SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA]  
February 1860 - February 1865
 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], February 2, 1860, p. 1, c. 3
        The Old Spinning Wheel
            By Mrs. D. G. Foss.


In exstacy [sic] let others praise
               
The organ's lofty peal;
To me there is no music like
               
The dear old spinning wheel. 

Its gentle buzzing greets my ear
               
With a soft, lulling sound,
Like the faint echoes of the woods
               
Where waterfalls resound. 

How many memories of the past,
               
Clust'ring round it cling;
And make it round my throbbing heart
               
A dear time-honored thing! 

Our mother, ere the household band
               
Had left the household hearth,
Mingled the music of the wheel
               
With many an evening's mirth. 

And later in her green old age,
               
She rung out many a chime—
Rising and falling with each step,
               
Her cap border beat time. 

She taught us that our lives must be
               
Like the uneven thread;
Peace to her ashes!  for she sleeps
               
Now with the silent dead. 

As soon the spinning wheel will pass,
               
Its music soon be o'er—
Oh!  who'll appreciate its worth
               
One generation more? 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 6, 1860, p. 1, c. 3

From the National Intelligencer.
                Campaign Song.
            Air—"Star-Spangled Banner."

Oh! do you not hear, as it leaps thro' the air,
               
A shout whose sound reaches from ocean to ocean?
'Tis the 'larum note clear of the free, far and near,
               
Striking home to the heart midst the din and commotion.
                               
And no longer we pause,
                               
Traitors scoff at the laws,
                               
Constitution and Union,
                               
Which we've made our cause;
Then fling broad the banner, the Union we'll save
To the sons of the Free, in the home of the Brave. 

The foemen now dare to advance from the lair
               
Where have lurk'd their [hole in paper] aims 'gainst the peace of the Nation;
Unblushing they ask, as each throws off the mask,
               
Success to their cause, or Disunion!  Secession!
                               
You heed well the cry,
                               
To the ballot-box fly,
                               
And conquer all faction,
                               
Conquer nobly or die!
So the flag of our Nation not a star less may wave
O'er the land of the Free and the home of the Brave! 

Oh! do you not see (down in fair Tennessee),
               
A Chieftain whose record we all may confide in?
Another whose fame, link'd with Washington's name,
               
Has spread thro' the land we're all proud to reside in?
                               
Then with statesmen so just,
                               
Whom the People will trust,
                               
To conquer is easy,
                               
And conquer we must.
"Bell and Everett," our champions, the Union they'll save,
And long, long, wave our flag o'er the Free and the Brave! 

Washington, August 29, 1860.                                          F.Y. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 20, 1860, p. 1, c. 8

The Union Wagon.
            Tune—"Wait for the Wagon."

There's a right and wrong in politics,
               
And right is on our side;
So we've harnessed up the wagon, boys,
               
To let the nation ride.
The Union is our wagon,
               
And it isn't any shell,
For its crowded with the people,
               
And its driver is John Bell.
                               
Chorus--                Wait for the wagon,
                                                               
Wait for the wagon,
                                                               
Wait for the wagon,
                                                               
For the driver is John Bell. 

This wagon is a noble one,
               
'Twas made in seventy-six.
'Twas driven by George Washington,
               
Through stormy politics;
With northern oak and eastern pine,
               
And western ash 'tis bound—
Palmetto, cypress, cotton wood,
               
In every wheel are found,  
                               
Chorus— 

The mill boy of the slashes, boys,
               
Kentucky's Henry Clay,
Once sat upon the wagon
               
As we're sitting here to-day;
He drove the road of Compromise,
               
By Constitution charts,
And held the reins of Union
               
All 'round the people's hearts.
                               
Chorus— 

In this our famous wagon,
               
With the people at its back,
Through all the troublous elements
               
Our own Bell keeps the track;
And when the hand of Webster shook
               
The hand of proud Calhoun,
'Twas here upon this wagon-box
               
They sat in close commune.
                               
Chorus— 

So jump into the wagon, boys,
               
The people are its springs,
We're running on the Union course,
               
And John Bell holds the strings.
The Union is our wagon,
               
And it isn't any shell,
For it's crowded with the people,
               
And the driver is John Bell.
                               
Chorus— 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 20, 1860, p. 2, c. 5

Powerful Attraction!
Theatrical Democracy!
Re-organized and newly equipped for the
"Travelling Season of 1860," will per-
form in several Southern Cities
and small towns in the north
during the Summer and
Autumn.
The Management.


Sole Lessee and Director of Amusements......................................W. L. Yancey.
Acting and Stage Manager.............................................................John Slidell.
Prompter...........................................................................James Gordon Bennett.
Treasurer...........................................................................................Sen. Bayard.
Scenic Artist.................................................................................G. W. Bowman.
Master of the Toilet..............................................................Sig. Jeff. Davisimo.
Sups, Jas. Buchanan, John  C. Breckinridge, and Jos. Lane.
               
Mr. Yancy respectfully announces that his Company has been selected for the express purpose of producing in an inimitable manner,
SMALL FARCES,
               
BROAD BURLESQUES,
                               
GROTESQUE DANCES,
                                               
AND FUNNY LITTLE SONGS,
Affording to the people a series of
               
LIGHT ENTERTAINMENTS,
Appropriate to the hot season.


The Stock Company

Includes the following well known actors:
Mr. Wm. L. Yancey, "walking gentleman," player of light, amusing parts, and Singer of
               
Funny little Songs.
Mr. John Slidell, "first old man," and author of "Plaquemine"—a jolly good thing, if you
               
don't care what you say.
Sig. Jeff. Davisimo, the celebrated half-bushel dancer and Mississippi Contortionist.
Mr. Lewis Cass, "first old woman," and player of weak female parts.
Mr. Jesse D. Bright, the Great Booby performer and graphic delineator of the Northern
               
Nincompoop.
Mr. Fitch, the Quack Doctor, dirt-eater, &c.
Mr. J. P. Benjamin, the Southern Soap Man and wind instrument performer.
Mr. Caleb Cushing, the "Stage Villain," also the acrobat and contortionist, who will twist
               
himself into a Webster Whig, a Sumner abolitionist, a Davis Fire-eater,
                Secessionist, and Bolter.
Mr. Roger A. Pryor, the eater of fire, will "act out" his amusing part of Clay in the hands
               
of the Potter.
Together with a host of lesser lights, including Mat. Johnson, the call-boy and carpet
               
shaker; Ben Harrington, the Ohio Tom Thumb; Master Charles Augustus Schell,
               
Charley Green, Ike Toucey, &c.

The Orchestra.

Instruments.                                                                         By whom played
Hand Organ.....................................................................Washington Constitution.
Snare Drum.....................................................................Richmond Enquirer.
Fife..................................................................................New Orleans Courier.
Nery Base Drum.............................................................New York Herald.
Don't know what-in-the-devil-it-is.................................New York News.
Fiddle (any tune that pays).............................................Boston Post.
Penny Whistle.................................................................Hartford Times.
2d Penny Whistle............................................................Washington Star.
3d Penny Whistle............................................................Cleveland National Democrat.

Among the Broad Farces in the repertoire
of this Company will be found the
exceeding funny pieces called

Wasn't we smart at Baltimore—Ain't we old Pie—and Ain't we some Mush on a Rag,
Cast to the entire strength of the Company—robbers, thieves, &c., by numerous auxiliaries.

The Side Show

Attending the Theatrical Democracy, and owned by Messrs.
               
Bigler,
                               
Bayard, 
                                               
Bright, and
                                                               
Butler,
Contains a Buck Rabbit and a bass drum; and Whitney, the Massachusetts Boneless Man, will invariably appear when he says he won't.

The Theatrical Democracy,

Flattered by the trust placed in them, pledge themselves to never repudiate that trust so long as they can get any body to trust them.

Prices of Admission:

Postmasters, collectors, route agents, clerks, and government stipendiaries generally—half their salaries.
               
[No other persons are expected.] 

                We understand the above company have divided for the Fall.  Mr. Lessee Yancey is making a Northern trip, and, we understand, draws crowded houses, to hear him in his favorite song, "The Star Spangled Banner."
               
Major Breckinridge is travelling for the season, through Kentucky, singing "I'm a Used up Man," the beautiful little songs, of "O, would I were a Boy Again," and "The Harp that once thro' Tara's Walls."  We learn he sings with great beauty and feeling.
               
A new side show has been gotten up for the South, and will exhibit through Georgia—will appear at Gainesville, 21st Sept.  See handbills.
               
The services of that distinguished performer, Hon. Robt. Toombs, have been secured.  He will make his first appearance at Gainesville, in his inimitable Hornpipe Dance.  He will then appear in "Pepper Pod, or Firing the Southern Heart."
               
After which, he will exhibit his magnificent dissolving views on Slavery, Squatter Sovereignty views of 1848, Slavery settled by the Compromise of 1850, Slavery settled in 1858, by the English Bill, Slavery re-opened and to be settled by Protection, if necessary, in 1860.  To conclude this part of the exhibition, with his popular song of "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean."

                                                "Lay the proud usurpers low!
                                               
Tyrants fall in every foe!
                                               
Liberty's in every blow,
                                               
Let us do or die."

                Dr. Miller will appear in his comic song of
                                               
"How is you, dear folks, one and all?
                                                               
I'm glad to see you well;
                                               
I've come to live wid you, dis fall
                                                               
It is de truth I tell."
               
