abundance in Alabama, and he will have no difficulty in making sal soda, chloroform, nitric acid, muriatic acid, and bleaching powders for paper making.--Galveston News. 

DALLAS HERALD, November 13, 1861 , p. 1 c. 3
The Marshall Republican, says that by the first of May, an abundance of paper can be obtained from Messrs. Stevens & Seymore, of New Orleans.  This will be good news to newspaperdom in Texas, and we hope after that time to see no more half sheets, quarter sheets, dirt-colored sheets and such like make-shifts. 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, December 17, 1861, p. 1, c. 1
Help One Another.  Every one connected with the printing business is laboring under the disagreeable trouble of procuring a sufficiency of paper.  Clean rags are scarce for the supply of paper-mills.  Now our planters can help us out, if they will but save and bale their refuse cotton.  We understand the paper-mills will pay three cts. per pound for this article, and that a market can be found at B. S. Tappan's, Vicksburg, Miss. at the same price.  Let our planters consider this matter, and help us to obtain more paper and of larger size and better quality.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 8, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
We have to reduce our size and dispense with most of our advertisements in order to economise [sic] in paper, an article that is very scarce in the Southern Confederacy.  We do hope there will be no great objection to this course, as by discontinuing the advertisements, we can give nearly as much reading matter as formerly.  We intend to use smaller type after an issue or two.  Some will grumble anyhow, when the best is done and we can only ask the kind indulgence of those who duly appreciate the adversity of the times, until a more auspicious future dawns upon our land.  Getting more paper than we have on hand is out of the question, until the blockade is raised, and as we feel ambitious and wish to publish the Countryman as long as we see another paper published in the State, we have to come down to our present size.  How long we will have to visit you in this shape we cannot say but hope not a great while. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, January 10, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
Paper Manufactories.--The importance of establishing paper mills throughout the South is at once obvious.  Thousands upon thousands of dollars, invested in printing materials, are now lying idle and unproductive for want of paper.--No other branch of business in the South has suffered more than the printing business, and that mainly for the want of paper, and this too when the manufacture of paper would be the most princely profitable business imaginable.  The ends of rope, waste cotton, pieces of bagging, and other articles used in the manufacture of paper, could be procured in quantities sufficient for all purposes, and would be cheerfully and gladly given.  Sites would be donated, and doubtless premiums could be obtained by parties wishing to start the business; and yet our capitalists, with a stolid indifference which is wonderful, make no move in the matter, and to the cry for paper, which comes from all parts of the South, they remain foolishly indifferent.

CHARLESTON MERCURY, January 18, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
The newspapers on all sides begin to show the marks of the scarcity of paper.  The New Orleans Picayune has discontinued its evening edition; the Delta continues to publish twice a day as formerly, but uses only a half sheet; the Savannah News comes to us printed on brown paper; and among the journals generally half sheets and all the colors of the rainbow, are rapidly growing epidemic.

AUGUSTA [GA] DAILY CHRONICLE & SENTINEL, January 18, 1862, p.2, c. 1
. . . Seriously speaking, however, the deprivation of a full supply of paper is becoming one of the most serious inconveniences experienced from Lincoln's blockade.  The freighters of the vessels that so easily and frequently set it at naught, seem to think that it is unnecessary to supply the wants of the mind.  They bring in very little paper, or writing material, but a supply generally for the few other wants which we cannot ourselves supply.
We suppose nobody was aware, until we were partially deprived of it, how intimately and continually the "blessing" of paper formed a part of our lives and happiness, not only has it "brightened as it gook its flight" in newspapers, but the letter-writer finds the want of it restricting him to the most scrimp and scanty pattern.  Formerly, when young ladies wrote to each other or to their lovers, their habit was to commence half way down the first page--to place the lines on all four pages wide apart--but to give the appearance of writing a letter whose length was in proportion to their affection, they crossed it in every direction and viewed their performance, when finished, as a triumph of love and penmanship.  Now they find they can squeeze the same amount of endearments into the compass of a half sheet, and the great relief they experience in labor of thought and of hand finds a ready apology in Lincoln's blockade, which now-a-days forms as many excuses for short comings as the burning of Redgauntlet's house did to Caleb Balderstone, in Scott's novel.  Nobody can complain of long bills these days, for the merchants manage to economize by writing on both sides of their paper, but the bills, if shorter, are not the less forcible--like a small cannon ball, they make up in impetus what they lack in size--we had nearly written "bore" but we despise a pun, and where is the man who ever thought his January bills a bore?

             It is a matter of some astonishment, that we would be in straits for paper when the South furnishes to the world the materials for its manufacture.  The enigma is explicable in this way—materials are plentiful enough, but there are parts of the machinery and chemicals of a paper mill which cannot be made or had here—therefore the number of mills is necessarily restricted.  We would suggest, therefore, that those who are benevolently fitting out vessels to import English or Yankee goods (we say Yankee goods, because we suspect that these vessels do not always bring in the pure productions of John Bull’s industry, we notice that one of them lately had a large consignment of cod fish on board) should turn their attention to the importation of paper, or what would be still better, to the importation of paper making machinery.  Either, at present prices would pay a most exorbitant profit, perhaps a thousand per cent., and the importers would have the gratification of having done a good and benevolent deed to editors and the whole letter writing community—and that comprises every man and woman, girl and boy over sixteen years of age in the Confederacy.

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, January 27, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
Newspaper Mortality.—Seventeen of the twenty six newspapers, that were published in Florida twelve months since, has been forced to suspend, by reason of hard times.  The remainder, with the exception of one, a Semi-Weekly paper, have been reduced in size.

CHARLESTON MERCURY, January 28, 1862, p. 1, c. 2
Newspaper Mortality.--Seventeen of the twenty-six newspapers that were published in Florida twelve months since, have been forced to suspend, by reason of hard times.  The remainder, with the exception of one, a Semi-Weekly paper, have been reduced in size. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, February 12, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
Newspapers in Texas.--The San Antonio Herald says:  "We cannot count more than ten papers now published in this State, out of some sixty a year ago.  War and blockade are death to newspapers." 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, February 18, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
Newspapers in Texas.—The San Antonio Herald says:  "We cannot count more than ten papers now published in this state, out of some sixty a year ago.  War and blockade are death to newspapers.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, February 22, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
The Dallas Herald has subsided; out of paper.  We regret the demise of this excellent journal, and cannot see how the frontier people can do without it.  The editor is going to the war. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, February 26, 1862, p. 4, c. 2

To the Public

                                                                                                             Savannah, June 24th, 1861.
The undersigned are constrained to increase the subscription price of their respective papers.  This necessity arises from the diminished income of their offices, growing out of the stagnation of business generally, while the expenses are largely increased and cannot be curtailed without injustice to our readers.
Advertising, ordinarily so large a portion of a newspaper's revenues, is almost wholly suspended, and will continue so during the war, while the price of paper has largely increased, and telegraphic expenses are nearly trebled.
It is not reasonable to suppose that the Proprietors of papers will continue their publication at a loss when there is no immediate prospect of a change for the better.  We have too much reliance upon the sense of justice of our subscribers, to apprehend that they will complain at our course; on the contrary, we hope for and need a generous support from them, and cheerful efforts on their part to increase our subscription lists.  It is only upon this support and those efforts we can now depend to maintain the usefulness and value of our papers as full and reliable vehicles of information at this most critical period in the affairs of the country.
From the 1st day of July, our terms of subscription will be
For the Daily, one year                                      8.00
"       "      "      six months                                   4.00
"       "      "       three months                              2.00
"       "       "       one month                                 1.00
"       "   Tri-Weekly, one year                             5.00
"       "               "        six months                         2.50
"       "                "        three months                    1.50
The Weekly will be as heretofore, for one
                year                                                                    2.00

Apart from existing exigencies, it may not be generally known that the papers of Savannah and Augusta have long been furnished at a price far below that of the journals of other commercial towns in the South, and on terms wholly unremunerating.  In proof of this, we refer to the following statement of terms.  It shows that we do not ask more for our labor and capital than is promptly conceded to others engaged in the same business.


                                                                                                             Daily.             Tri-Weekly.
Courier                                                                                                   $10                          $5
Mercury                                                                                                   10                            5
Evening News                                                                                            8                            4


                                                                                                              Daily             Tri-Weekly.
Advertiser & Register                                                                             $10                          $6
Tribune                                                                                                       8

New Orleans.

                                                                                                              Daily Picayune                                                                                                $12
Crescent                                                                                                  10
Bulletin                                                                                                     12
Delta                                                                                                        10


                                                                                                                Daily            Tri-Weekly.
Avalanche                                                                                               $10                        $5
Bulletin                                                                                                      10                          5
Appeal                                                                                                      10                          5


                                                                                                                Daily             Tri-Weekly.
Union & American                                                                                    $8                         $5
Banner                                                                                                        8                           5


                                                                                                                Daily              Tri-Weekly
Advertiser                                                                                                 $8         
Mail                                                                                                              8                       $5
Contracts for subscriptions unexpired on the day indicated, will be completed at our former rates.
All orders for subscriptions MUST BE ACCOMPANIED WITH THE CASH.
F. W. Sims,
Proprietor Republican.
Theodore Blois [?]
Proprietor Morning News.

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, March 15, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
The proprietors of the paper Mills of Greenville district, (the one formerly owned by B. Dunham, deceased,) will in a few days, commence the manufacture of writing paper.

...commence with this number, issuing a half sheet, preserving the size of the pages, for uniformity in binding or filing. ...But now, the Paper Mill at Nashville is in the hands of the enemy, the blockade still exists, and the unexpected course of England and France leaves little hope of its being raised for months. 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, April 15, 1862, p. 1, c, 8
Demise of Newspaper.—The Red Land Express thus sums up the demise of our old Texas exchanges:
The days of the "Chronicles" are past; the shrill notes of the "Clarion" no more heard; the stalwart strokes of the "Pioneer" have ceased to greet our ears; the "Banners" (Carthage and Beaumont) no longer unfurl their bright folds to the sun; the "Times" gave place to revolution; the "Enquirer" long since ceased his questionings; the "Printer" has yielded up the ghost, and there is not even an "Echo" to tell us where they are gone.  We can but "Express" our deep grief at the early loss of our boon companions, and pray that our fate be not too soon like theirs.

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, April 22, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
Extortion.—The paper mills yesterday took another hitch upward in their prices.  Last Wednesday paper for our little daily stood at $6 00—Monday, $8 25.  What will it be Saturday?  We shall always retain a fond affection for those fellows.  When a man gets you into his power and shows that he can appreciate and approve the advantage to the utmost, he entitles himself to everlasting remembrance.
[Macon Tel.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, April 23, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

We Can't Help It!

Our readers will discover that our sheet is much smaller this week than usual.  None can regret it more than we do.  We could not help it.  It is no fault of ours or of our readers.  They have furnished us with the means to purchase paper--we ordered it three weeks ago, but up to the time of going to press have *not received* it.  Luckily, we had a sufficiency of a smaller size for this week's issue and have done the best we could, under the circumstances.  Next week we must be able to resume our usual size. 

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, April 30, 1862, p. 2, c. 1


We have again got a lot of paper, but oh! what a price!--$7.50 per ream!  Good paper only cost us $3.25 twelve months ago.  With such prices for paper, and every thing else proportionally high, how are we to furnish our sheet at $2 a year?  And yet, strange to say, many persons who are indebted to us one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, ten, and even twelve years, refuse or fail to pay that!!  Is there justice in such treatment? 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, May 13, 1862, p. 3, c. 6
Paper.—The scarcity of writing paper drives to all sorts of shifts.  We learn that a letter has been received here from Hillsborough, written on a leaf cut from an account book of a mercantile house in this town just one hundred years ago—1762.—Fay. Obs.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, May 14, 1862, p. 2, c. 4

Pioneer Paper Mill.