The performance to be concluded by Dr. Miller, in the celebrated Reprieve song, of Lucious Gartrell:
                                               
"I had a dream the other night,
                                                               
When every thing was still,
                                               
I thought I saw Sir Lucious G---
                                                               
A coming down the hill,
                               
Says he, Bill Yancey's done the wrong—
                               
'Twas Yancey sprung the Charleston feud—
                               
Protection, was his song.
                               
O!  friend  Douglas, I know you will forgive,
                               
'Twas Yancey caught me in this trap—
                               
I hope you'll let me live."
               
Copies of Washington's Farewell Address, Declaration of Independence, The Star Spangled Banner and various Union songs, and good likenesses of Mr. Buchanan, can be procured from the agent.
               
Governor McDonald will recite "Old heads on Young Shoulders, or the Nashville Convention Revived."  To conclude with his favorite song of "Our Union, Right or Wrong."  Messrs. Toombs and Iverson will sing the beautiful song, "Why do Summer Roses Fade?"  'Tis truly touching, to hear them in the verse—
                               
"Then while Summer roses last,
                               
Oh! let's be friends together,
                               
Summer time will soon be past,
                               
When Autumn's leaves around us cast,
                               
And then comes wintry weather."
               
Hon. Henry Jackson, makes his appearance in the song of Bruce, to his troops, on the eve of the battle of Bannock Burn.—The applause is immense, as he concludes with the verse—
[end of article] 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], May 1, 1861, p. 2, c. 1

Burning of the Pioneer Paper Mill.

The paper mill three and a half miles from this place was totally consumed by fire on Wednesday morning last, together with all the paper and stock on hand.  The origin of the fire, we believe, is considered doubtful.  It may have been accidental, or it may have been the work of an incendiary.  The loss is estimated at $16,000.  There was no insurance.  We believe it is the intention of the stockholders to rebuild--we hope so, at all events, as it is a great convenience to us to have our paper manufactured at home. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 12, 1861, p. 1, c. 5

Love of Old Maids.

                A smart English writer says, in one of his magazines:
               
"I am an admirer—I might also say, a lover—of old maids.  Their very age is a recommendation in my eyes.  They have "done" life; they have gathered in a full garner of experience; without the care of babies, servants and perambulators, they have as much experience of society—often more—than the married women.  They are still open to tender approaches—they sometimes invite them; but they have none of the dangers which surround youth and beauty.  No mamma asks your intentions, or brother prepares to call you a scoundrel, no father makes inquiries as to your income, when you turn pretty compliments to Miss Tabitha; and if she cannot blush she can still simper; and if she cannot look back love, she can give you your change in a smart repartee.  It is then in no spirit of detraction, ridicule, or raillery, that I approach this virgin subject, on which no pen has hitherto enlarged.  It is as a philosopher, moralist, an admirer, and sincere well-wisher, that I take up the glove in favor of my pendants in the other sex.  I have always considered gallantry to the sex to be the especial duty of celibate position, and while at my nieces' my photograph hangs next to that of her maiden aunt Barbara, I cannot think it becoming to breathe a word against those who at fifty have rocked no head upon their bosoms, and whose lips at sixty are as unsullied as the leaves of any Virginian creeper.  There is one class of old maids whom I pity from the bottom of my heart; those, namely, who have grown gray as governesses.  What a life to look back upon.  What a dull, monotonous, hopeless existence!   When young and pretty, how she loved, and checked her love, the dashing young brother of her pupils; or how heartlessly she was reminded of her incapacity, or her inferiority of position.—When older, how she wearied of the same incessant, thankless occupation; how bitterly she envied, or strove not to envy, those happier girls who were "coming out" under her chaperonage, and who would enjoy all that gayety and attention which she had never known!  How she went from family to family, now among kind and considerate folks; now to a vulgar set, who would treat her like a servant.  Oh! how she envied those servants who have their separate rooms and their followers, and could receive without shame the half worn dresses, which she would have been glad to wear.  And then, when old age came, and when all hope was given up, what poor little savings she depends on; what few friends she has to look to; what a miserable dull end to a miserably dull life.--Rural Register

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 7, 1861, p. 4, c. 2
Just Received,
Rutledge,                                                                                        $1 25
Household of Bouverie, 2 vols.                                                         2 00
Ingroham's Sunny South`                                                                  1 25
The Linton Family.                                                                            1 25
Sheppan's Life of Douglas,                                                               1 00
Webster's 4 to. Dictionary, Pictorial Edition                                      6 50
Lewe's Physiology of Common Life                                                  2 00
Johnston's Chemistry, do           do                                                   2 00
Chamber's New Encyclopedia, vol. 1                                                3 50
Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge,                                              4 00
    
Also, lot of New Music, at Publisher's prices.
Sept.                                                                                                                       Wm. N. White. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 7, 1861, p. 4, c. 2

Ice and Ice-Cream.

Henry keeps a constant supply of ICE on hand, and serves up ICE-CREAM every afternoon (Sundays excepted) on Jackson street.                                        June 26.
Mackrel [sic] and white fish may be found in quality and quantity to suit at
April 10.                                                                                                                 I. M. Kenney.

Turnip Seed!

A full stock of the common Field Turnip Seed, fresh saved, of Georgia growth.  Also a limited supply of the following kinds:
Early Red, or Purple Top; Early White Flat Dutch; Early Yellow Dutch; Purple Top Ruta Baga; White Ruta Baga; Large White Norfolk; Large White Globe.
Also, White and Black Mustard, Greens, Spinach and other seeds, for late sowing.
July 10.                                                                                   Wm. N. White. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 7, 1861, p. 4, c. 3

Sewing Machines.

Wheeler & Wilson's are now sold, with the hemmer attached, at $45 and freight.  The old price was, with hemmer, $55 and freight, ($50 without.)  They are greatly improved very recently.  Twice as many are sold monthly as those made by any other manufacturer.  For sale by
Nov. 22                                                                                                  Wm. N. White. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 7, 1861, p. 4, c. 5

Nicholson, Reaves & Wynn,
Agents of the
Hazard Powder Company.

A large stock of all the different grades, kept constantly on hand; and sold at Manufacturer's prices.
Athens, June 18, 1859. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 7, 1861, p. 4, c. 5

Notice to Planters!
Three Thousand Pairs of the
Best Negro Shoes in the world!
Made by McCleskey & Doyle.

We will keep a good assortment of these at the store of Messrs. Pitner, England & Freeman, in Athens, where Mr. McCleskey will be found at all times, ready to wait upon customers.  We will sell these shoes in lots, from 10 pair up, at $1.50 per pair.
Cash will be paid for Hides.
Oct. 18.                                                                                   McCleksey & Doyle.
Kerosene Oil, finest quality, for sale by
Sept. 20.                                                                                 T. Bishop & Sons. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 7, 1861, p. 4, c. 6

Kerosene Lamps.

As the long winter nights are approaching, when "More Light" will be required, we would call attention to a large and varied assortment, which we have just opened, which we will sell at a small advance for cash.
Nov. 8                                                                                                    A. M. Wyng & Co. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 7, 1861, p. 4, c. 6
Lucerne, White clover, Red Clover and Blue Grass seed, Hyacinths, Crocus, Crown Imperial Tulips, and Narcissus, Bulbs, &c.  For sale by
Nov. 15                                                                                  Wm. N. White.

Lamps!  Lamps!

The Subscriber has just received an assortment of Kerosene Centre [sic] Table Lamps.  Lard Lamps altered to burn Kerosene Oil.                                             A. K. Childs.
Butterscotch Candy--This pleasant and effective remedy for coughs and colds may be had at
Oct. 25                                                                                                    I. M. Kenney. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 7, 1861, p. 4, c. 7

For Sale!
A Larger Assortment of the Very Best Quality of
Furniture!
Made in modern style; and the workmanship warranted.

                All persons wanting goods, in my trade, will do well to call and examine before sending off, as I am determined to sell at war prices, that is, as cheap as any dealer in the State will.  I keep everything belonging to the trade, and am constantly manufacturing such as

Bureaus, Safes, Cottage Bedsteads, Common Wardrobes, Tables, &c.,

And will make to order anything belonging to the Cabinet department.  Farmers wanting Furniture can pay for it in wheat, corn, cleaned oats, or flour, at the regular market price.  I will say to those having cash on hand, that five per cent. of my cash sales, for the next ninety days, will be appropriated to the benefit of Clarke county Volunteers or their families.
               
June 19, 1861.                                                                                                        J. M. Smith.

[illustration of coffin]

                I still keep on hand two styles of Metallic Burial Caskets of the most approved material and finish.  Also, common Coffins, plain or trimmed, to suit those wanting them.
                                                                                                                                               
J. M. S. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 21, 1861, p. 3, c. 4

Ladies, Take Notice.