We are pleased to announce that this establishment has been re-built and is again in operation.  We trust we shall not be again disappointed in getting a supply of paper. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, May 17, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
The Pioneer Paper Mills, near Athens, have been rebuilt, and are now in operation.  There are many newspaper proprietors who will receive this as welcome news.  The article of printing paper is extremely scarce, and while many journals have been compelled to suspend from the impossibility of procuring supplies, others have kept up only by the most extraordinary shifts.  There is a paper in Mississippi that came to us in five different colors by the same mail.

CHARLESTON MERCURY, May 19, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
Newspapers and the War.--These are terrible times for the newspapers.  The scarcity of paper, and the enormous prices charged for it when obtained, are everywhere forcing the first class daily newspaper of the South to curtail their dimensions.  Three out of the four dailies in Richmond, viz:  the Whig, Enquirer and Examiner, are now printed upon a half sheet.  All the newspapers of Mobile, Memphis, Vicksburg and New Orleans, also issue a half sheet only. 

AUGUSTA [GA] DAILY CHRONICLE & SENTINEL, May 19, 1862, p. 3, c. 1
The Pioneer Paper Mills, near Athens, have been rebuilt, and are now in operation.  There are many newspaper proprietors who will receive this as welcome news. 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, May 20, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
We notice that two new Paper Mills have gone into operation within the last few days—one at Athens, Ga., and the other at Mobile, Ala.  Two or three more in Georgia would supply the demand and correct the prevailing extravagant prices.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, May 21, 1862, p. 2, c. 6


The paper upon which our present issue is printed is the first made at the Pioneer Mill, near this place, since its re-construction.  It is not such as that establishment formerly furnished, nor does any other paper-mill supply such paper as we had before the war.  We trust that our Pioneer friends may have a prosperous time in future. 

PAPER.--The stock of writing paper in our town is entirely exhausted.  There is not a sheet for sale.  We have used up all the supply of our editorial office, and invaded our stock of law stationery.  At length we have destroyed all our legal blanks by writing editorials on their backs, and we now used the yellow ruled leaves, we have torn from an old ledger.  Our subscribers who pay us deserve all this trouble on their account. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, June 20, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
Half Sheets.--The Richmond papers are now all printed upon half sheets.  The Dispatch, which, pecuniarily, has been perhaps the most successful newspaper in the South, comes out, in its issue of Wednesday, upon a half sheet.  Indeed, printing paper has become so dear and so difficult to obtain, that the publication of papers of any kind is now a matter attended with great embarrassment.  In such times, to waste paper in display of profitless advertisements is sheer folly.

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, July 2, 1862, c. 2, p. 5

Rags, Rags!

Five Cents per pound will be paid for clean Linen and Cotton Rags delivered at any Railroad Depot in Georgia or South Carolina.  Address
Bath Paper Mills Co.
Augusta Ga.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN BANNER, August 6, 1862, p. 3, c. 6

New Music, Paper & C.

My Maryland; There's Life in the old Land Yet; Bonny Blue Flag and other Patriotic pieces.
Also--100 reams assorted letter paper.
One size as low as 50 cents per quire.  Most of it made in Southern Paper Mills.  Just received.
July 2.                                                                                                     Wm. N. White.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN BANNER, August 13, 1862, p. 1, c. 5-6

The Cost of Printing Papers.

People, generally, have very crude ideas as to the cost of printing newspapers and the labor bestowed upon them.  No class of men in the South has suffered more, perhaps, from the war, than publishers.  The proprietors of the Southern Recorder, in order to avoid loss, have been compelled to advance their subscription price from two to three dollars a year.  They prefer to do this, rather than reduce the size of their sheet.  We suppose at this time, that many papers do nothing more than pay expenses, and some not even that.  Advertising and job work amounts to almost nothing, and yet we find but few papers have raised the price of subscription.  We append an extract from the Recorder, which will give the readers of the Banner an idea of what it costs us to furnish them the paper.
                "The blank paper on which we print the Recorder has advanced one hundred and fifty per cent., and is still on the increase, so that it is impossible to conjecture where the manufacturers will stop their prices.  The present charge is at the rate of one dollar and twenty cents for the blank paper alone to each subscriber, leaving but eighty cents, on two dollar subscriptions, to pay for setting the types, press work, ink, folding, wrapping and mailing, besides the wear and tear of materials, office room, and the expenses of the editorial department.  All these items enter into the cost of furnishing the paper to our patrons.  Such being the case, we are compelled to make a change in our terms in order to avoid loss.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 16, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
The Ranger, not being disposed to remain longer out of fashion, has come down to a half-sheet.  A full sheet newspaper has been out of fashion for a long time. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, September 10, 1862, p.  1, c. 7

Home Manufactured Writing Paper!
Writing Paper!
Writing Paper!
We are permanently engaged in the
Manufacture of Writing Paper,
And are now prepared to fill ORDERS for larger and smaller sizes.

                                                                                                                         S. H. Goetzel & Co.
Booksellers, Publishers and Stationers
83 Dauphin street, Mobile, Ala. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, October 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

                Georgia Letter Paper.—Mr. George N. Nichols has presented us with a sample of buff letter paper, manufactured at one of the mills in this State, a supply of which he has on sale, at his Job Office on the  Bay.  It is a very fair article, does not blot through, and with a good pen offers a smooth surface for writing.  He sells it at about half the cost of Yankee or English letter paper. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, October 15, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
We are sorry to learn from our friend Robertson, of the Huntsville Item, that the impossibility of getting paper is likely to cause the suspension of that paper.  We regret this sincerely, for the Item has always been among the most interesting of our exchanges, and there is not an editor in the South who has been more true to our cause, or more bold and consistent in defending it.  But in such times as these the existence of all our journals is very precarious.

DALLAS HERALD, December 6, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
The editor of the Confederate News (Jefferson) has just returned from Georgia, where he has made arrangements for a supply of paper, and announces in his last issue that he will, on the 1st December, commence the publication of a semi-weekly, in addition to the weekly. 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, December 13, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
"Driven to the Wall."  We never saw this old adage more fully illustrated, than by a copy of the "Confederate States," published at New Iberia, La., for which we are indebted to Lieut. E. W. Lindsley.  It is printed on the white side of wall paper--the other side being beautifully covered with fancy paintings.  The proprietor was verily "driven to the wall" for the want of printing paper.

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Jackson, MS], December 23, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
Owing to the failure of a supply of paper of our usual size, which has been in transit several days, to reach us, we are compelled to lay before our readers a smaller sheet than heretofore.  The difficulty will be overcome in a short time, and meanwhile the quantity of reading matter will not be lessened, as we shall fill our present space with as small type as possible. 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Jackson, MS], December 23, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
Having exhausted our supply of our large sized paper, and owing to the difficulty of procuring freight for it from the mills, we will be compelled to make our appearance for some days upon a small sheet.  We have an agent at the mills in Georgia, and hope, in a short time, to be enabled to greet our readers again on a sheet of our usual size.

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, January 6, 1863, p. 2, c. 2

Our Advanced Rates.

                It will be seen that all the newspaper proprietors of this city, following the example of the press everywhere else, have advanced their rates of subscription.  We have held out as long as possible against this disagreeable expedient, but must resort to it at last.  Its necessity is so forcibly presented in the following plain statement of facts and figures, made by the Macon Telegraph on publishing a letter from a paper mill notifying it of another advance in the price of paper, and on announcing an advance of its Daily subscription rates to $10, that we need not add a word to it:
"The paper used on our Daily and Tri-weekly editions weights 25 pounds to the ream.  The price therefore per ream (at 25 cents per pound) will be $8.75 at the mill, and transportation will make it cost at the office $8.90 or thereabout.  There are, or ought to be, in each ream of paper, counting imperfect sheets, 480 sheets in all—worth, at this price, a little over 18 ½ mills per sheet.  We issue to each subscriber of the Daily in the course of the year 312 sheets, and counting wastage, imperfect sheets, duplicates, &c., it would be only safe to average 400 sheets to the subscriber.  400 sheets at 18 ½ mills per sheet, amount to seven dollars and forty cents for precisely the cost of the blank paper alone to each subscriber, leaving all other expenses—typesetting, printing, ink, fuel, wear and tear, rent of office, editors, telegrams, mailing and all other multitudinous incidentals, all of which have been in our experience equal to three-fifths of the whole expense—to be met out of the odd sixty cents and advertising in these times.  It is needless to say the case is hopeless—it can't be done.

CHARLESTON MERCURY, January 13, 1863, p. 1, c. 5

Save Your Rags.

                This would perhaps, in ordinary times, be quite an unnecessary piece of advice, but at this moment it is of vital importance.  As our readers know, the price of paper has advanced enormously, and as a consequence, publishers have been compelled to make a corresponding advance on their prices.  One great reason of this increased tariff on paper is the scarcity of rags with which to manufacture it.  The manufacturers inform us that rags are exceedingly difficult to obtain, even when, as is the case, the rates paid are higher, by at least 800 per cent. than formerly.
We write this article solely with the view of calling public attention to the scarcity, that it may, as far as possible, be remedied, and that speedily.  The press is one of the most potent auxiliaries of this Government in carrying forward its objects, and subserving its interests.  As a medium of communication, in times like these, when every day adds some memorable event to our history, the newspaper is as indispensable as our daily food.  And it is essential to our individual intelligence, and as a record of current events.  And as we sit down to read the pages of the favorite book or journal, let us not fail to remember that the materials for its manufacture must be obtained, or we shall have no book or newspaper.  Until the blockade is removed--a desideratum altogether among the uncertainties--we must rely upon our own resources.  Let then every family carefully save up all the rags--all the shreds--all the scraps--either linen, cotton, or woollen, and furnish them to the Paper Mills, and the proprietors of those mills will pay them handsomely therefore.  Husbands, tell your wives to see to this--and not only the wives, but let every member of the family, white and black, commence the saving of rags to make paper.  The possible contingency of a country like ours deprived of newspapers is shocking to contemplate.  And we will not believe but what, as we have thus sounded the note of alarm, every one interested (and who is not?) will do all in his or her power to keep the mills supplied with rags, that the press may thereby continue to dispense intelligence to the people.                                                            Augusta Chronicle.

ATLANTA SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY, February 1, 1863, p. 2, c. 3-4

The Complaining World.

. . . As we enter our office in the morning, the confidential clerk who opens our letters hands us a short communication, quietly remarking that "them fellers at Marietta have ris again in the price of their paper."  We hastily glance at the contents and find that the paper mills have made a heavy advance upon us.  We indignantly pass on to the press-room and find a good portion of the floor flooded with water.  We ask Billy what is the matter and he replies, "Nothing but a chip in one of the flues and the engine boiled over."   We then ask Billy how there came to be so many waste papers; (about 200--mostly on the floor, under the press or tables.)  "Well," says he, "the last paper you got at Marietta ain't no account.  About a fifth of it is split up, so it won't run through." . . .

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN BANNER, February 4, 1863, p. 3, c. 6
Save Your Ashes.  The Pioneer Paper Manufacturing Company, will pay 25 cents per bushel, for good Oak and Hickory Ashes, delivered at their Mill, four miles from Athens.
Feb. 4                                                                                                     Albon Chase, Agent. 

DALLAS HERALD, February 11, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
We cannot receive any more subscribers for the present, in consequence of not having received a supply of paper, that we expected.  Until we are assured that we can get paper to continue, we do not desire to receive subscriptions.  We have at present only paper enough to last us some five or six weeks, but expect more soon.  We hope we shall not be disappointed. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, February 12, 1863, p. 1, c. 7
The Boston Journal is now printed on paper made of wood.  The high price of rags compelled it "to take to the timber," literally, and it is well pleased with the result.  The paper is soft and firm, with a smooth and clean surface, and admirably fitted for newspaper work. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, January 14, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
Necessity, for which they say there is no law, is about this time the law paramount to us, and compels us to reduce the size of our Weekly for one or two issues.

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, January 28, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
We are sorry we have to issue our present Weekly on such paper as this, but the supply we have been expecting has not yet arrived.  We trust, however, we shall soon be able to send out a better looking sheet.