I have on hand a nice lot of Linen Bird-Eye Diapers--fine Bleached Homespun--solid colored Brilliants--10-4 Sheetings--full width Table Cloth Damask, and many other articles, as cheap as they ever were, for cash.
(Aug. 21)                                                                                               I. M. Kenney. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 21, 1861, p. 4, c. 1
    Tomatoes for Children.--There is no better remedy for the derangement of the bowels in children while teething than stewed tomatoes, fed to them plentifully; care being taken to keep the child's extremities warm.  Be careful to cover its neck and arms, especially of an evening; give it crushed ice to assuage thirst if possible, rather than give it water; avoid cordials as they only produce fever.  The tomatoes ought to be ripe and fresh, though the vegetables preserved in cans have been used with great success. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 21, 1861, p. 4, c. 4

Metallic Burial Cases,
[illustration]
Mahogany, Rosewood, and all other kinds in use in market.
Gilt, Rosewood & Mahogany Mouldings,
Looking-Glass,
Cabinet Makers' Materials, Upholstery, &c.
And a general assortment of
Furniture,

                As low as can be bought in the market, always on hand and for sale at the Furniture ware-room of
                                                                                                               
Wm. Wood,
               
Athens, Nov. 25.                                                                  Near the Episcopal Church. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 28, 1861, p. 1, c. 5

Clothing for the Soldiers.

All who can do so should, at the earliest possible day, make up something like the following, for their friends and relatives, omitting such, of course, as have heretofore been furnished:
Two pair of pants of heavy brown or grey mixed jeans, lined, if thought advisable, with domestic.  One roundabout, or army jacket, of the same material, lined throughout, with side and vest pockets.  It should be long enough to come some four inches below the waistband of the pants, and large enough to be worn over the vest or outside shirt.
    One heavy vest of jeans, linsey or kersey.
    One overshirt, of some woolen or mixed.
    One or two pair of drawers, as they may require.
    Two pair of heavy woolen socks.
    One good blanket--lined is advisable.
    An overcoat, or a loose sack coat; or hunting shirt with belt. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 28, 1861, p. 1, c. 7
    Cotton Socks for the Army.--A local correspondent of the Nashville Union, who says he has worn in Winter for five years, a coarse cotton sock, pronounces it for comfort, warmth and economy unequaled by the "yarn" or the "woollen [sic] sock."  He says it is proven by experiment, that the best, and cheapest sock for our soldiers is the cotton, provided they are made of coarse, loose yarns, and twisted three ply soft.  The supply of wool is likely to fall short, and if cotton will answer all purposes of the woollen [sic], we can from the abundance of cotton easily supply our forces. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 28, 1861, p. 2, c. 1

Grain.

                We are frequently asked if we will receive grain in payment of dues.  We answer, yes.  It may be delivered here at the market price of this place--or it will be received by our agents at the current rates of their respective counties. [note:  subscription to newspaper] 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 28, 1861, p. 2, c. 2

For the Southern Watchman.
To the Little Girls of Georgia.

                I was shown the other day two pairs of good woollen [sic] socks, knit by a little girl only eight years of age, (Fannie Bugg, of Oglethorpe co.,) intended for a member of the "Oglethorpe Rifles."  This is a noble example for the little girls of our State.  There are at least thirty thousand of them in Georgia under twelve years of age, who can knit.  Now, let each of them do as Fannie has done, and there will be sixty thousand pairs of good warm socks for our gallant soldiers in the field, produced in this way with little trouble and expense, in a very short time.  Let each little girl get her mother to prepare her some yarn and put her to knitting immediately, and by the 1st of October there will be a bountiful winter supply of socks for all our soldiers, gotten up by *our little girls,* which would be doing a noble part.  I hope to hear of many thousands of Georgia's noble-hearted little girls going into the work, and that none of our soldiers will want socks during the winter.

                                                                                                Respectfully, yours,
                                                                                                               
M. P. Caldwell. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 18, 1861, p. 3, c. 1
[left edge cut off, but gives dimensions for hospital shirts, short bed gowns, cotton drawers, comforts (42x78), pillow sacks, mattress sacks] 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 25, 1861, p. 2, c. 5

Patriotic Music.

Victory of Manassas--Grand March; Gen. Beauregard's Grand march; President Davis' Grand March; Our First President's step.; Flag of the Free Eleven; DIXIE'S LAND; Dixie's Land Variation; War Song of Dixie; Southern Confederacy mazurka; The South, Our Country; God and Our Rights; With many others.  Just received others.
Sept. 18, 1861                                                                                        Wm. N. White. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 25, 1861, p. 4, c. 4

[illustration]
Patent Parabola Spectacles.

                A large lot of these Superior Glasses, just received and for sale by MANDEVILLE & BRO., the only authorized agents for Athens, Clarke county, Ga.
               
Aug. 30, 1860. 

Metropolitan Washing Machine.
Grady, Nicholson, & Co.

                Are agents for the above Machine, which is believed to be the only washing machine of real merit ever offered in this country.  Call and see them.  They are warranted to give satisfaction. 

Lamps!  Lamps!

                The Subscriber has just received an assortment of Kerosene Centre Table Lamps.  Lard Lamps altered to burn Kerosene Oil.                                     A. K. Childs. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 2, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
    We were shown recently a lot of heavy woollen [sic] gloves, comforts, &c. fabricated by Misses Matthews, of Jackson county, for some of our brave volunteers in Virginia.  We had no idea that such articles could be gotten up here in such beautiful style.  They reflect much credit upon the taste, skill and patriotism of the young ladies, and will no doubt contribute much to the comfort of those for whom they were made. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 9, 1861, p. 1, c. 2
    Stern necessity compels us to appear before the public this week on a half sheet.  It is no fault of ours.  We almost "compassed sea and land" in search of paper, but could find none in the Southern Confederacy, and we were afraid to go to Doodledom after it.  We are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Winter of the Bath Mills, S. C., for the loan of a small lot--he had none for sale.
    We may possibly have to appear again on a half sheet next week; but after that, we hope to be able to avoid doing so again.  We regret the necessity exceedingly--we never expected to see the Watchman thus cut down; but it could not be helped.  We were obliged to yield.
    One third of the papers in the Confederate States have been entirely discontinued; while of the remainder, more than one half are published either on a half sheet or have been reduced in size.
    In order to secure a supply of paper, we shall be obliged to reduce our size for the present.  The great decrease in our advertising patronage, however, will enable us to give our readers more reading matter than we did in our mammoth sheet in more prosperous times.
    We trust that we shall not lose one subscriber from this cause.  We adopt the plan not to defraud them, but because necessity drives us to it.  It will now cost us more to furnish them with a smaller paper than it did to supply them with a large one; while our receipts from advertising have been cut down at least two-thirds, with a large falling off in job work.  As soon as circumstances will permit, we will resume the large size. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 9, 1861, p. 1, c. 3
  
                Soldier's Aid Society.--The following report speaks volumes in favor of the ladies of Clarke county:
  
                Quarterly Report of the Soldier's Aid Society of Clarke county.
 No. of coats                          301                          Canteen covers                    160
               
pants,                     297                          Comforters                              6
               
shirts,                     794                          Havelocks                             60
               
draws,                    621                          Extra garments,                     65
               
socks,                     348                          Total                                       2,595
The Society takes this opportunity to thank the Ladies of Watkinsville for their cheerful assistance in making the above mentioned articles.
Sept. 30, 1861.                                                                       Susan A. Lipscomb, Sec. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 16, 1861, p. 2, c. 5

To our Patrons.

We present the Watchman this week on a smaller sheet than formerly.  We regret the necessity which compels us to adopt this course; but it is imperative.  We could not procure a supply of paper of the large size in the Confederate States--while the increased price of paper and all other supplies and our diminished receipts from advertising, which is the main support of newspapers in this country, rendered it quite impossible to continue our mammoth sheet.
    Our advertisements occupying now so much less space than formerly, we will be enabled to give our readers the current news of the day *at the old price*, notwithstanding everything else has advanced.
    It will be perceived, likewise, that although reduced in size, our paper is now larger than some of the oldest papers in the country, published in large cities.
    . . .  Those indebted to us, who find it inconvenient to pay in money, may send us any kind of country produce--corn, wheat, flour, oats, rye, butter, hay, shucks, fodder, chickens, eggs--any thing that can be eaten or worn, or that will answer for fuel.  Now, there is no longer any excuse for delinquents. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 23, 1861, p. 3, c. 1

Salt.

We are requested by Col. Wilkerson to state, that if the citizens will pay his expenses to the Virginia salt works, he will purchase such supply as they may order, without charging any commission for his services.  It is believed that this salt can be laid down here at $3 50 per sack.
    We know this Virginia salt--hardly ever knew anything else--and unhesitatingly state that it is fifty per cent. better than Liverpool salt. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 13, 1861, p. 3, c. 3-4
                                                                                                               
From the Atlanta Intelligencer.

Valuable Information.