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, February 11, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
Being still disappointed in getting our Weekly paper, we have to make another issue on paper unsuitable in size and quality.  We are sparing neither efforts or money to do better for our patrons, and hope they will extend us their indulgence.

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, March 5, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
A rich reward in money and fame awaits the inventor who discovers a new source and mode of supplying paper.  Cannot some ingenious citizen establish a paper mill for the use of corn shucks or other material that can be found in abundance?

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, March 12, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
An Illustrated Paper in Louisiana.—We have received a number of the Pelican, a paper published in English and French at Marksville, La., by A. La Fargue.  The inside is occupied by an admirable view of an edifice of some kind or other, situated inside a high wall—it may be a jail—in front of which is an open carriage, containing a party of officers and a lady, and attended by two cavaliers.  In the foreground is a ship at anchor.  The picture is evidently by one of the masters----of the school of paperhangers.  The pattern is quite an improvement on the calico designs of the Franklin papers.  Avoyelles is decidedly ahead of Attakapas. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 21, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
The editor of the Huntsville Item has received a lot of white printing paper, and is ready to receive the names of new subscribers. 

DALLAS HERALD, March 25, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
For several weeks past we have been compelled to print our paper on brown paper, and we shall probably be compelled to do so for several weeks to come.  We have purchased a supply of white paper, which will cost us over $50 per ream by the time it reaches us, and this we expect in the course of three or four weeks.  We shall, as a consequence, be compelled to raise the price of subscription, from $2,50 to $5 per annum.  We do this reluctantly, but we cannot pay the above price for paper, and make a living for ourselves without an increase in price.  All subscribers who are paid to a future period will be continued until the time is out, but new subscribers hereafter will have to pay the advanced rates.
Advertisements will be charged at the rate of $2, per square for first insertion, and $1 for each continuance. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, March 25, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
Like most of our contemporaries, we are compelled to advance our terms of subscription, not for the purpose of increasing profits, but to save ourselves from loss.  Having now to pay for white paper just about fifteen times the price when our terms of subscription were established, our readers will readily see the utter impossibility of continuing the same rates.  We had hoped, ere this, to have received paper long since sent for by a special agent, and that the cost would not have been so high as to make this advance necessary.  But we now see no immediate prospect of getting the paper we have been looking for, and the increasing scarcity and cost of paper even east of the Mississippi, and the enormous charges for transportation, with all the attendant difficulties and delays, will probably bring that paper, when it arrives, (even if it ever does,) nearly to the price we are now paying.  Subscriptions from this date to the Tri-Weekly News will be charged $12 per year, or at the same rate quarterly, and for the Weekly News $5, always in advance, and present subscribers will be charged the same when the time for which they have paid has expired.  We should state for the information of subscribers in arrear that they will be charged at the above rates from this date, and if they wish the paper discontinued, they have only to notify us and pay up all arrears.
We have not made arrangements by which we believe the News will always give its patrons all the important and reliable intelligence from the seat of war and elsewhere, at the earliest possible moment.  We have been subject to many embarrassments, as our readers are generally aware, from heavy losses by the war, by fire and otherwise, but by the continual support of our patrons and our own unceasing labors, we hope not only to be able to continue our paper through the war, but to improve it from time to time.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, March 25, 1863, p. 2, c. 3

Rags!  Rags!

Are our friends in the up country aware of the fact that the paper mills throughout the Confederacy will have to stop unless they can procure a larger supply of rags?  This is even so.  The Pioneer Mill near this place has adopted a new rule.  They sell paper to those alone who will furnish them rags.  We now want to purchase all the clean linen and cotton rags that can be brought to us.  Send them by bag fulls--by wagon loads, or in any other manner you please; but by all means send us rags.  If you want to see the Watchman survive, send us all the rags you can gather up.  Don't be afraid of overstocking the market.  We will insure a speedy sale of all that can be brought here.  Send them on, then, in large quantities and send them quickly! 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, March 27, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
Profits of Extortion.—That our readers may have some idea of the enormous profits now being made by a certain class, we take the following extract from the Richmond Enquirer of the 3d instant.
                For instance—take the Crenshaw Woolen Factory and the Belvidere Paper Manufacturing Company.  Those concerns were lately examined before a committee of the Virginia House of Delegates on extortion, and business facts of a startling character were brought to light.
President Crenshaw deposed on oath, that his company, on a cash capital of $200,000 had declared and divided a dividend of $530,000, with $100,000 "subject to dividend, should the directors think it desirable."
President Whitfield, of the Paper Mill, deposed on oath, that the net profits for the year 1860, 1861, and 1862 combined, amounted to $235,750," on an "actual capital of $41,000," and he added, that fully three-fourths of the dividend mentioned above, was made in 1862, or $172,000 profits in one year on $41,000 of actual capital.  A stock-holder of the Belvidere Manufacturing Company informs us that since the war began he has received dividends on $1,000 of shares, amounting to $6,460—an amount which he considered, if not extortionary, at least improper, and he donated [illegible]

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN BANNER, March 27, 1863, p. 4, c. 1

How to Get Cheap Newspapers.

--The Columbus Sun says:
                "If you would like cheap newspapers, a good supply of writing paper and envelopes--all of which are almost as indispensable as clothing--save your rags.  Let the rag bag become a recognized institution in every household.  Nothing would tend more to increase the quantity of paper, and cheapen its price, than the general institution of the rag bag.  Let every scrap of cloth, rope and thread, refuse cotton, flax or hemp forms the fibre [sic?] be diligently saved, and sold to the paper mills and paper will become abundant and be furnished at reduced rates.
                "People of the South, if you would read and write, save your rags." 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, April 6, 1863, p. 2, c. 1

Rags!  Rags!

                We desire to purchase any quantity of clean linen and cotton rags, to be made up into paper, and we are willing to pay the highest market price in cash.  They will also be received in payment of all dues to this office.
Will our subscribers everywhere interest themselves in this subject.  Every family can save a good supply of rags during the year, just how few do it even when such economy can be made productive.  It has now become a question of life or death with the newspapers of the country, and they must go down if the people do not come to the rescue.  To save the Press they have only to save their rags.  All parcels forwarded to this office will be faithfully weighed and accounted for.  Let all send what they can—even small packages will not be despised.  Let the children do it, if the grown people are too much engrossed with the war or scheme of speculation. 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, April 7, 1863, p. 3, c. 7
Bath Paper Mill Destroyed.—We regret to learn that the  Bath Paper Mill, situated on the South Carolina Railroad, six miles from the city, was destroyed by fire about 2 o'clock, p.m., yesterday.  The roof of the building was discovered to be on fire, when every possible exertion was made to extinguish the flames; but owing to the prevalence of a high wind, all efforts to overcome the fire was of no avail—the entire building being consumed.
This is a severe loss, and in the present scarcity of paper will most seriously interfere with the publication of the journals that are dependent on the Mill for a supply of paper.—Augusta Const., 3d inst.

CHARLESTON MERCURY, April 8, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
The Want of Printing Paper.--The Augusta Constitutionalist, of Saturday last, appears in a half sheet.  The editor says:
The destruction of the Bath Paper Mills, from which was derived our supplies of printing paper, may entail on us the necessity of suspending the issue of the Constitutionalist.  At this time it seems impossible to obtain paper from any other sources.  All the paper mills of the Confederacy are now monopolized to their fullest capacity by press engagements.  Under these circumstances, we prefer not to receive any more subscriptions.  We request all persons contemplating remittances by mail or express, to withhold them, at least until we can announce definitely whether we will be able to continue the issue of this paper.  Should we be compelled to suspend, we will resume our publication as soon thereafter as practicable.  It is wholly impossible, however, now to make any calculation as to when that can be.
The remarks apply equally to the publication of The Southern Field and Fireside.  It would be vain for us to attempt to express the depth of our regret at this great calamity.  It is one of those terrible providences to which we must bow, and we feel our subscribers will do so likewise, without any other sentiment towards us than that of regret at a common misfortune.
Under these circumstances, we will be compelled, for the present, to publish our daily on a half sheet, and to condense, or perhaps leave out, our contract advertisements.
The Macon Telegraph, of Monday, also appears on a half sheet.  The editor says:
What we have for a long time foreseen and dreaded as inevitable, has come upon us.  We are obliged to take to a fragment of a sheet and even then can only promise that it shall be as large as possible.  For the reasons which impel this step we refer the reader to an article copied elsewhere from the Charleston Courier of the 3d instant--and so stringent are they as to force that old, wealthy, and influential sheet to a suspension for a few days.  Nothing remains for us and all other Confederate newspapers, but to diminish our consumption to the lowest possible limit consistent with keeping our readers advised of current events, and this must be done by throwing out all standing advertisements, and restricting that branch of our business to the smallest possible limit. 

DALLAS HERALD, April 8, 1863, p. 2, c. 4

Rags!  Rags!! Rags!!!

                Five cents per pound will be paid for cotton or linen rags, delivered to the undersigned in Austin, or to Dr. Theo. Koester in New Braunfels.
These rags are wanted to make paper with, and as this is a new enterprise in Texas, it is to be hoped every family will provide themselves with a rag bag.—Agents to collect rags will be appointed in each county, of which due notice will be given.|
                Texas papers generally are requested to copy, and those who make a charge will publish three times and send bill to                                   D. Richardson.
Austin, March 31, 1863. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, April 9, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
Advance in the Price of Richmond Papers.--The Richmond papers have all been compelled to advance their prices.  The Enquirer and Examiner have gone up to $15 for twelve months, and $8 for six months.  The Whig has advanced to $12, and the Dispatch to $10.  The Sentinel, a new paper, is mailed at $10 a year.  These rates are high, but do not begin to correspond with the advance in everything else.

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Jackson, MS], April 9, 1863, p. 1, c. 2
Paper mills burned.--The Bath paper mills in South Carolina, a short distance from Augusta, Georgia, were destroyed on the 2d inst.  These were the largest mills in the Confederacy, and the loss is a serious one to the proprietors, as well as to the papers of the South.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN BANNER, April 10, 1863, p. 3, c. 3

Burning of the Bath Paper Mill.

The Bath Paper Mill, situated on the S. Carolina Railroad, six miles from Augusta, was destroyed by fire, about 2 o'clock, P.M. on the 2d inst.  The Augusta Chronicle says, the loss of this paper mill at this time, is a great public calamity.  A large amount of work was done there for the Confederate Government, besides supplying a number of newspapers with paper for their regular supplies.  The mill was entirely destroyed, with paper and stock in process of being worked up.  About fifty hands were employed in the mill.  The fire originated from a spark upon the roof.  The high wind prevailing, and the length of time elapsing before the fire was discovered, and it wholly impossible to save the building.
                This was the largest mill in the Confederacy.  The Constitutionalist is apprehensive of having to suspend, at least for a time, its publication, until supplies can be procured from other mills.

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, April 12, 1863, p. 2, c. 3
The Shreveport News quotes [illegible] paper at that place is selling at five dollars per quire.  The Winchester Bulletin advises the people in that region to write letters on the backs of one dollar bills, for the sake of economy. 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Jackson, MS], April 13, 1863, p. 1, c. 8

The Want of Printing Paper.