We are indebted to Mr. W. F. Herring, of the house of W. F. Herring & Co., of this city, for the following valuable information, relative to the manufacture of cotton goods in Georgia; the number, names, and locations of the manufactories; and the supposed supply and demand for cotton goods the coming year. . . .  It will be a source of gratification to every Georgian to learn that the Empire State leads in the manufacture of most of the necessary articles, and particularly the fabrics for clothing.
    The writer has taken some pains to learn the amounts and kinds of cloths, fabricated in the State of Georgia, and believes the figures, (which have been very carefully collated,) will have a tendency to allay the excitement in the market, at least, so far as cotton goods are concerned, *of which there must soon be an ample supply*--unless the quantities used for tent cloths, knapsacks, &c., should continue as great as heretofore, which cannot be expected.  The writer makes the above assertion, and on the supposition that we have tents and accountrements [sic], consuming cotton fabrics, for 350,000 men, which have been made within the last twelve months, and that will not have to be replaced with new ones under two years in the main; and that an addition of 150,000 more in the next twelve months, is as much as may be reasonably calculated upon.
    The aggregate weekly production of cotton goods in this State, may be set down as follows:
Shirtings and sheetings..........202,000 yards
Osnaburgs, stripes, drills, and Denims.........271,500 yards
The exhibit of woollen [sic] goods is almost as satisfactory.
The amount of kerseys and linseys manufactured in Georgia, per week being 23,000 yards
And of woollen [sic] jeans and cassimeres, being........22,900 yards
The above goods are made by the following Mills:
Athens Factory, Athens, Georgia, make shirtings, stripes, kerseys and cassimeres.
Princeton Factory, Athens, Georgia, make shirtings, stripes, kerseys and cassimeres.
Eagle Mills, Columbus, Georgia, shirtings, stripes, osnaburgs, kerseys and cassimeres.
Rock Factory, Warren county, Georgia, osnaburgs, kerseys and cassimeres.
Milledgeville Factory, Milledgeville, Ga., osnaburgs, and kerseys.
Trion Factory, Chattooga county, Georgia, osnaburgs, kerseys and cassimeres.
Ivy Mills, Roswell, Geo., cassimeres.
Seven Islands, Butts county, Georgia, osnaburgs and kerseys.
Richmond Factory, Augusta, Georgia, kerseys.
Columbus Factory, Columbus, Georgia, shirtings, osnaburgs, kerseys and cassimeres.
Howell's Factory, Morgan county, Georgia, osnaburgs and kerseys.
Eatonton Factory, Eatonton, Georgia, osnaburgs and kerseys.
Cooper & Tooke's Factory, Houston county, Georgia, osnaburgs and kerseys.
Houston Factory, Houston county, Geo., osnaburgs and kerseys.
Taylor Factory, Taylor county, Georgia, osnaburgs and kerseys.
Augusta Factory,  Augusta, Georgia, shirtings, sheetings and drills.
White's Factory, Athens Georgia, osnaburgs and ducks
Newton Factory, Newton county, Georgia, osnaburgs and kerseys.
Scull Shoals Factory, Green county, Ga., osnaburgs.
Curtright's Factory, Green county, Georgia, shirtings, osnaburgs and ducks.
Roswell Factory, Roswell, Georgia, shirtings, sheetings, osnaburgs and ducks.
Grant's Factory, Columbus, Georgia, osnaburgs and ducks.
Macon Factory, Macon, Georgia, sheetings, osnaburgs and ducks.
Troup Factory, Troup county, Georgia, osnaburgs and ducks.
Rogers' Factory, Thomaston, Georgia, osnaburgs and ducks.
Upton Factory, Upson county, Georgia, osnaburgs and ducks.
Flint River Factory, Upson county, Ga., osnaburgs and ducks.
Sweet Water Factory, Cobb county, Ga., osnaburgs and ducks.
Monton Factory, Sparta, Geo., shirtings, sheetings, osnaburgs and ducks.
Swinnett Factory, Lawrenceville, Geo., shirtings, sheetings and osnaburgs.
    The above Factories, nearly all, make a surplus of cotton yarns, which are now readily sold and are being woven upon hand looms in the country, and there are several small Factories that only spin yarn in the State, not included in the above list.
    Let our friends in the other States take down the figures and get as nearly as possible the production of their different Factories, and we will soon find out whether there is any just ground for the fears about a scarcity of goods.  Georgia is certainly, to-day, producing largely more than she is consuming of the above named goods. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 11, 1861, p. 2, c. 4

A Novelty.

                Mr. A. J. McGaughey, of Walton county, exhibited to us recently a novelty in Southern manufactures, in the shape of a pair of shoes without a particle of leather in them or about them.  The *soles* were made of wood, and the *uppers* of prepared canvas, made water-proof.  Mr. M. informs us they are quite comfortable--cost $1.75--and were made in Monroe.  We regret that we have forgotten the maker's name. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 25, 1861, p. 1, c. 4
               
To restore faded parasols.--Sponge the faded silk with warm water and soap, then rub them with a dry cloth, afterward iron them on the inside with a smoothing iron.  If the silk be old it may be improved by smoking with spirits, in which case the ironing would be done on the right side; thin paper being spread over to prevent glazing. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], January 1, 1862, p. 3, c. 1 [Summary:  article on weaving shawls--who did it, who hired it done, etc.--shows cooperation between women on various tasks--squabbles about credit] 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], January 15, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
Wooden Shoe Factery [sic] in Raleigh.--An enterprising firm in Raleigh, N. C., have fitted up an extensive factory for the manufacture of wooden shoes, made from gum and poplar.  They are already turning out 100 pairs a day. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], February 5, 1862, p. 3, c. 4

New Goods!

Just received and for sale--Biscuit Soda; Black Pepper; Borax; Mccaboy Snuff; Copperas; Indigo; Madder; Logwood; Venetian Red; Spanish Brown; Pain Killer; Mustang Linament [sic]; Radway's Ready Relief; Toilet Soaps, in great varieties; Lubin's Extracts; Glass, 8 x 10 and 10 x 12; Putty; Morphine; at R. M. Smith's Drug Store. 
Feb. 5 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], February 12, 1862, p. 4, c. 2
    Advice to Young Men.--A lady writer, who is evidently "booked up," gives young men the following good advice:
    Don't believe any woman to be an angel.  If you feel any symptoms of this disease, take a dose of sage tea and go to bed--it is as much a malady as the small pox, and it is your business to get over it as soon as possible.  An angel indeed?  If you dont [sic] find out pretty soon that she lacks considerably more than wings, we are mistaken!  Dont [sic] make up your mind about any creature in a belt ribbon and velvet rosettes, without first asking your sister's advice.  Depend upon it, one woman can read another better in five minutes than you can in five years. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], March 12, 1862, p. 2, c. 5

Spinning Wheels.

                Mr. H. A Cook, of the "Southern Wheel Company," exhibited to us the other day a very simple contrivance for increasing the speed of spindles three-fold.  This lessens the labor of turning the wheel, and doubles the quantity of work done in a day.   We learn from Mr. C. that it is the intention of the company to keep the market fully supplied with these wheels. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], March 19, 1862, p. 2, c. 2 [Summary:  article on raising money for gunboat fund--Athens, GA] 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 2, 1862, p. 2, c. 2

Georgia-Made Bark Mills

Among the other articles added to the list of manufactures of the Athens Foundry and machine Works since the war began, we learn they are now making very superior Bark Mills.  With our increased demand for leather, this is a very important matter, and we are pleased to learn that those in operation have given perfect satisfaction.  They are put up in the latest and best style and can be furnished to any extent demanded.
    The same establishment, as we mentioned some time ago, are putting up power-looms and other machinery for factories.  Their looms now running in the Athens factory perform their work just as well as any looms can.  Hurra [sic] for home manufactures! 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 23, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

We Can't Help It!

Our readers will discover that our sheet is much smaller this week than usual.  None can regret it more than we do.  We could not help it.  It is no fault of ours or of our readers.  They have furnished us with the means to purchase paper--we ordered it three weeks ago, but up to the time of going to press have *not received* it.  Luckily, we had a sufficiency of a smaller size for this week's issue and have done the best we could, under the circumstances.  Next week we must be able to resume our usual size. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 23, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

Salt.

Our fellow-citizen J. D. Matthews, Esq., exhibited to us a few days since, a specimen of salt manufactured from the dirt in his smoke-house.  It was apparently as strong as any salt, though not so white.  He informs us that the process is simple.  The dirt is thrown into a box or barrel, and water poured over it, as in making ley [lye].  The drippings are boiled down, and a good article of salt is the result.  He made, he informed us, half a gallon from two bushels of dirt.
    Dr. Anthony, of Oglethorpe, also informed us the other day that he had tried the experiment successfully. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 30, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

Paper.

We have again got a lot of paper, but oh! what a price!--$7.50 per ream!  Good paper only cost us $3.25 twelve months ago.  With such prices for paper, and every thing else proportionally high, how are we to furnish our sheet at $2 a year?  And yet, strange to say, many persons who are indebted to us one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, ten, and even twelve years, refuse or fail to pay that!!  Is there justice in such treatment? 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 30, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

Domestic Manufactures.