                The  Augusta Constitutionalist of Saturday last appears in a half sheet.  The editor says:
The destruction of the Bath paper mills, from which we derived our supplies of printing paper, may entail on us the necessity of suspending the issue of the Constitutionalist.  At this time it seems impossible to obtain paper from any other source.  All the paper mills of the Confederacy are now monopolized to their fullest capacity by press engagements.  Under these circumstances, we prefer not to receive any more subscriptions.  We request all persons contemplating remittances by mail or express to withhold them, at least until we can announce definitively whether we will be able to continue the issue of this paper.  Should we be compelled to suspend we will resume our publication as soon thereafter as practicable.  It is wholly impossible, however, now to make any calculation as to when it can be.
These remarks apply equally to the publication of the Southern  Field and Fireside.
It would be vain for us to attempt to express the depth of our regret at this great calamity.  It is one of those terrible providences to which we must bow, and we feel our subscribers will do so likewise, without any other sentiment toward us than that of regret at a common misfortune.
Under these circumstances we will be compelled, for the present, to publish our daily on a half sheet, and to condense or perhaps leave out our contract advertisements.
The Macon Telegraph of Monday also appears on a half sheet.  The editor says:
What we have for a long time foreseen and dreaded as inevitable has come upon us.  We are obliged to take to a fragment of a sheet and even then can only promise that it shall be as large as possible.  For the reasons which impel this step we refer the reader to an article copied elsewhere from the Charleston Courier of the 3d instant--and so stringent are they as to force that old, wealthy and influential sheet to a suspension for a few days.  Nothing remains for us and all other Confederate newspapers but to diminish our consumption to the lowest possible limit consistent with keeping our readers advised of current events, and this must be done by throwing out all standing advertisements and restricting that branch of our business to the smallest possible limit.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, April 15, 1863, p. 2, c. 3

Advance in Paper.

Since our last issue, the paper on which the Watchman is printed advanced three dollars per ream!  Our readers must see that we cannot live at this rate.  We shall be compelled to advance too or stop entirely.  It is doubtful whether we can procure paper of the size used at the present at *any price* much longer, as we believe the superintendents of the paper mills are endeavoring to get all the newspapers to reduce their size, so as, if possible, to supply all with paper.  If we shall be compelled to reduce the dimensions of our sheet, we will endeavor to furnish the same amount of reading matter as heretofore, by lessening the space occupied by advertisements. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, April 15, 1863, p. 1, c. 1

All Right Again.

                A few days since it was a problem whether the Republican would continue its regular visits to its large list of subscribers or not.  The destruction of the paper mill from which we drew our supplies, rendered the prospect gloomy indeed.  We are gratified, however, to be able to inform our readers that we have succeeded in contracting permanently for ample supplies of paper, and have reason to believe that we shall be subjected to no interruption during the war.  Our arrangements, however, involve necessarily a large additional expenditure of money, and we shall be compelled to increase our prices in order to meet it.  Our new terms will be published as soon as they can be definitely settled, and we trust to our subscribers to sustain us in a movement dictated purely by the necessities of the times. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, April 15, 1863, p. 1, c. 3
Richmond, Saturday, April 11.
. . . The paper famine rages here as fiercely as with you.  The publishers look glum, and the shop keepers are at their wit's end almost.  It is funny to see them pinching their wrapping paper to the merest scrap, hardly enough to cover the parcel you purchase.  In a few days we will have to toat [sic] things in our handkerchiefs. . . . Hermes. 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, April 24, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
The Paper Question.  The Montgomery Mail says:
                After diligent enquiry we are able to present the following list of Paper Mills now in operation within the limits of the Southern Confederacy:
                Alabama 1.--At Spring Hill, in Mobile county.
Georgia 3.--At Columbus, Marietta and Athens.
South Carolina 5.--One at Greenville and four others.
North Carolina 8.--Lincolnton, Shelby, Fayetteville, Salem, Concord and three others at Raleigh, viz:  Neuse River, Forrestville and Mantua.
Virginia 2.--Both at Richmond.
Tennessee 1.--At Knoxville.
                It will be seen that there are twenty Paper Mills now in operation in the South, and there can be do doubt that they would be able to supply the newspaper demand if the materials for manufacturing paper could be obtained at reasonable rates.
                Let all friends of the press and of self-reliant economy and of the use of our own resources, save all rags and other materials for paper and offer them for sale at reasonable prices. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, April 28, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
Field and Fireside.--The last number of this interesting weekly announces its discontinuance after that date for the want of paper.

DALLAS HERALD, April 29, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
We are pleased to say to our readers that we have received our supply of white paper, and shall next week enlarge our sheet.  We hope that we shall not again be compelled to print on brown paper.  We earnestly request all subscribers to renew their subscription, as we shall be compelled to discontinue every paper at the expiration of the time paid for, unless the price is paid up promptly. 

DALLAS HERALD, April 29, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
Two paper mills, six miles from Augusta, Ga., were destroyed by fire on the 2d inst. 

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN BANNER, May 6, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
                Half-Sheet Again.  We are compelled once more to issue only a half-sheet.  The necessary supply of paper could not be obtained.  We trust we shall not have to ask the indulgence of our patrons in this respect again.  By omitting advertising matter, we are enabled to present nearly as much reading matter as usual. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, May 6, 1863, p. 2, c. 5
Printing Paper.—The Southern Recorder says:  "Our last bill for printing paper, such as we now use for the Recorder, was at the rate of $14 per ream.  Of the propriety of raising the price of subscription our readers can judge, when we state that paper of the same size formerly cost $3, which, compared to present rates, shows an advance of nearly five hundred per cent.—Southern Rebel.
And our last bill for paper at the same former cost was fifty dollars per ream, or more than fifteen hundred per cent advance—[Ed. News.]

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Jackson, MS], May 6, 1863, p. 2, c. 5
                The Paper Question.--The Montgomery Mail says:
                After diligent inquiry we are able to present the following list of paper mills now in operation within the limits of the Southern Confederacy:
                Alabama 1--At Spring Hill in Mobile county.
                Georgia 3--At Columbus, Marietta and Athens.
                South Carolina 5--One at Greenville and four others
                North Carolina 8--Lincolnton, Shelby, Fayetteville, Salem, Concord and three others at Raleigh, viz:  Neuse river, Forrestville and Mantua.
                Virginia 2--Both at Richmond.
                Tennessee 1--At Knoxville.
                It will be seen that there are twenty paper mills now in operation in the South, and there can be no doubt that they would be able to supply the newspaper demand if the materials for manufacturing paper could be obtained at reasonable rates.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, May 6, 1863, p. 2, c. 5

Price of Paper, Newspapers, &c.

The paper on which the Watchman is printed this week cost us $15.00 per ream; Paper of the same size and far superior in quality, cost us, before the war, $3.50 per ream!  We could then buy corn at from 50 cents to $1.00 per bushel--wheat at $1.00--bacon at 10@12 1/2--sugar at 10@12 1/2--butter at 12 1/2@15--eggs, 5 cents, and every thing else in proportion.  Corn is now worth $3--wheat $11--bacon $1--sugar $1--butter $1.25--eggs 60 cents!  A hat which then cost $3 now costs $40!  Shirting which then cost 15 cents is now worth $2!  Calico was then 15@20--it is now $3@$4!  All other articles are in like proportion.  We then charged $2 for our paper--we now get only $3.  Every thing we use has advanced from 500 to 1000 per cent.--our paper has advanced only 50 per cent!!  Every body knows we cannot live at this rate.  To bring our business upon a level with that of others, we ought to have $12 per year for our paper, and yet some people are grumbling because, in common with the other weeklies we propose to advance our price to $4 per year--just one third of what it ought to be--after the 1st of June next!
                All we have to say to such persons is, to repeat the proposition we made when the price advanced to $3--which was this:  Pay us in any kind of farm products at former prices, and you can have the Watchman at $2, as heretofore.  If not satisfied with this proposition, have your paper discontinued when the time paid for expires.  We are not anxious to furnish it at *four dollars* when we know we ought to have *twelve.*

DALLAS HERALD, May 13, 1863, p. 2, c. 4
Calamity to the Press.—The Bath paper mills in South Carolina, the most extensive in the South, have been destroyed by fire.  Many of the leading journals Eastward were dependent upon them for supply.  The Charleston Mercury, amongst others, will be suspended, and several will come down to a half sheet.  Those who appreciate the value of the press will lament this deeply. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, May 22, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
Cargo Sale.—Messrs. LaRoche & Bell, Wednesday last, sold the cargo of the steamer President and others from Nassau.  The following prices were realized:  . . . Letter Paper, $45 to $50 per ream. . .

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 23, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
Paper Mills.—The Field and Fireside in reply to a query gives the following list:
There are several mills in Virginia; in N. Carolina there is a mill at Fayetteville, Raleigh, Shelby, Salem and Lincolnton.  In South Carolina there are two at Greenville controlled we believe, by the same company, and one at Bath, (agency at Augusta).  In Georgia there is one near Marietta.  In Tennessee we only know of one that is accessible, and that is near Knoxville, and not in operation. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, May 30, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
Another paper mill burned.--One of the Paper Mills at Greenville, S. C., was partially destroyed by fire on Wednesday.  We trust the damage is not sufficient to disable the mill long. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, June 1, 1863, p. 1, c. 6
Paper Mill Burned.--With deep regret we announce the destruction, by fire, on the night of the 25th inst., of the paper mill of Messrs. John W. Grady & Co., near this place.  The above mill was used exclusively for the manufacture of writing paper, and its destruction will prove a serious loss and inconvenience to the country.  The loss to the proprietors is estimated at about $30,000, on which there was no insurance.  Messrs. Grady &  Co. have, with commendable zeal and industry, already commenced removing the debris of the late fire, for the purpose of rebuilding the mill and resuming operations.  This they hope to be able to do in the course of the next sixty days.  Whilst the machinery has been damaged to a considerable extent, it will not prove a total loss, and can, it is thought, be put again in running order.--Greenville Enterprise.

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, June 4, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
We are glad to learn that the paper mill of Messrs. J. W. Grady & Co., that was partially destroyed by fire on the night of May 25, was their writing and not their newspaper mills.—It is bad enough to have a paper mill of any kind either damaged or destroyed, but the burning of a newspaper mill in these times is a loss that cannot be made good to the public by money.  We trust that the machinery of the mills spoken of can be repaired and put in operation again.—Augusta Chronicle & Sentinel.

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, June 6, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
We are glad to learn that the paper mill of Messrs. J. W. Grady & Co., that was partially destroyed by fire on the night of May 25, was their writing and not their newspaper mills.  It is bad enough to have a paper mill of any kind either damaged or destroyed—but the burning of a newspaper mill in these times is a loss that cannot be made good to the public by money.  We trust that the machinery of the mills spoken of can be repaired, and put in operation again.—[Chronicle and Sentinel. 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, June 9, 1863, p. 2, c. 6

New Paper Mill.

                We learn that some enterprising gentlemen from Georgia went to Tennessee, a short time ago, and purchased a paper mill that was exposed to the enemy, and succeeded in removing its machinery just before a raid of the enemy swept through the region where it was located.  It is to be put up somewhere in Georgia.
There is no enterprise more important, or more promising of speedy returns, than paper mills.  A half dozen new ones, of the largest capacity, would scarcely supply the demand for paper.—Some of our enterprising blockade runners might import the machinery, and mills could be in running order in three or four months.  Will not capitalists consider the great good they might do, in risks like this?
Books, papers and tracts can only be published at an enormous price, owing to the scarcity of paper. The religious, educational, and literary advancement of our people is sadly affected by the paper famine, which is in the power of our capitalists to remove.—Aug. Const.

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, June 10, 1863, p. 1, c. 7

Rags!  Rags!  Rags!

Five cents per pound will be paid for cotton or linen rags, delivered to the undersigned in Austin, or to  Dr. Theo. Koester in New Braunfels.
These rags are wanted to make paper with, and as this is a new enterprise in Texas it is to be hoped every family will provide themselves with a rag bag.  Agents to collect rags will be appointed to each county, of which due notice will be given.
Texas papers generally are requested to copy, and those who make a charge, will publish three times and send bill to                                                  D. Richardson.
Austin, March 31, 1863. 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Atlanta, GA], June 13, 1863, p. 1, c. 7

Rock Island Mills.

The editor of the Columbus Sun has recently visited the Rock Island paper mills, and thus describes the process of paper making and alludes to some of the difficulties which beset paper makers:
                Through the courtesy of Mr. J. F. Winter we were treated to a delightful drive to and from the above mills, located two and a quarter miles north of the city, in Alabama, on the Chattahoochee river, and at an island bearing the above name.
                The modus operandi of making paper from rags and cotton was politely shown and explained by Mr. W.  It is a rare curiosity to the novice, and must be seen and explained to the one initiated to be understood or appreciated.
                In the beginning we see the rough, dirty rags which are thrown into revolving boilers, capable of holding fifty thousand pounds, and hot steam let in upon them, which, with the revolving motion of the boilers, aided by some chemicals placed in with the rags, perfectly cleanses them of all filth and dirt.
                We are then carried to the engine, which cuts or grinds the washed rags or cotton into what is called pulp.  This pulp, when finished, is thoroughly washed with clear spring water to remove all remaining dirt, and then carried to the machine for converting it into paper.
                In another room of the building is a machine used entirely for letter and envelope paper, specimens of which we have now before us both of a superior quality to what they have heretofore manufactured, and which he assures us he shall still improve on, so long as the necessary chemicals and fixtures for his machinery can be obtained.
                The energy displayed by Mr. Winter in keeping his mill running, is worthy of all commendation.  He showed us fine tapestry carpet which he took from his floors as substitutes for felt, without which his mills are entirely useless.
                When three or more reels of wide paper, say four feet wide, is obtained, they are placed on a machine for cutting to the sizes desired.  As the fabric is drawn through this machine little rollers cut it smoothly in the center and trim the edges, while a revolving knife cuts it the desired length.  Two girls receive the sheets as cut and lay them even and smooth.  So soon as the cutting is done one of the girls proceeds to count it into quires, while another folds it.  A stout negro fellow packs the quires into bundles, binds and marks them ready for shipment to the office in the city.
                The want of wire cloth has forced Mr. Winter to convert his machine, which is a Feuudrineer [sic?], into a cylinder, which he informs us very seriously curtails his operations in the amount of paper turned off.  The present capacity of the mill in the news department is about forty thousand pounds per month.
                We cannot pretend to describe how the pulp floats in the water so thin one can scarcely observe it, but is gathered in a smooth thin flake in a revolving cylinder covered with fine wire cloth, which it delivers on to an endless blanket, passing over this, it is taken by either machinery as delicately as dainty fingers could do it, and separated from the endless blanket; a frail wisp looking sheet of white, passing now over and then under cylinders heated with steam, drying as it goes; then through the callendering rollers which irons it smooth, and on to a reel where it is wound up, which soon as full is taken off and another put in its place.
                We candidly acknowledge we did not appreciate the half of the labor and vexations to which the mill had been subjected since the commencement of the war and the blockade.  Many have said hard things of its management, while, if they had been in charge they would have shrunk from the job before them.  The domestic arrangements of the mill and care for the operatives is high toned, noble, and manly and it affords us pleasure to thus pay him the public compliment. 

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, June 15, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
Owing to a failure in our regular supply of paper, we are compelled for a day or two to issue the Republican on a half sheet.  We hope to be righted up during the week, and even to increase the size of the paper by the close of the month.

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Atlanta, GA], August 18, 1863, p. 2, c. 6
Manchester Paper Mill.--The new establishment, so much needed by the entire South, will begin operations next month.  The proprietors, with a zeal most commendable, have spared neither labor nor means to erect their new building, and now that it is nearly completed, and the machinery ready for work, they are securing stock and preparing to supply the public demands.--Richmond Dispatch. 

DALLAS HERALD, August 26, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
Being disappointed in receiving a lot of paper which we were led to believe would have reached us in time to prevent a suspension of our paper, we have concluded to reduce the size of the Herald for a few weeks in order to make what we have on hand last as long as possible, hoping that by the time it is used up to receive another supply. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, August 26, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
Prices in the Interior.—We learn by a gentleman from the interior that in Parker county, where he resides, chickens can be had for 75 cents per dozen, eggs 25 cents per dozen, butter 25 to 37c per pound, wheat $3 per bushel, flour $10 per hundred pounds, beef five or six cents per pound, and in proportion for other articles.
The editor of the San Antonio Herald says he has purchased paper lately at $100 per ream, which is $3 per quire or 20 cents per sheet.  We have also purchased paper at the same price, smaller in size and inferior in quality to the paper for which we used to pay $3 per ream.
The Marshall Republican says two hundred and ten negroes left that county the other day to work on the fortifications on Red River.  The editor says the planters have responded promptly to the call made upon them.  Only two or three hung fire, and these will be looked after.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, September 9, 1863, p.  2, c. 1

Another Change of Rates.

                Two Dollars for Three Months. Until further notice, the terms of this paper will be Two Dollars for three months.
                We are driven to this by the unprecedented rise in the price of paper last week.  On Monday it was 60 cents per pound--on Tuesday it advanced to one dollar!
                Our readers and the public will see that we are now charging less than half as much as we ought to.  Before the war, when we furnished the Watchman at $2, the paper on which it was printed cost 10 cents per pound.  It is now ten times that high.  A corresponding advance in our subscription would raise it to $20.
                We have not expected to make anything during the war.  The paper must, however, pay expenses.  This it will not do at less rates than the above. 

ATLANTA [GA] DAILY INTELLIGENCER, September 13, 1863, p. 2, c. 1

The Marietta Paper Mills.

We lay before our readers the following letter just received from Mr. Edmonston, the Agent of the Marietta Paper Mills.  We trust that such action will be taken by both the State and Confederate authorities, as to remove the difficulties in the way of the enterprising proprietors of these Mils, so that, at an early day, they can resume the manufacture of paper, without which the interests of both the State and Confederate Governments, as well as those of the people, will suffer more than even the newspaper.  Mr. Edmonston's views are sensible:
Marietta, September 10th, 1863.
Editor of Intelligencer:
                I have on hand a few bundles of paper, which I will ship you, and this will be the last for some time; for when we shall resume again I cannot tell.  My hands volunteered in the Home Guard, to protect the country against raids, and are now called out to guard stores and prepare the defences of your city, I understand.  In the first instance, at the commencement of the war, I was disposed to aid all in my power and encouraged two of the hands to volunteer in Confederate service.  This left hardly hands enough to get along with when all were well.  Afterwards we lost two or three hands, and this left us short of hands, and one machine has only run when our hands have worked eighteen hours in the day.--We applied for the detail of the hands which has not been done, though the  Government has been urgent for paper, and we have strained every nerve to supply.  Shorthanded, we have done the best we could, and now all our hands are taken, of course we are obliged to stop.  I do not exactly comprehend how it is that Government agents insist upon the absolute necessity for the Government to have paper, and yet refuse us our hands.  You know Paper makers are not to be had South, and are not like Shoe-Makers, and many other callings which give exemptions to so many thousands, and cannot be learned after the Conscript officer takes after a fellow.  Well, if the Government needs our hands to dig ditches more than the paper, patriotism and our *comfort* answers, All right! I trust you will be able to get your supplies elsewhere, as we shall not resume, until we get hands enough to get along with without being pressed and kicked to death.
A. S. Edmonston, Agent.
P.S. Call round to the ditches and see how friend Buckhalter handles the spade and shovel.

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, September 14, 1863, p. 2, c. 2

Suspension of the Marietta Paper Mills.

                We take the following from the Chattanooga Rebel of the 10th:
The mills of the Marietta Paper Company, near this place, the largest establishment of the kind in the Confederacy, has been suspended for the want of laborers, all of their hands having been taken into the army.  The stoppage of an establishment of this magnitude and of this description is not merely an inconvenience, it is a positive misfortune, not only involving the people, but the government itself.  Every one is aware of the scarcity of paper throughout the Confederacy, and the high prices which it bears, and the stoppage of this mill is precisely what may under similar circumstances happen to all.  Then we should be entirely deprived of paper, either for government or individual use.  Newspapers would stop, and all correspondence be suspended.—The necessary blanks for the army could not be furnished, its accounts could not be kept, or its efficiency maintained.  The Post Office Department would expire with the absence of paper with which to carry on correspondence, and we should be reduced to the expedients of savage nations who only communicate at a distance by means of special couriers, and pieces of bark.
It is a question whether or not it is worth while to reduce us to this condition of things for the services of the very limited number of men employed about these establishments.  It does not seem so to us.  When the Confederate Congress, after serious deliberation and thorough discussion, determined to maintain a free press within the Confederacy by the exemption of editors and employes [sic] of newspaper establishments, we do not suppose they intended to destroy their own work by the prohibition of the manufacture of paper.  For that would have been simply ridiculous.  They enact that a free press is absolutely essential to public liberty, and that it shall be protected, and then deprive it of the very first essential of existence.  Surely this was not intended.  And we imagine the difficulty can be remedied.  It certainly ought to be.  But the government itself is interested.  An immense amount of paper is used for printing the thousands of blanks used in the various departments, and especially in the army.  These blanks are of vital consequence to the management of our armies, and the proper control and understanding of its vast accounts, and the paper cannot be dispensed with.
If then, the necessities of the government, and the requirements of sound policy and public convenience, demand that the Paper Mills should be let alone, we would ask why this the largest Mill in the Confederacy is summarily strangled by the seizure of the hands by the government?  Is it the fault with the government, or is it in the failure of the paper company to protect their hands?  Has the company used proper diligence, and employed the necessary means to prevent this result?  The public is interested in knowing.

CHARLESTON MERCURY, September 17, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
The Marietta Paper Mill, the largest establishment of the kind in the Confederacy, has been suspended for want of laborers.  The stoppage of an establishment of this magnitude and of this description, is not merely an inconvenience, it is a positive misfortune, not only involving the people, but the Government itself.

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, September 23, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
The Marietta Paper Mill, the largest in the State, has suspended for the want of hands, or is at least on short work, making cartridge paper for the Government.  The newspapers will be dried up generally in the State, unless other sources of supply can be opened.

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, September 25, 1863, p. 1, c. 6
Readers of newspapers will be pleased to hear that the Marietta Paper Mills have resumed operations, a portion of their operatives having been detailed from the service. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, September 9, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
The Shreveport News, a paper about the size of ours, is now sold at 50 cents per copy.  We shall also be compelled to advance our price, as we are now paying $100 per ream for paper that only cost $50 when our present rates were adopted.
The Dallas Herald declines to receive any more subscriptions in consequence of the scarcity of paper.  We trust that scarcity may not continue long, but for the present we can see no prospect of any improvement.
The Tyler Reporter does not object to the large number of negroes now being brought from La. to Texas for security, provided their owners take proper care of them.  But the editor complains that they are sometimes permitted to do pretty much as they please, and he states that one Dr. Blackman's negroes committed thefts on a large scale, and when informed of it, made light of the matter.  The editor hopes that will be remembered as he passes on Southwestward.

DALLAS HERALD, September 30, 1863, p. 2, c. 2

To Our Patrons.

                With this number of the Herald, we close out our supply of paper, and of course, cannot continue the Herald until we get more.  We have had money at Houston for the past four months to purchase paper, but none has arrived there in that time, and of course we could get none.  Just as soon as we get a supply we shall recommence our issues, when those who have paid us ahead, will be supplied.
We regret being compelled to discontinue, if even for a time, but expect that we shall soon be able to renew.  We shall next week issue a small slip containing some legal advertisements that are not yet completed. 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, September 30, 1863, p. 1, c. 3

Editorial  Correspondence.