We are pleased to record the fact, that Mr. R. Schevenell has succeeded in making machinery for the manufacture of cotton cards--an article so much needed throughout the Southern Confederacy at this time.
    We are now using printing ink of our own manufacture, which is much better in quality than we have bought for several years past.  Owing to the high price of materials, however, it is quite expensive. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 30, 1862, p. 2, c. 4
                                                                                                          
Savannah, Ga., April 26th, 1862.
    John H. Christy, Esq.--It has been a long time since I penned a sentence for the Watchman, with the readers of which I used to hold voluminous converse on various subjects of public policy, over the signature of "Samuel" and other cognomens. ... I have been in the army, stationed at, and near this city, for the defence [sic] of Savannah and the coast, near four months.  I sought, and have attained, the position I desired--that of a high private in the ranks of the Soldier. . . .  In view of the possibility of an occupation of the city by Lincoln's forces, many families have left, and sought shelter in the interior towns and villages, and in the country.  The streets everywhere present a denuded appearance, so far as population is concerned, and business of every description presents the same lifeless, unhealthy aspect.  The business of measuring tape, the dry goods part, is in the hands, and conducted principally, by cadaverous looking, cushion-footed Jews, that infest and have cursed every hamlet, village, town, and city in the land.  They utterly refuse to shoulder their muskets and fight in defence [sic] of the invaded South; and as to making donations to our various hospitals, or furnishing our soldiers, or their suffering wives and children, with needful supplies, without two prices for every article, they are as clear of it as a dog of a soul.  It is characteristic of a Jew to be engaged in the clothing trade, always having old "garments" on their shelves for sale. ...  Bacon commands from 40 to 60 cents; meal $2.25 and $2.50; flour $12 and $15; chickens 75 cents; eggs 60 cents; pork 25 and mutton 20 cents, etc., etc.; all kinds of vegetables, of which there seems to be great abundance on the market, maintaining correspondingly high figures. . . . W. A. Lewis. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], May 7, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
    Shoe Pegs.--Mr. Jonathan Gove, of Hall county, has, we learn, a shoe peg machine in constant operation.  He can make from 3 pecks to a bushel per day.  Some of his pegs are now for sale in this place, and can be found at the store of Patman & Summey.  Mr. Gove authorizes us to say that if any body engaged in the business should find any difficulty in making pegs, he will take pleasure in giving them such information as they may need, by addressing him at Gainesville.
    We are pleased to record this as another evidence of Southern independence. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], May 7, 1862, p. 3, c. 5

Encourage Home Industry.

I have a lot of those excellent Franklin county made sifters for sale.
May 7.                                                                                                                             I. M. Kenney.

Confederate Mess Beef!

Pickled by the Southern Packing Company, in good order and warranted in quality, for sale, cheaper than bacon, by (April 16)                                                  I. M. Kenney. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], May 14, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
    FEMALE SOLDIER.--Yesterday a female dressed in soldier's clothes surrendered herself to the Mayor and was sent before the provost-marshal.  She gave Arnold as her name.
    We had not the pleasure of an introduction to this female patriot, but learn from those who were more fortunate, that she appears to be a woman of intelligence and gentle breeding.  She gave the names of respectable houses here in the city who knew her in her proper sphere, when she resided in Arkansas, where she says she owns a plantation.  Her story is quite a romantic one.
    She asserts that she was arrested at Richmond on suspicion of being unfriendly to the South, but was treated very civilly while held a prisoner.   She claims to have been in the battles of Manassas and Belmont, and to have been with the army in Kentucky.
    She says she left here in response to the call of Gen. Beauregard for ninety-days volunteers, and that she was in the battle of the 6th, and 7th, in which she was wounded in the foot and hand.  She came back to the city with the wounded.
    Her reason for making known her [sex] at this time was the fear of detection, and consequent trouble.  She was before the provost-marshal yesterday, and is to have another interview with that functionary to-day.
    Her reason the cause she has adopted is that she is collecting material for a history of the war, and that she adopted male attire as the plan best calculated to enable her to carry our her design.
    She has no desire to abandon her project if permitted to prosecute it in her own way.  There are others engaged with her, but their names she deems proper to withhold.  That she is an ordinary woman there is no question, and our curiosity is excited to know more of her history and her adventures in male attire.--New Orleans True Delta. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], May 14, 1862, p. 2, c. 4

Pioneer Paper Mill.

We are pleased to announce that this establishment has been re-built and is again in operation.  We trust we shall not be again disappointed in getting a supply of paper. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], May 21, 1862, p. 2, c. 6

Paper.

The paper upon which our present issue is printed is the first made at the Pioneer Mill, near this place, since its re-construction.  It is not such as that establishment formerly furnished, nor does any other paper-mill supply such paper as we had before the war.  We trust that our Pioneer friends may have a prosperous time in future. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 4, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

Home Industry.

While at the plantation of our highly esteemed friend Richard Dowdy, Esq. of Madison county, the other day, we looked in at the establishment of H. A. Cook & co.  The machinery all goes by water-power, and is kept busily employed in making pike handles, spinning wheels, hand looms, and other useful articles.  We commend this establishment to the attention of those in need of such articles.  Thrown entirely upon our own resources, it is important that we should do all we can towards clothing our soldiers in the field as well as the people at home.  To do this successfully, we need wheels and looms.  At the above establishment good articles can be had at reasonable prices. 
  
Mr. I. M. Kenney is agent here for the sale of wheels and looms.  Orders left with him, we are requested to say, will be promptly attended to. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 11, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
    A gentleman writing from Ware county, informs the Macon Telegraph that salt can be made from the ashes of palmetto root.  Though not as white, it is said to be equally as strong as Liverpool salt.
    The railroads of South Carolina are taking women, children, and servants from Charleston at half price. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 11, 1862, p. 3, c. 5Attention, Ladies!  The anniversary meeting of the Ladies' Volunteer Aid Society, will be held at the Town Hall, at 4 o'clock on Thursday, 12th of June.  An entire set of officers will be elected on that occasion.  The present set of officers were elected for only one year.

Cotton Manufacturer's Notice.

After an experiment of about three months, it is found to be impossible to fill all orders offered for goods.  We are therefore compelled to change the mode of disposing of our productions--to discontinue retailing at the Factory, and to make weekly sales by auction or otherwise, of which due notice will be given so soon as the orders now on hand are filled up, and when we get a quantity of goods worth offering.

                                                                                                John White, Ga. Factory.
                                                                                               
John S. Linton, Athens.
June 11                                                                                    Isaac Powell, High Shoals.

 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 18, 1862, p. 1, c. 6

How to Avoid a Bad Husband.

                1.  Never marry for wealth.  A woman's life consisteth not in the things she possesseth.
               
2.  Never marry a fop or one who struts about dandy-like, in his silk gloves and ruffles with a silver cane and rings on his fingers.  Beware!  There is a trap.
               
3.  Never marry a niggard, a close fisted, sordid wretch, who saves every penny, or spends it grudgingly.  Take care lest he stint you to death.
               
4.  Never marry a stranger whose character is not known or tested.  Some females jump right into the fire, with their eyes wide open.
               
5.  Never marry a mope or a drone, one who drawls and draggles through life, one foot after another, and lets things take their own course.
               
6.  Never marry a man who treats his sister or mother unkindly or indifferently.  Such treatment is a true indication of a mean and wicked man.
               
7.  Never on any account, marry a gambler or profane person, one who in the least speaks lightly of God or religion.  Such a man can never make a good husband.
               
8.  Never marry a slovenly man who is negligent of his person or dress, and is filthy in his habits.  The external appearance is an index to the heart.
               
9.  Shun the rake as the snake, a viper, a very demon.
               
In the choice of a wife, take the obedient daughter of a good mother. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 18, 1862, p. 1, c. 3

From the Columbus Enquirer.
Every Soldier his own Physician.

                Editor Enquirer:--Horrified at the rabidity [sic?] with which our soldiers die in camp, we are tempted to give them the following recipes, the result of some experience, in hopes that some may be saved by using remedies simple, safe, and generally sure cures:
               
To Prevent Sickness.—Have a jug of salted vinegar, seasoned with pepper, and take a mouthful just before going to bed.  The salt and vinegar make a near approach to the digestive gastric juice of the stomach, and are besides antidotes to many of the vegetable and miasmatic poisons.
               
For Pneumonia, Colds, and Coughs.—Take half a cup or less of salted pepper vinegar, fill the cup nearly full of warm water and then stir in a raw well beaten egg slowly.  Take a mouthful every 15 or 20 minutes; in the intervals slowly suck on a piece of alum.  If the attack is violent, dip a cloth in halt salted pepper vinegar and apply it round the throat, covering with dry cloths to get up a steam, and do the same to the chest.
               
For Chills.—Put a tablespoonful of salted pepper vinegar in a cup of warm water, go to bed and drink; in two hours drink a cup of strong water-willow bark tea; in two hours more another tablespoonful of the vinegar and warm water, and so on, alternating, until the fever is broken up.  After sweating, and before going into the out-door air, the body ought always to be wiped off with a cloth dipped in cold water.  Dogwood will do if water-willow cannot be obtained.
               
For Measles.—Put a small piece yeast in a tumbler of warm sweetened water, let it draw, and drink a mouthful every 15 or 20 minutes, and drink plentifully of cold or hot catnip, balson [sic], hoarhound [sic], or alder tea; and use in place of oil or salts, one tablespoonful salted pepper vinegar, melted together and taken warm.  Take once a day, if necessary—keep out of the wet and out-door air.
               
For Diarrhoea.—A teaspoonful of the salted pepper vinegar every one or two hours.  Take teaspoonful of the puffs that grow round oak twigs, powdered fine; take twice a day in one tablespoonful of brandy, wine or cordial.  If these yellow puffs cannot be found, suck frequently on a piece of alum.  The quantity of alum depends upon the severity of the attack; take slowly and little at a time.
               
For Camp Fevers.—One tablespoonful of salted pepper vinegar, slightly seasoned, and put into a cup of warm water—drink and often, from 4 to 8 cupfuls a day, with fever or without fever.  Pour a cupful more or less of the salted pepper vinegar into cold water, and keep the body, particularly the stomach and head, well bathed with a cloth dipped in it.  Give enemas of cold water, and for oil use a tablespoonful molasses, a teaspoonful of lard, and a teaspoonful pepper vinegar, melted together and taken warm.  If the pepper is too exciting for delicate patients, leave it out in drinks and bathings, and use simply the salt and vinegar in water, and very little salt.
               