                                                                                                New Braunfels, Sept. 23d, 1863.
The Texas Paper Manufacturing Company was organized here on Saturday, and the whole of the stock taken.  Sam Mather Esq., (late of Williamson county), who has just moved to New Braunfels for the purpose of prosecuting this enterprise, was elected President, and Mr. Theo. Koester, Secretary.  An excellent mill site, situated on the Comal Spring, with an abundant supply of clear water, and a good water-power, on which there is now a grist and flour mill in successful operation, has been purchased by the Company, and hands are already employed quarrying rock for the purpose of enlarging it, and adapting it to the manufacture of paper.  The latest and most improved machinery has been ordered from Europe, through a large mercantile firm in San Antonio, and, should no unexpected delay or interruptions in transportation occur, the Company expect to have it in operation in a few months.  The incorporators have had many difficulties of shipping cotton, but all these obstacles have been surmounted, and we now confidently anticipate, in less than a year, to be printing the Gazette on paper made in our State.  The high price we have had to pay for paper of every description, for many months past, has made the publishing business a most unprofitable one, and we believe there are few, if any, papers now in the State that do not cost the publisher more than double the price of his subscription, while many papers have had to suspend altogether from the impossibility of procuring paper.  It has been a matter of surprise to us, that the attention of the Government has not been directed to the necessity of offering every encouragement to the introduction of machinery, which the State is now so much in need of.  At this time, a gentleman from this place, is in Europe, negotiating for cotton machinery, to be put into Torrey's mill, which would now have been in operation, but for the interruptions that occurred in the shipment of cotton from Brownsville.  The continued interference with the Rio Grande trade, by military orders, and the uncertainty how long any order would remain in force, has deterred many from engaging in manufacturing enterprises, and the consequence is the State is suffering for many articles of necessity, which could have been manufactured here at one half the cost of importation.
But few of our citizens have any idea of the facilities here afforded for manufacturing purposes.  Situated in the heart of an agricultural region, and within a short distance of the finest sheep ranges in Texas, the transportation of the raw material will be but trifling, while the means of obtaining hauling, and every other kind of labor is greater than can be found elsewhere.  Mechanics of every description are here in abundance, and labor, suited for factories, can be had at reasonable rates.  The numerous water powers on the Comal and Guadalupe, afford the finest sites for mills we have ever seen, either in the North or Europe, and all with whom we have ever conversed on the subject who have any knowledge of manufacturing, say New Braunfels must ultimately become the Lowell of the Confederacy.  Had proper inducements been held out by the Government, we might at this time had several cotton and woollen factories in operation, which would have supplied the whole Confederate army with clothing, and had one fourth thee cotton, that has been sent to the Rio Grande, been invested in machinery, there would have been no necessity for impressing planters cotton to procure army supplies.
We have all the elements, right in our very midst, for making nearly every article of necessity.  With our great staples, cotton and wool, right at our very doors, with hands able and willing to work, and with water-power capable of turning all the machinery that can ever be put up, it is something remarkable, that while our ports have been nearly all closed, so little attention should have been directed to home manufactures.
It cannot surely be that our people are looking forward to a renewal of commercial intercourse with our enemies at the close of the war; and if not, where are we to obtain our supplies from?  The only alternative, if we do not make them ourselves, will be to ship our cotton and wool to Europe, and wait till it is made into cloth and sent back to us.  We can hardly suppose an enterprising people would consent to such a dependence upon foreign countries for the necessaries of life, when we have the resources within ourselves to supply these wants.  To be independent we must be self-sustaining, and that can only be by manufacturing our own cotton and wool, and all other raw materials which are to be found in such abundance all over our state, and which other countries, with much inferior resources, have turned to such a profitable account.  It may be said, "wait till the war is over."  That is all true—so far as policy and individual interest are concerned, but "while the grass is g rowing the steed is starving."  Had we taken this advice, we might possibly have to go without paper, and close up our office, just as we expect to see others going without coats on their backs, should the war continue a year or two longer, and our ports remain blockaded, as there is every reason to believe they will be.
                Let those who know anything about manufactures come forward and tender their services; let capitalists invest their means, and let the Government offer every facility for the introduction of machinery, to make clothes, as well as arms and munitions of war for our army, and we shall be better prepared, in less than a year, to stand a protracted war than we can ever hope to be by depending upon foreign importations.
D. R.

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, October 13, 1863, p. 3, c. 8

10,000 Pounds
Of Rags
Wanted at This Office,
For Which the
Highest Market Price
Will be Paid!!

SAVANNAH [GA] REPUBLICAN, November 17, 1863, p. 2, c. 3

Paper Making.

Editor Savannah Republican:
In every issue of our Southern Press we perceive advertisements of Rags!  Rags!  Rags! and many appeals to the people to economize the same.
The public no doubt have responded to these appeals, but, notwithstanding, paper is daily diminishing in quantity and increasing in price, and without any hope of importation remedying the evil; neither are the paper mills of the Confederacy able to lessen the exigency.
A question arises to the public minded, what can be done to ameliorate in some degree this dilemma?  The first point presenting itself is, have we the necessary paper mills in the Confederacy to manufacture enough paper to satisfy, in some degree, the present limited demand of publications?  On a careful examination of the subject it will, doubtless, appear that we have.  The next inquiry is, why do they not manufacture the same.  The reply is, because the rags are not to be had, and there is no other material that the present high prices of labor will warrant the manufacture in making use of, for though we have an abundance of material in our great staple, suitable to this purpose, yet paper made out of cotton, at the present prices, increases the cost to the enormous figure we now have to pay for the same, and as cotton is bound to rise in price and value, so naturally must paper.
It is well known, Mr. Editor, that cotton will not make as good and strong writing paper as linen rags, except by subjecting it to very expensive manipulations, and as the supply of linen rags will soon be entirely exhausted, it is time that we should look around us and examine all articles that can take the place of the flax fibre and that are cheaper than cotton.
Fortunately our Southern country possesses more than one article to supplant the use of rags for the better qualities of paper, and I will take the liberty of pointing out some of them and the necessary process of preparing the same for the paper manufacturer.
First of all our attention is claimed by (Josaypium Herbaceum) our own cotton shrub.  Secondly, by (Morus Papifora Sativa and Morus Alba) the Japan and Chinese Mulberry.  Thirdly, by (Populus Angulatu) the Carolina Poplar and (Poplar Argentia) Cotton Tree, called on the Savannah River Cotton Wood.  Fourthly, by (Jucca Filamentosa) Thready Adam's Needle, commonly called Bear or Silk Grass.  Fifthly, by (Iuncus Effusus) our common Rush.  Sixthly, by (Apocynum Cannubinum) Indian Hemp.  Seventhly, by (Urtica Divica), the Great Nettle.  Eighthly, by (Althea Rosea), the Garden Hollyhock.  Ninthly, by (Viscus Album) the Mistletoe.  Tenthly, by (Ilix Cassine) the Dahoon Holly of Florida, and other indigenous plants. [note:  the Latin may be mis-transcribed]
The above plants are principally used by the Chinese and Japanese to make their cheap and excellent paper, and deserve from us at least an investigation, and undoubtedly a few experiments would prove that they are all as good, if not better, than the rags we now use.
As a proof that these assertions are correct, I quote several statements:  the first is an article from the Savannah Republican.  (I found the same repeated in Turner's Cotton Planters' Manual.)
"We called attention some months ago to specimens of hemp made from the bark stripped from cotton stalks and left at our office for public inspection.  We now learn from the New York Day Book that specimens of bark have been exhibited to paper manufacturers at the North, which is found to be of fibrous character, and is considered to be well adapted for the manufacture of good paper."
"The best period for preparing this cotton hemp will be as soon as practicable after the packing of cotton has been finished.  The plants should then be pulled up and dew rotted, like hemp or flax, and afterwards broken up and the bark separated from the wood of the stalk.  The specimens of clean bark exhibited to experienced paper makers was considered equal to good rags worth six cents per pound, or about $120 per ton, and was pronounced the best substitute for rags of any raw vegetable material known to the trade."
This is plain and to the point, but as few of our planters are acquainted with the mode of preparing hemp or flax, I will add below how cotton stalks should be prepared for the paper mill, as well as other plants enumerated above.
To secure the cotton stalk successfully, it should be cut close to the ground, (to pull it up is an easier operation, but the roots will interfere in after manipulations) place them evenly on the ground to dry for a week.  When they are dry, they must be tied into bundles and put up in stacks to keep them from becoming moist in sultry weather, (the cover of the stacks ought to be water proof.)  They are merely put in stacks in case the planter has not time to attend to the preparing of them at once.
There are two ways to prepare them for market, either by dew rotting or by water rotting.  The last process is preferable.
In dew-rotting the stalks are spread out in a field or grass plot, and exposed to the weather for two or three months.  The best plan, however, when the crop is large and the fields are not needed immediately for tillage, is to leave the cotton stalks lying in the fields to rot.—They are sufficiently rotted when the ligneous part of the stalks are nearly decomposed and the fibre begins to separate from them.  In six weeks the stalks will be ready, (if a wet season) for breaking; this operation is performed by a common brake.  To determine if the stalks are sufficiently rotten or not, a few can be broken on the brake, and if the fibre detaches easily from them they are ready for manipulation.
The water-rotting is best carried on at a running stream or a clear pond, but it can be successfully performed where there is a good pump or well, but in the latter case, a large water-tight tank or box has to be prepared and the water changed twice a day.
In a creek or stream a pit should be prepared to receive the bundles of cotton stalks—they are places in on end and secured by a few boards and weights.  But the better plan is to make a frame ten feet square and four feet deep of stout rails, nailed or pinned to strong upright pieces.  This frame is filled with the bundles of cotton stalks, standing on end or laid in rows cross-wise, but closely packed.  The frame is then immersed in the creek or anchored in the stream.  If the weight is not sufficient to sink it, the stalks are covered with boards and stones until it sinks under water.
If the weather is warm five or six days will be sufficient to soften the stalks sufficient that its outside bark will come off.  As soon as this is accomplished take them [illegible] and spread the stacks singly on a lawn or grass plat, let them lie there for four or five weeks, turning them over twice a week.  This process will make the [illegible].  When ready for removal [illegible] and carry them to a barn or close [illegible].  The stalks are now ready for braking.
As many planters may not be acquainted with a brake, I will quote a description of [illegible] Johnson's Farmers' Encyclopedia:
"The brake is generally [illegible] brake which was [illegible] has always employed here [illegible] though longer than the common flax [illegible].  It is a rough contrivance, [illegible] about two and a half feet high.  The [illegible] consists of two jaws with [illegible] in each, the lower jaw fixed and immovable, and the upper one movable, so that it may be lifted up by means of a handle inserted in a [illegible] block at the front end of it.  The lower jaw has three [illegible], or teeth, made out of [illegible] oak, and the upper two arranged approaching to about two inches in front, and in such manner that the slats of the upper jaw [illegible] between those of lower.  These slats about six or seven feet long and six inches in depth, and about two inches in thickness in their lower edges; they are placed edgeways, rounded a little on their upper edges, which are sharper than those below.  The laborer takes his stand by the side of the brake, and grasping in his left hand as many of the stalks as he can conveniently hold with his right hand he seizes the handle in the [illegible] of the upper jaw.  Three successive strokes break the woody and reedy parts of the stalks into small pieces or [illegible], which fall off during the process.  He assists their disengagement by striking the [illegible] or with a small wooden paddle, until the interior bark is entirely clean, and completely separated from the woody particles."
The fibre is now ready for the market, but some (paper) manufacturers might  [illegible] on account of its not being fine [illegible] purposes.  In that case the planter can subject the fibre to an additional manipulation, like hemp, which is called scutching and hackling, but I hardly think this will be necessary as the washing and rotting process at the mill will destroy any woody substance and [illegible] of the fibre; therefore I do not think it will be necessary to describe the operation of scutching and hackling.
The common nettle and the Indian hemp are prepared like the cotton stalks—similar to the above described process.
The mulberry, the cotton tree, the Carolina poplar, and the Dahoon holly should be prepared in the following manner.  Cut the young shoots of these trees into pieces of about three feet long, and collect the same in bundles; boil these bundles in water containing a good deal of ashes.  If the wood is too dry it must be steeped in water for twenty-four hours before boiling.
The bundles are kept boiling in a closed kettle till the bark at the ends of the [illegible] separates from the stem [illegible] they are then cooled, and the bark is separated and cleaned.
The bear grass and the rush are prepared by tying the leaves in bundles; then boil and pound them till the soft vegetable [illegible] and the flesh of the bark is disengaged from the strong fibre.  After this the same is easily washed in clean water.
Another, but not as good a process, is to let them rot in the water or bury them in the earth until rotted.  The fibres are then washed and ready for the manufacturer.
Before I close this rather lengthy communication, I will add a few words regarding Garden Hollyhock, (Althea rosea,) the Asiatic Holly (genus Ilex) and the Mistletoe (Viscus arbum, verticillatum.)  These three plants are used by the Japanese and Chinese for their fibrous bark, and they prepare them for making paper as other vegetable matter.  They use them principally in certain combinations with the above enumerated plants, on account of their glutiluous [??] and viscuous [??]qualities and an extract is made of them and added to the pulp instead of the sizing now used in our paper manufactories.
In our present crisis these plants would, if used instead of the size now used, save many dollars.  The size is generally prepared by peeling the root of Hollyhocks and [illegible] into small pieces and infusing the same [illegible] night in water.  The clear liquid is mixed with an extract of rice prepared by putting the rice in an unvarnished earthen pot, which is [illegible] agitated gently, and then more briskly.  New water is next put in, and the whole [illegible] through a linen cloth.  The [illegible] determined by the viscosity of the substance.
In conclusion, let me beg the [illegible] planter to investigate the subject [illegible] and let him not be deterred by the fear that it may require too much labor, for the principle part, such as breaking and hacking, can be easily performed during leisure hours by the negro men, who, no doubt, for a stipulated price per hundred pounds, would gladly earn something for themselves during the long winter evening, while to the master it would be beneficial in keeping them at home and out of harm.  And let me also request our principal planters to benefit their country by preparing some of the above mentioned fibres for paper mills, and afterwards publishing the result of their experiments, so that the public can form an idea of the national importance of the subject, and thereby induce the majority of the planters that adopt the fibre culture of the cotton stalk and others suitable indigenous plants.

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, November 18, 1863, p. 2, c. 2

Home Manufactures.

                At the Extra Session of the Ninth Legislature, held nearly a year ago, several manufacturing companies were chartered, but we have not been able to learn that even one of them has commenced operations up to this period.  The question naturally arises why is this?  We have occasion to know something, in relation to the difficulties thrown in the way of importing machinery, by the Military authorities of this State; and as several bills are now before the Legislature for similar charters, we think it but right, some cognizance should be taken of these military acts.
The Comal Cotton Manufacturing Company and the Texas Paper Manufacturing Company were both chartered at the last Extra Session, and the Incorporators of both companies went to work at once to get them in operation as speedily as possible.  After cotton sufficient to purchase machinery in Europe had been bought, it could not be moved without a permit, there being at that time an order from Headquarters, that no cotton could be taken out of the State, without first introducing goods to a certain amount; after which came another cotton order, and another, till it was impossible for any one, starting cotton from the interior, to form any idea upon what terms it would be allowed to cross the Rio Grande.  Hence all shipments of cotton were at a stand still, except such as belonged to a privileged few, who could export as much as they pleased, being protected by Government permits and furnished with Conscript teamsters to haul for them.  During this state of things, the Comal manufacturing Company, after much delay, obtained an order to ship 500 bales of cotton, but on its arrival at the Rio Grande, a portion of it was seized under the late impressment order (not the impressment act of Congress, but an impressment order from Headquarters) and the last we heard of it, it was still detained at Brownsville and could not be shipped.  The Texas Paper Manufacturing Company, also after a delay of several months, succeeded at last in getting a permit to export 140 bales, but owing to the increased expenses of transport, and the decline in cotton, the incorporators applied for a permit for an additional amount to which no satisfactory answer has yet be received; hence the order, that has been sent on for the machinery, cannot be filled, until a sufficient amount of cotton can be shipped to cover first cost and expenses of freight to Matamoros.  We mention these two instances, as coming under our immediate notice, for the information of the Committee, who have a Resolution before, them "requesting them to institute an enquiry in regard to the transportation of cotton to the Rio Grande and ascertain if the citizens of this State are prohibited from so transporting cotton, and by what authority." . . .

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, January 20, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
With the new year printing paper has gone up twenty-five cents per lb. higher than it was the latter part of last year.  It then sold for $1.00 per pound--it now costs $1.25!

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, January 20, 1864, p. 1, c. 7
The Marshall Republican, of the 2d instant, announces that that paper will be suspended for a few weeks for the want of paper and the necessary assistance, but that an Extra will be issued when important news is received.  We hope our able contemporary may soon be enabled to resume, but the "paper question" is becoming every day one of more and more absorbing interest to us.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 10, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
Though the Texas Ranger gave the Countryman a "parting salute," saying that we had suspended for the want of paper, the lady editor of that paper was never more mistaken in her life.  Had she looked at the number of the 28th January last, the last number issued, she would have seen that the Countryman suspended, not for want of paper, but on account of the Militia Law, which ordered our printer into the field.  As for paper, why, bless the Texas Ranger, we expect to have enough good white paper to print the Countryman upon, for twelve months after the supply of old yellow wrapping paper on which the Ranger is printed shall have been exhausted. 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Atlanta, GA], March 12, 1864, p. 1, c. 2

Change of Rates.

                The advance in the price of white paper and other expenses, makes it obligatory upon us to advance the price of subscription from four to five dollars per month.  We regret to be compelled to make this advance, but the facts mentioned above leave us no discretion in the premises.  Should the fall in the price of paper and decrease in other expenses justify it in the future, a corresponding deduction will be made in the price of subscription.
           Advertisers hereafter will be charged three dollars per square for the first, and two dollars and fifty cents for each subsequent insertion. 

ATLANTA [GA] DAILY REGISTER, March 19, 1864, p. 1, c. 1

Rags!  Rags!

The highest price paid for rags, or value given by crediting subscription to the Register.  We will buy all cotton rags brought to this office.
Feb. 22--1 mo. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, March 23, 1864, p. 2, c. 7
We are compelled to issue this first number of the twenty first volume of the Weekly News on brown paper, for though we have just received a small supply of white paper it came to hand too late for this issue.

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, April 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Paper is getting so scarce that we do not know how soon we may be compelled to make a virtue of necessity and take a holiday.  Some of our readers doubtless think our present price very high, but the prospect now is that we will not be able to give them a paper much longer at any price.  We have sent money and orders in various directions long since, and we occasionally hear of paper on the way at a price that we never before heard or dreamed.

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, April 6, 1864, p, 1, c. 2
We regret to learn, from the last number of the S. A. Herald, that its publication will be suspended for some time.  The want of paper is the reason for its discontinuance. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, April 17, 1864, p. 1, c. 3

Letter from Georgia.

                                                                                                Atlanta, Ga., April 13, 1864.
. . .
          Marietta from whence I have just returned does not look much like the town of yore when it was the favorite summer resort for families in lower Georgia and from the South Carolina coast.  The main hotel building has been transformed into a Hospital, and other buildings on the square have been similarly disposed of.  Lame, wounded and convalescent soldiers are seen on every side, and other evidences of the pressure of "grim-visaged war" abound.
While here I had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of Col. Wm. Phillips, a wealthy citizen of Marietta, and President and one of the largest owners in the Marietta Paper Mill Company, the management of whose affairs he has personally undertaken.  Col. Phillips has seen service in the field, having commanded the Legion which still bears his name, in the first battle of Manassas, and only retired on account of the failure of his health.  Several war worn veterans of his company who were home on furlough, called upon him while I was present, and it did me good to see the warm and cordial greeting interchanged between them.  Such evidences of esteem and affection on the part of soldiers for their officers, are the highest compliments that can be paid the latter—for he is the best officer who cares most and does most for the welfare of his men.
The Marietta Paper Mills, though among the very best in the Confederacy, and though the Government and newspapers are clamorous for paper, are not working up to their full capacity.  The cause of this is the want of hands, some of their best paper makers having been conscribed into the service.  This ought not to be so.   Government should unhesitatingly detail the necessary force to keep every mill in the Confederacy at work to its full capacity.
The change in the currency, the new military law or something else, has put a remarkable check to travel.  Railway cars which used to be crowded to excess, are hardly half-filled now, and the hotels have abundance of room for all their guests.—Speaking of hotels, the Trout House here has recently changed hands and has been greatly improved thereby.  The table is much better and the prices are considerably reduced.  If the proprietor would renovate his rooms and pay a little more attention to the bedding, this hotel would be a very good one for the times.                      C. 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, April 20, 1864, p. 1, c. 3
The San Antonio news says "the same amount of paper that formerly cost us $3 50 in specie, now costs us $360 in Confederate money."  That is exactly what we have to pay, and yet we are only charging five times the price for subscription we formerly did, while for everything we have to buy, which costs less in proportion, from twenty to thirty times former prices is charged to us. 

CHARLESTON MERCURY, April 22, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
The Marietta Paper Mills, though among the very best in the Confederacy, and though the Government and newspapers are clamorous for paper, are not working up to their full capacity.  The cause is this is the want of hands, some of their best paper makers having been conscribed into service.  This ought not so to be.  Government should unhesitatingly detail the necessary force to keep every mill in the Confederacy at work to its full capacity.

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, May 4, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
                The Telegraph of the 26th, after apologizing for using brown paper, says:  "We are now left but one alternative, either to double the price again or diminish the size.  Will our readers advise us what to do?"  We would ask the same question, if we thought it would do any good, but we do not believe it is the business of our readers to tell us what we should do.  It is our business to publish a paper and charge what we consider a fair price for it, in accordance with the times, and it is the business of our readers to decide whether they will take it or not on these terms.  The editor of the Telegraph is evidently afraid to run the risk, for the next day he publishes a long lugubrious article about the high rate he has to pay for everything, and hints indirectly at having to come down to a specie basis, while he at the same time invited his subscribers to give him their views on the subject.  We have been watching this beating about the bush for some time, thinking, as we were only playing second fiddle, we would wait as long as we could, provided we did not in the mean time get used up entirely.  We have now been waiting till we cannot buy a ream of paper except for specie, or its present pro rata, thirty for one.  The Telegraph, in the article above referred to, says:
           "It may be asked how we manage to sustain our paper.  We reply our newspaper has not sustained itself, and is not now doing so.  It is eating itself up.  So is every newspaper in the State.  The course we have hitherto pursued will shortly leave the people without a press."
                If this be so, and we have no doubt of it, so far as we are concerned, will it, we would ask, be regarded as disloyal to adopt specie rates, and take the equivalent in Confederate money at what it is going for?  So far as we are concerned, we have either got to do this, or stop very soon, and we only wait for the Houston papers to set the example before it is too late.  The specie price of paper is now about five times what it was before the war, and as it is regulated mainly by the San Antonio market, which is now quoted at thirty for one, while our subscription price is just five for one, at our old rates.  We even heard of $600 per ream having been paid for a small lot of printing paper 24x36 only last week. We think any further comments on this subject needless. 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, May 4, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
The Houston papers have got down to about the size of our little "Almanac Extra," owing to the scarcity of paper.  They have been getting, "smaller by degrees and beautifully less" for some time, which is not at all remarkable, as the white paper alone costs more than the price of subscription.  There is plenty of paper now on the way from Mexico, which can be bought for specie, and we presume they will have to acknowledge at last that it is the only basis upon which a paper can be now sustained, and come down to it as a matter of necessity, or soon be compelled to suspend.  For a long time, we have done all in our power to keep down our subscription list, and so long as we are compelled to continue our present rates, we hope our friends will send us no more new subscribers, and not even renew their own subscriptions, if they can get a paper to suit them elsewhere.

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, May 11, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
The San Antonio "News" is the only paper now published in that city, and it comes to us this week without a single local item of any kind, except that it will be issued hereafter on Saturdays, and that the publisher has a supply of white paper to last him a year or more.  It also mentions the re-opening of the Menger Hotel, but does not even tell us the price of board, a very important item of news to those who have occasion to visit San Antonio at this time.