Antidote for Drunkenness:  For the Benefit of Officers.—One cup of strong black black [sic?] coffee without milk or sugar, and twenty drops of laudanum.  Repeat the dose if necessary.  Or take one teaspoonful of tincture lobelia in a tumbler of milk; if taken every ten or fifteen minutes it will act as an emetic; taken in longer intervals, say thirty minutes, it will act as an antidote.  The Yankees declared that poisoned liquor was put on the counters to poison their soldiers.  No body doubts liquor being poisoned, but it was made of poisons to sell to our own Southern boys; and it is horrifying to think of the liquors now being made down in cellars, of sulphuric acid, strychnine, buckeye, tobacco leaves, coloring matter and rainwater.  For this poisoned liquor, the best antidote is an emetic, say lobelia and warm salt and water, and then drink freely of sugared vinegar water.
               
For Snake Bites.—The best thing is one teaspoonful of Lobelia and ten drops of Ammonia, taken every few minutes, and a bottle filled with Lobelia and Ammonia, will answer without the other.  Tobacco, Nightshade, or Kurtle Barr [Bark?], or Deer-tongue, (a rough-leafed herb, in flower and appearance like to bog artichoke) stewed in milk; drink the milk, using the rest as a poultice.  The last is an Indian remedy, and will cure in the agonies of death.
               
For the Chicken Cholera now Devastating Fowldom.—Put one or two Jamestown weed leaves, properly called Stramonium, into the water trough every day—fresh leaves and fresh water.  This is one of the triumphs of Homeopathy, for we were just from a perusal of one of their works, and finding that the chickens died and made no sign of sickness, except holding the head down, we concluded the head must be the seat of the plague, and reading that Stramonium affected the brain with mania and stupor, we tried it, and have not lost a chicken since we have used it.
               
If other papers will copy these recipes, they will save many lives, now sacrificed to the negligence of salaried physicians.  The Eastern monarch's plan ought to be adopted, to strike off a certain per cent. of a Doctor's salary every time he loses a patient—that would soon stop the feast of Death.                                                               X. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 18, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

Salt.

                We learn upon good authority that salt is now sold at the Works, near Abingdon, Va., at one dollar a bushel, to certain companies in Georgia and elsewhere, who have managed to engage all that can be made before Christmas.  The expenses of transportation to this place amount to less than one dollar per bushel.  Why, then, should salt sell here at twenty-four dollars a bushel?  There is gross rascality practised [sic] somewhere.
    The proprietors of the Works are, we learn, Northern men, and have not asked over one dollar a bushel for salt, and furnish it to the Government at fifty cents; and yet, it is reserved to the natives to raise the price to twenty-four dollars a bushel!  Shame!  shame!  Talk about Yankee love of money!  If a large number of our people are not "down with the same complaint" as bad as any Yankees ever had it, we know nothing about it.

Factory Goods at Auction.

As our factories have resolved to sell their goods at auction hereafter, the public can form some idea of the extent to which they will be *cheapened*, by the following account of an auction sale of factory goods at Augusta the other day:
               
Sale of Factory Goods.--At the sale of Augusta Factory Goods this morning, the following prices were obtained:
7-8 Shirtings........................................28 1/4@28 5/8 cents.
4-4 Sheetings.......................................35 1/2@35 3/4    "
Drillings................................................36 1/8@36 1/4    "Osnaburgs............................................39       @40         "
    Auctioneer Griffin also sold at the same time a lot of Graniteville Factory Goods, at the following rates:
7-8 Shirtings..........................................          @28        "
3-4       "      .........................................22 1/8@22 1/2   "
4-4       "      .........................................35 3/4@36         "
Drillings.................................................35 3/4@36 1/4  

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 2, 1862, p. 4, c. 2
    Panola.--An officer of army has shown us an article of food prepared by some ladies of an interior county and sent into camp.  It is the same known on the Western plains and among the Mexicans as "panola."  It is simply parched corn, well ground or beaten in a mortar, and seasoned to the taste with salt, or with sugar and cinnamon.  It has great merits as a camp food, particularly on a march, being very nutritious, easily prepared, convenient to carry, always ready for use, very palatable, and keeping a long time without spoiling.  It is an excellent corrective, too, of those conditions of body which camp life is apt to produce.
    The officer who left the sample with us is of the opinion, and we agree with him, that Government could not provide a better food for the soldiers when a march is contemplated, or one which would be more agreeable as a change at all times.  The friends of soldiers will also take the hint.--Richmond Enquirer. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 16, 1862, p. 2, c. 6

Dried Fruit.

                Are our readers generally aware that there are much more expeditious modes of drying fruit than that usually adopted--sun-drying?  The simplest plan, though not most expeditious, is to construct an open kiln.  This may be done by digging two parallel trenches, on sloping ground, about 18 inches or 2 feet depth--two or two and a half feet wide, with a space between about one foot in width.  Over these trenches lay flat rocks, resting on the ground on each side, until entirely covered over.  Let the rocks be smoothly plastered over with clay, and chimneys left at the upper end, and openings at the lower end.  In these furnaces place dry wood, which will burn as it does in a brick kiln.  The clay kiln should be kept continually covered with fruit, which it will dry very rapidly.
    A better plan is to build a close house over the kiln above described, and have it full of drawers, among which the heat from the furnaces can penetrate and dry the fruit.  As we have not cut to exhibit the plan of construction, we shall not attempt a description of this sort of dry kiln.  A great deal of fruit may be dried on the open kiln, however, and persons having the requisite force can have two or three or half a dozen of them, as it costs but little labor, and n o money to construct them. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 30, 1862, p. 1, c. 2

What Shall Women Do?
by Emily J. Romeo.

                While important questions are attracting the attention of the great men of the country, one equally important and pressing is anxiously agitating the minds and hearts of good women, what shall we do?  It is not a question of how shall I serve my country, for they are not in a situation to serve it except by suffering for it.  They have been driven with their children from their homes, often in such haste as not even to have been able to save their wearing apparel, and they are not only homeless and destitute of the necessaries of life, but many have not even friends to whom they can appeal.  They have been kindly received by strangers and are grateful for receiving this well deserved kindness, but they cannot consent to sit down and fold their hands in idleness, and continue to receive this kindness and make no return; yet, what can they do?  I am not now writing for those that have the means to pay for their board, and buy their own clothes, but for the fatherless and the widow, both of whom I know how to sympathize with, and also for the friendless, and such as are willing to work, but know not what to do.  How shall these homeless thousands earn their daily bread, and support themselves honorably and comfortably till they can return in peace and security to their old homes, and how shall they do it then?  Do not these things call for speedy and serious attention from those who can give the proper directions on this subject?  This is no light supposition of what may require notice in the future, no, no!  The people who wish to know what they shall do to live, are sighing now for answer to the question.
               
Let them take in sewing, says one; alas!  how can they do what is not?  Who in these times has sewing to be done, except those who live near the clothing establishments for the army, the very places these suffering people have fled from?  And who ever had sewing enough for so many applicants in the most prosperous times?  Let them spin and weave, says another; very few of them know how, and those who do are unable to obtain cards, wheel and loom.  Some could teach school, says a third, so they could if they could get a school, but look around the land and see how many have discharged the teachers they once employed, because they think it cheaper to neglect their children's minds than to make them wise and intelligent, at the cost of two or three hundred dollars a year.  When competent and experienced teachers fail to find schools, how shall those who never taught obtain them?  Let the people where the refugees are find work of some kind for them, a fourth suggests—a thing more easily said than done.  But as no one will turn them out of doors, let them wait and see what will turn up, adds another, while the majority sigh and say, "well, I can't help them, it is all I can do to take care of myself; may be they won't suffer much."  It may be true that none will actually be turned out of doors, but it is true that the majority of the people will be tired of giving after a while—it is human nature—and will despense [sic] their hospitality grudgingly; and many will not have the means to feed, much less clothe, a family that has been thrown upon them, except for a very limited period, though it is a well known fact that the poor are kinder to each other than the rich are to them.  Are there not many ways that could be opened, if some one who knew how would but begin to let them be known?  Necessity has at last forced upon the country what it was never willing to see or learn before—that women can, if obliged to, work and not degrade themselves by it, and it is for those whom God has blessed by casting their lots in secure places, to help those who are willing, by encouragement and respect, and by honoring instead of scorning them for their noble efforts to be independent.  Not a little effort, and that little soon suspended, will provide ways for those who are now destitute to live, and then the number to be provided for will increase as long as this dreadful war shall last.
               
I am unable to think of how or what these ways shall be.  I see that printers are needed, and I remember to have read that in some offices all the types were set by girls, but, should that means of support be offered, it would be only a small drop in an immense bucket.  I have heard of thousands of women receiving work from factories—not cotton factories alone, but factories of the manufacture of thousands of articles such as are needed now, and that the work was given in such a way that it could be taken home.  Now, who will inaugurate such a system here, and benefit both the country by furnishing it with things actually needed, and the women, by giving them the means of an honorable support.
               
Other and perhaps better ways may be at hand, but I have waited in vain to see them suggested by wiser heads and abler pens than mine.  The subject demands expedition; will no one take it up?  If I have called the attention of those who can do it justice, it will be well that I have made the effort, for though women's rights were often denied, or met by a sneer, their actual wants demand speedy action. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 10, 1862, p. 1, c. 6

Domestic Medicines.