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, May 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
The San Antonio "News" comes to us this week on a double sheet of white paper, which is an evidence that it is flourishing during the temporary suspension of the Herald.  San Antonio, like Austin, cannot support two papers.  One may make a living, but if two, one or both must starve, as past experience has proved. 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [Atlanta, GA], June 10, 1864, p. 2, c. 7
           Fulton Paper Mills.--We were extremely delighted yesterday evening on a visit to the Fulton Paper Mills, to witness the energy with which this valuable enterprise is being conducted.  It is situated on the classic waters of Sugar creek in DeKalb county, about six miles distant from the Gate City, and surrounded by picturesque hills and dales.  On the 24th of June, 1863, the work was inaugurated by the commencement of a dam across the creek to supply water for the huge rag wheel.  The dam is massive and substantial, affording an abundant supply of water.  Arrangements are being perfected for the conducting of pure spring water to the building, for the purpose of aiding in the manufacture of a whiter and better article of paper.  The buildings and machinery are new and perfect, and although not complete in all its details, under the guidance and skill of its energetic foreman, Mr. T. F. Scully, a veteran in the business, the mills are turning out an excellent article of paper.  It is not as white as desired because they have not secured as yet bleaching powder, but the body is good.  Several months ago, ere they commenced making felts at Columbus, Mr. Scully, assisted by a lady, spun the filling and wove the dryer felts now used in the mill.  The felt is equal to the best English manufactured, and attests the capacity of our people to manufacture all necessary articles.  Capt. G. J. Foreacre, well known to our citizens for his ability and enterprise, is superintendent.  The success of this enterprise is equivalent to a brilliant victory. 

DALLAS HERALD, July 2, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
We re-commence the issue of the Herald this week, after a suspension of several months.  The paper on which we print at present is thin, dark, and rather small, but it is the best we can do for some weeks and perhaps months.  We expect, however, to have white paper before a great while, and shall spare no efforts to keep on hand a constant supply thereafter.  We can do this if we are sustained by our readers, and paid up promptly in such funds or produce as will enable us to buy paper.  We shall endeavor to make the paper as readable as possible, and trust to the generosity of our patrons. 

ATHENS [GA] SOUTHERN WATCHMAN, July 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
                The Yankees will keep the cotton and Woollen Mills [at Roswell] in operation.
                Capt. Clark brought down with him, as prisoner, the Yankee Capt. Austin, of the 8th Kansas Infantry, captured by his command near the Paper Mills, between Roswell and Marietta.
                Gen. Phillips' Paper Mill, at Roswell, was burned on Tuesday morning.  The General sent them word that "the mill belonged to a man who had fought them from the beginning of the war, and who would continue to fight them to the bitter end; that he had been taught from childhood to hate them as enemies to him and his, and that he would die hating them; that he did not ask any favor from them; and they might burn to their hearts' content."  These bold words of defiance, as a matter of course, did not have any influence in protecting the property.  It was dismantled completely before the proprietor retreated.  He remained in sight of the place until he saw the flames consume it.--Atlanta Intelligencer. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, July 10, 1864, p. 1, c. 7
Gen. Philips' paper mill, at Roswell, was burned on Tuesday morning.  The General sent them word that "the mill belonged to a man who had fought them from the beginning of the war, and who would continue to fight them to the bitter end; that he had been taught from childhood to hate them as enemies to him and his, and that he would die hating them; that he did not ask any favor from them, and they might burn to their heart's content."  These bold words of defiance, as a matter of course, did not have any influence in protecting the property.  It was dismantled completely before the proprietor retreated.  He remained in sight of the place until he saw the flames consume it.—[Atlanta Register. 

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, September 7, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
We were greeted on Monday morning by a visit from an old familiar friend, whom we had not seen for five months.  This visitor was no other than the San Antonio Herald, which we could hardly recognize on account of its increased size and improved appearance.  The Herald was compelled to suspend publication on account of the loss of a large supply of paper it had purchased when the Yankees entered Brownsville, but we think the long nap it has taken, has certainly been attended with good results.  It now comes out a full sized, half sheet double medium, containing a larger amount of matter than any paper now published in the State.  It is issued at a point we have always been in the habit of looking to for important news, and as stirring events are now transpiring on our Western frontier, the reappearance of the Herald at this time is most opportune.  We see the editors have announced our name as agent, without consulting us on the subject, but wee will not back out from serving our contemporaries in any way in our power, as we are under similar obligations to the Herald, as well as the Houston Telegraph for receiving subscriptions in specie for us which cannot be conveniently sent by mail.  The price of the Herald is now four dollars per annum, and those wishing to subscribe for it can leave the money at our office, when it will be ordered immediately and forwarded without delay.  We may also add that we receive subscriptions in specie for the Houston Telegraph, and that parties wishing to subscribe for our paper at either of these points, can pay the money for us at those offices. 

DALLAS HERALD, September 10, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
The San Antonio Herald comes to us again, after a suspension of several months, for the want of paper.  It is now the largest paper in the State, printed on fine white paper, and presenting a handsome appearance.  It, as well as most of the other papers in Southern Texas, is on a specie basis. 

DALLAS HERALD, September 17, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
We are pleased to greet in our sanctum the Marshall Republican, which has been suspended for several months, on account of scarcity of paper, and now comes to us with the assurance that it is to be continued.  We are glad to see friend Lowrey on his feet again, and hope that he may not again be compelled to suspend. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, September 28, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
The Texas Republican reached our office yesterday.  The editor intends to enlarge it so soon as he is certain of getting more paper.  We are truly glad our friend Loughery has "resumed."
By the same mail we received the Army and Navy messenger.  The Messenger is a "soldiers paper," published at Shreveport, and edited by the Reverends H. M. Smith and Wm. B. Norris.  We bid the Messenger "God speed," with its messages of love to the army.

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, November 3, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
New Goods.  Fine English Letter and Note Paper, and Confederate Paper of all kinds, Imported envelopes, Playing Cards, Gillett's Pens, Fine Rifle Powder, Caps, Needles, Pins, Tacks, &c., Guitar and Violin Strings, &c.  Also, a few Large Blank Books.  For sale at the Book Store.  Albany, Nov.3d. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, November 23, 1864, p. 1, c. 5
According to a statement in the New York World more than one-third of the newspapers in the United States, published four years ago, have suspended publication.  The aggregate circulation of the remainder has much diminished.  The price of all printing materials has doubled and trebled, and of paper has almost quadrupled.

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, November 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
We learn from the "reliable gentleman," of course, that the train on the Savannah Road, containing the types, presses, &c., of the Atlanta Intelligencer and Southern Confederacy, was captured by the enemy, and all the material of these papers destroyed.  For this we are really sorry, as there were already little printing material in Georgia--in fact in the Confederacy. 

DALLAS HERALD, December 24, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
We are pleased to see that the Galveston Bulletin comes out in an entire new dress, making a very handsome and readable appearance.  It is a good paper and deserves patronage.  Its new material was purchased in Havana and brought to Galveston via Matamoros.

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS February 15, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
We have received a second prospectus of a new paper to be issued, called the "Texas Christian Herald," to be devoted to the family circle, the farmer, the artisan and the housemaid.  This paper is to be published under the auspices of the Texas Baptist State Convention.  It is to be the largest paper in the State, on good paper, and printed with new material.  Price $4 per annum weekly, the first number to be issued as soon as 500 subscribers are obtained.  The Executive Committee are B. Blonton, W. C. Crane, James W. Barnes, Jno. M. Knight and H. Clark.  Under such auspices, we cannot doubt but that this new paper will be a most valuable acquisition to the journalism of our State.

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, February 22, 1865, p. 1, c. 6
Having procured some better and larger type than we have been heretofore compelled to use, we shall now increase the size of the Bulletin to that of the News, making the News a daily paper which will be sent to all who are subscribers for both.  Hereafter, no matter contained by one paper will be copied into another, except advertisements.  The subscription price of the Daily News will be the same as for both the News and Bulletin, that is $12 per year, or at that rate for a shorter period.  Our city subscribers to the Tri-weekly will be furnished with the Daily for a few issues, which, after an opportunity of judging, we hope they will be induced to take, as it will save us the trouble of employing two carriers.  Those who do not wish the Daily will please notify us.
The destruction of our office, near three years ago, at a time when new printing material and type, could scarcely be had, has compelled us to use type too much worn to be always easily read.  We trust our readers will find our present paper a considerable improvement.  We have had many difficulties to contend with under our heavy losses by the war and fire, but shall spare no labor or expense within our power, to make the News satisfactory to all in point of typographical execution, and to every true Southerner, in all other respects.

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, February 22, 1865, p. 2, c. 2
Telegraph Line to San Antonio.—We learn that Mr. D. P. Shepherd, Superintendent of the Southwestern Telegraph Line, in connection with other parties, have ordered material and made other preliminary arrangements for building a line of telegraph from Hempstead, via Brenham, LaGrange, Bastrop, Austin and New Braunfels, to San Antonio.  The proprietors will have the co-operation of the military authorities of this Department and every thing augurs favorably for the early completion of the line.   The work will be commenced as soon as the weather will permit.

DALLAS HERALD, March 2, 1865, p. 1, c. 5
"Sioux," the intelligent travelling correspondent of the Houston Telegraph in one of his recent letters, says:
I had the pleasure of meeting D. Richardson, editor of the State Gazette, while passing through New Braunfels, Comal county.  He has located his family at that point, while he has lately spent the most of his time in Austin, attending to the management of his paper.  He is now here superintending the erection of a paper mill.  Mr. Sam Mather has charge of the mechanical department.  This enterprise has not been given up yet.  Hands are now at work constructing a new water power, and pushing the work forward as fast as the means of the company will allow.  The machinery has been ordered, but the means upon which the company depended having failed, they have been unable to send for it.  They expect ere long to make such negotiations as will enable them to have the works in operation in a few months.
The Company are anxious to sell stock so as to enable them to go on with the work which has only been delayed for the want of means.  This enterprise should be liberally encouraged, for such an establishment would not only be useful to very family in the land who reads newspapers, but an ornament to our State, and reduce the price of newspapers considerably.  Old rags and waste cotton, suitable for the manufacture of paper, can be had more plentifully and cheaper in this State than in any part of the world.  The Comal river furnishes one of the best water powers in the State.
This kind of power can always be depended upon, and costs much less than steam power, besides the mill will be located in the heart of a rich farming region of the country.
Spinning and weaving machinery has been ordered, and if the proper encouragement is given to the enterprising managers, they will build up an establishment that will be pointed out with pride by the people of our State.  New Braunfels is destined to be at some future day, what Sheffield or Manchester is to England, the great workshop of the State.  The immense water power furnished by the Comal river, and the rich agricultural region surrounding it, warrants me in making this prediction. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
We have a considerable supply of printing paper at Hempstead, but owing to bad weather and worse roads, we are unable to get it home.  Should our paper fail next week, we opine it will be for the want of that paper. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 4
The Confederate News publishes a full sheet, doubling some of its matter.  A half sheet would look better to our mind's eye.  But this is a bad time to criticise a paper for doing too much.  We notice that the news office is for sale. 

DALLAS HERALD, March 9, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
The Galveston News come to us enlarged to double its late size, printed on larger type, its columns widened, and vastly improved in every way.  The news is one of our most valued exchanges, and we rejoice to see this evidence of the appreciation of its enterprise.  We most evidently wish our venerable friend will meet with the encouragement which his efforts to furnish a valuable family journal so richly deserve. 

DALLAS HERALD, March 23, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
The Marshall Republican comes to us largely increased in size, and very much improved in appearance.  It is now one of the largest, as it always has been one of the ablest edited sheets in the Trans-Mississippi Department, and being at a point where the news all centers, and immediately on the telegraph line, it has peculiar advantages for furnishing the latest news.  Were our mail facilities anything like what they ought to be East of this the Republican would be able to furnish us with the latest dispatches.  As it is, we must still wait for news to be conveyed to Houston, and thence sent to us per mail. 

DALLAS HERALD, April 6, 1865, p. 2, c. 2
We have been very grievously disappointed in not receiving a supply of paper which should have reached us some two months ago.  We are, consequently, compelled to print on a little smaller sheet than usual, this week.  We hope to resume our usual sheet next week, though we have no assurance of it, and may be compelled to print on brown paper for several weeks.