Some of the medical purveyors of the Confederate States are offering the following prices for the following domestic medicines:
           
Poplar bark, 10c per lb.; wild cherry bark, 30c; dogwood bark, 30c; sassafras bark, 25c; persimmon bark, 25c; willow bark, 20c; slippery elm bark, 30c; red oak bark, 10c; snake root, 50c; blackberry root 30c; queen's delight root, 25c; blood root 30c; bone-set, 10c; pleurisy root, 25c.
           Where bark is wanted, the inner bark of the trunk and branches, or the bark of the root, is required.  The outer coarse bark from the trunk should be removed before the inner bark is pealed off. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 24, 1862, p. 1, c. 6

A Receipt for the Times.

Eds. Columbus Sun:--I have the opportunity of knowing that many persons are using flour who cannot procure lard; and as the times are hard, I will give a plan for making bread, which I all times regard as infinitely better than bread made of *hog grease* and *physic* (soda, salaratus, cream tartar, &c.)  Take the quantity of flour to be used with salt added to suit taste; pour upon it boiling water, stir with a spoon, and when sufficiently cool to handle place the dough upon a board covered with flour, and roll it to the thickness of half an inch, cut about the same width and roll it round with the hand as you would marbles; then bake it in a hot stove or oven (covering the vessel with flour) until brown.  This bread will be light, nice and sweet.  It rises upon the principle of expansion by heat.
    Persons who imagine that they cannot eat bread which does not contain *fat* and *drugs*, may use butter and syrup, and the most cultivated taste scarcely observes the difference.  This I have seen tried upon the most fastidious.                   VEGETARIAN. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 15, 1862, p. 2, c. 2

Aid for the Soldiers.

                We copy the moving appeal of P. W. A. (the army correspondent of the Savannah *Republican*,) in behalf of our brave soldiers in the field.  We hope it will be read and heeded by everybody, though we must confess we do not see where the shoes and clothing are to come from.  All the leather, hides and shoes in the Confederacy are in the hands of heartless speculators.  The same is true of all the jeans, wool and cotton.  If there are any blankets we know nothing of them. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 22, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
    . . . Take homespun cotton, for example.  Two bunches of thread will make 32 yards--thread is selling at 4 and 5 dollars--weaving costs 10 cents a yard.  Now what is the showing.  To make 32 yards ten dollars worth of thread is required and the weaving is worth $3.20--making $13.20 as the cost of 32 yards, which from 90 cts. to a dollar a yard amounts to from $28.80 to $32!!  Talk about extortion!  What greater extortion have we than this?  We might adduce whole columns of facts showing that nearly everybody is guilty of it, and usually those who raise the most fuss about it are the very persons who are most guilty.
    It will be seen from the above that the much-abused factories charge only five times as much as formerly for their thread, while those who weave it and denounce them so bitterly are charging about eight times as much for cloth as formerly! 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 5, 1863, p. 2, c. 3

The Market.

                Below we give a statement of the prices at which the articles named have sold in this market within the last few days.  What a commentary on these times of extortion and rascality!  The "stand and deliver" of the bold highwayman is honest and respectable, compared with such extortionate prices!
               
Corn, per bushel                                                                                   $1.75
               
Corn meal                                                                                              2.00
               
Butter, per lb.                                                                                          .50
               
Chickens, each                                                                                     35@40
               
Bacon, per lb.                                                                                          .50
               
Lard,     "                                                                                                  .40
               
Tallow,     "                                                                                              .75
               
Beef, (per quarter), per lb.                                                                   8@12 ½
               
Mutton       "                         "                                                              12 ½ @15
               
Pork, per lb.                                                                                             .20
               
Cotton, per lb.                                                                                       15@16
               
Cotton yarn, per bunch, (none)                                                                $5.00
               
Shirting                                                                                                  none
               
Osnaburgs                                                                                              "
               
Country Jeans                                                                                      $2.50@3.15
               
Sugar, common brown, per lb.                                                             .50
               
Syrup, N.O. per gal.                                                                             2.50
               
   "     Sorghum                                                                                      2.00
               
Iron, bar, per lb.                                                                                    25@30
               
Sweet Potatoes, per bushel                                                                   1.00
               
Irish        "                              "                                                              2.00
               
Apples, Green,      "                                                                              2.00
               
     "            dried                    "                                                              1.50
               
Rice, per lb                                                                                            .07
               
Hides, green, per lb.                                                                             .30
               
Eggs, per doz.                                                                                       .35
               
Flour, per 100 lbs.                                                                                 18.00
               
Salt, per sack 100 lbs.                                                                          80.00
               
Leather, per lb.                                                                                      2.50@3.50
               
Shoes (common negro)                                                                         7.00@8.00
               
Boots                                                                                                     25.00
               
Country cotton homespun                                                                       1.00
               
     "               "          Linsey                                                                   1.00 
               
Rye, per bushel                                                                                     4.00
               
Wheat                                                                                                    none
               
Brandy, Apple and Peach                                                                   6.00@7.50
               
Whiskey, corn                                                                                      8.00
               
Nails                                                                                                       none
               
Peas, per bushel                                                                                   1.50 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 12, 1862, p. 2, c. 5

Practical Hints for Hard Times.
From the Savannah Republican.

Addenda to No. 1, on the Subject of Shoes.
               
Since the publication of No. 1, two suggestions, promising usefulness, have been made to the writer, both on the subject of soles.
               
Addendum 1st:  A shoe in actual service and very convenient for chamber use, is reported to be made with a sole of quilted cloth.
               
Addendum 2d:  A gentleman noted among his intimate friends for his ingenuity proposed an improvement upon article 5th of No. 1.  The upper of the shoe is made of enamelled cloth tacked firmly to a thick wooden sole; but the sole itself has a joint about half way between toe and heel so as to give flexibility in walking.  The hinge, made either of leather or metal, is inserted in the body of the sole, so as to be entirely invisible.  So far as tried it promises to work well.

No. II—Lights.

                Our fathers used little artificial light.  They preferred the cheap light of day.  For this reason they went early to bed and were all the more healthy and wealthy for their practice.  The chief light of their houses, like that of the nobility of England a few centuries back, was a ruddy glare from the hearthstone.
               
1.  Primitive Lights.—The earliest artificial illuminators of which we have any record, were lamps.  These at first, consisted of nothing more than a cup of oil or grease, with a wick lying against its side.  Its shape was soon improved in convenience and elegance.
               
2.  A Hastily Extemporized Light.—The writer was one of a family party who were belated in the mountains of Georgia and compelled to seek shelter with a family who owned neither lamp or candle.  Our ingenious hostess, however devised a light for the table.  It was made by means of a slice of fat bacon, (do not laugh, reader, I tell the simple truth.)  This slice was spread in the bottom of a saucer, and on this was laid some candle wick, the burning end of which was kept elevated by being passed through a tailor's thimble.
               
3.  Rush Lights.—Among the poor of Europe, a very cheap and easily made light is constructed of the ordinary bulrush stripped of its skin, except enough to hold the internal pitch together, and saturated with suit [sic] or wax.
               
4.  Confederate Candle.—This rivals the rush light in simplicity, and far exceeds it in serviceableness.  To make it, melt together a pound of beeswax and a quarter of a pound of rosin, or of rosin fresh from the tree.  Prepare a wick 30 or 40 yards long, made up of three threads of loosely spun cotton.  Saturate this well with the mixture, and draw it through your fingers to press all closely together, and to keep the size even.  Repeat the process until the candle attains the size of a straw or quill; then wrap around a bottle, or into a ball with a flat bottom.  Six inches of this candle elevated above the rest will burn for fifteen or twenty minutes, and give a very pretty light, and forty yards have sufficed a small family a summer for all the usual purposes of the bed-chamber.
               
5.  Lard Taper.—Equal to our mountain friends bacon light in cheapness, and yet more pleasantly available for the necessities of the sick room, is a light made up of a saucer half full of lard and a little wisp of spongy paper.  The paper twisted so as to form a short pointed wick with a broad base—say two thirds of an inch high and an inch broad—is set in the midst of the lard, and by the heat it generates, aided by the shelving sides of the saucer keeps itself supplied with fuel until the lard is all consumed.   The papers can be shaped on the point of one's finger, and the burning and twisted quite small.  It should rest on the bottom, and the vessel should be shallow—a saucer, not a cup.
               
6.  Lard Lamps.—At the present prices of illuminating material, the most economical by far for those who live in the interior and afar is lard.  This requires a lamp whose wick tubes are of thick metal for the purpose of conveying the heat of the flame into the midst of the lard, and keeping it melted around the wick.  The lard must be melted when the lamp is lighted, or it will not burn well.  The wick should be several thicknesses of spongy cloth.
               
7.  Lard Oil.—When combined with one fifth spirits of turpentine, will burn in an ordinary lamp, and afford a beautiful light.  To obtain the oil, enclose lard in a strong, close canvas bag, and subject to gradually increased pressure.  The indurated mass left in the bag is not required for culinary purposes.
               
8.  Candles of Tallow and Prickly Pear.—Whoever can command tallow for candles, will greatly improve them in firmness and in illuminating power, combining with a few leaves of the prickly pear, in the proportion of about one part by weight of the last, to four or five of the first.  The leaves should be kept in the heated tallow until all commotion ceases, and until the tallow itself reaches the boiling point.  Of course, the heated mixture will need straining.  It is said by those who profess to know, that the longer tallow is boiled, the whiter it becomes in case it is not burned.  The vessel containing the tallow should be heated in a sand bath (another vessel partly filled with sand) and not set immediately on the fire.
               
6.  Wax Candles.—Beeswax gives a light almost equal to sperm.  It may be moulded like the tallow candles; or it may be rolled by enveloping the wick in a thin stratum of wax spread on a board, and afterwards smoothed evenly by rolling between two boards.  The combination of wax and tallow need not be suggested. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 26, 1862, p. 2, c. 5
    We were presented with a piece of soap by Mr. J. I. McAllister, of this place, the other day, of his own manufacture.  It is perfumed with sassafras, and made--we don't know how; but is certainly a very good article.  There is but one thing to prevent the people of the South from making every thing they need, and that is the long-continued habit of depending upon somebody else to do it.  They have made their money so easily heretofore, and had so many China and mulberry trees to shade them in the Summer time, that they have found it more comfortable to *buy* than to *make* such articles as they needed.  If the present revolution shall learn *everybody to go to work,* it will accomplish something for us; if not, it will be a useless expenditure of blood and treasure.  Without *labor* there can be no excellence. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 26, 1862, p. 2, c. 6
. . . In the meantime, what will become of all those who have made the high price of salt their excuse for the high prices they demanded for homespun, shoes, leather, corn, flour, bacon, pork, beef, shucks, &c?  will they ever find out that salt has declined and is declining?
    As the rise in the price of salt was made the pretext for all other high prices, may we not reasonably hope that the fall in that commodity will bring them down? 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 24, 1862, p. 2, c. 3

Cotton Cards.

Our Milledgeville correspondent states that the Cotton Card Manufactory of Lee & co., Cartersville, has been removed to the State Penitentiary, where is will be in operation the present week.  In a few weeks other machines will be duplicated, and they will be enabled to fill very heavy orders.  It is the design of the State authorities to put the cards at a small margin on cost, which in the course of a few months will enable families to supply themselves with cards at about $5 00 a pair.
    Our correspondent also states that the report put in circulation by an Atlanta paper, that a firm in Columbus have run a set of machines through the blockade, is a mistake.  A mechanic is engaged in trying to invent a machine there, but it is not in operation.--Chron. & Sent. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 24, 1862, p. 3, c. 1-2

To the Patriotic Women of Georgia

                                                                                                  Quartermaster Gen's Office,                }
                                                                                                               
Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 1862.       }
To the Women of Georgia:

               
 The General Assembly of Georgia under the sanction of the Governor, have ordered a good suit of clothes and a good pair of shoes for every destitute Georgian in the Confederate service.  Your Governor has charged me with the duties of collecting and forwarding to the field the clothes and shoes which have been ordered; and as socks form an important part in this outfit, and one which cannot be bought in our markets, nor had until made, I have determined to appeal to the noble-hearted women of my State to aid in this great work, worthy our best energies.
               
I desire every woman in Georgia to send me at this place, one pair of good, strong cotton socks.  This will require but a small effort on the part of each woman, yet in the aggregate, it will amount to a great work.  Let each one write her name and county on a slip of paper and sew it on the pair of socks donated, so that I may know the names and residence of all who shall aid in this great and philanthropic enterprise.  Will the Justices of the Peace in each Militia District who are known to be generally public serving men, interest themselves in this good work by collecting all the socks that will be made for our suffering soldiers in their respective Districts, and taking them to the Court house of their county, and asking the Clerk of the Superior Court to neatly box them up and forward them to me at this place; designating contents, number and from which county sent; also to send, by mail a list of contributor's names.   Some kind friend of the soldier will take them to and forward  [crease in paper] if any should be charged.  I have asked for cotton socks because all the wool in Georgia should be made, without delay, into cloth for coats or pants for our brave boys now shivering in a cold climate, and periling their lives in face of the foe to keep the cruel invader from desolating our homes.
               
Women of Georgia!  I shall not appeal to you in vain.  I know the noble sacrifices you have already made, and I well know that your love to work for the soldiers had not grown cold.
               
Read this address to your lovely daughters, whose pure bosoms are now burning with indignation at the insults offered their sex by the worse than savage despots from the North.  Read it to your neighbor, your slaves even, read it to all, that all may know that they are cordially invited to cooperate in this most benevolent work.
               
The mother may make a pair of socks that will find its way to the cold feet of her darling boy.  The sister may bring the tear of affection from some fond brother.  The anxious wife may provide for the comfort of her dear husband and send a thrill of joy through his soul, which words cannot describe, as he fondly gazes upon her loved name written upon a messenger of mercy winging its heavenly flight to some sold soldier's relief as he stands upon our outposts holding the enemy in check.  The tender damsel may reassure her lover that her plighted love still burns warm upon the consecrated altar of her constant heart.  The Dorcas-hearted woman (whose "good works and alms-deeds" for the needy and the stranger are sufficient stimulus for her action) may here find ample scope for a partial development of her christian charity.
               
Even the servant may cause her master, in some distant camp, to pronounce a hearty God blessing upon her kind remembrance, and cause him to long to return to see not only his dear wife and little ones, but his constant servants whom he loves so well.  I will remark that the slaves of the South are as much interested in the final success of the Confederate States as any class of people.  Tell them that I have seen in the free States, their colored brethren wandering, homeless, ragged, hungry and forsaken, with no kind master to provide for them, nor no watchful and sympathizing mistress to make them feel that they have a friend in the dark hour of affliction and distress.  The real truth is that the black man has no true friend at the North who is waging this unholy war.  Most of those unfortunate misguided slaves who have gone to the abolitionists, are now sighing in that cold, frozen region, for the plenty, attentions and endearments of their Southern homes; but the cruel-hearted Northman holds them in unwilling bondage and with harder work and harsher treatment than they have ever known before.  Bitterly are they rueing [sic] the day that induced them to leave the sunny homes of their birth.
               
I want thousands of pairs of socks spun and knit by the colored friends of our soldiers, and I believe I shall get them if their masters and mistresses will but give them the opportunity to express their sympathy.  Black men and boys having the chance, will cheerfully spend their dimes for thread for their wives and sisters to knit.  If nothing more be needed they will hold the negroe's [sic] candle, the blazing lightwood torch, to aid their fellow-servant woman while working for the soldiers in the war.  Some negroes may not care for this noble work and sit idly by, while others are busy and thankful for the privilege to work for so holy a cause; so too, are there traitor white men, who have not only done nothing, but some of them have gone to the enemy and rendered their names infamous at home and despised abroad.  In Savannah the other day I asked the negro men on our defences what they were about, and they said they were throwing up embankments for our soldiers to stand behind and kill Yankees, and if the Yankees came while they were there, they said they wanted to kill one a piece before they left.
               
Noble women of Georgia!  may God bless you for what you have already done.  Many are the offerings of patriotism freely contributed by you, which have already passed through my hands on their way to supply the wants of our brave boys in the field the bravest and best the world ever saw.  My heart with gratitude to God for such angel women has often rendered its tribute of thankfulness, as my eye has rested over and again upon the tender testimonies of your unconquerable love for our holy, our most sacred cause.
               
Your work is not yet over; the great struggle is still upon us in all its terrific fierceness; our dear soldiers are still holding back the miserable hordes of abolitionists who are thirsting for our blood and anxious to desolate our fair homes.  Shall we not spend every energy of mind, body, soul and strength to keep strong, cheerful, pure, willing and brave, those who are now ready to breast the storm and teach our wicked invaders, that to be conquered, we must be to a man, exterminated.
               
Let every man, woman and child, bond and free, in the Confederate States, answer in thunder tones, yes, and resolve to make this our fair heritage, one funeral pile [pyre?] rather than living, to surrender it up into the hands of those who, in fighting us unjustly, have violated every principle of honorable warfare and descended far beneath the brutality of the untutored savage.
               
If Justices of the Peace should happen to be indolent in this work, let some champion woman assume the pleasing task and put to blush the man who has no soul to labor for our suffering troops.
               
I want socks to come to me (and I believe I shall get them) from the mansion of the Governor down to the humblest cottage in the land—I have addressed the women of Georgia, more particularly, but help would be acceptable from all quarters.  The men and boys, one and all, may here have a chance to do good.  Send in your socks, each with your name and county plainly written, as already suggested, so that I may transfer it to my book of record and know thereafter those generous ones who so nobly and promptly responded to my call.  By and by, when the wars are over, these love-tokens will form some of our pleasantest recollections when some returned noble soldier with wreaths of undying renown decorating his brow, kindly informs us that his cold, frost-bitten, suffering feet were relieved by our timely contributions.
               
People of Georgia!  I beg of you to be in haste, as winter is now upon us, and I want to have the great joy of telling our soldiers that all the fingers of Georgia are busily working for their relief!  Such cheering news, as I hope to be able to communicate will make them, (under God,) omnipotent, and soon enable them to wring from our hateful foe an honorable peace, as they have already nobly won the welcome plaudits of an admiring world for their deeds of unequalled daring upon many a victorious battle field.
               
Such a people at home all heartily working for such an army in the field, will present such a moral and physical aspect to the civilized world as to draw down upon us the admiration of mankind and teach us a lesson not to be misunderstood—that we have resolved to
                               
"Strike, till the last armed foe expires;
                               
Strike, for our altars and our fires;
                               
Strike for the green graves of our sires;
                                
God, and our own dear land."
                                                                                                               
Ira R. Foster.
                                                                               
Quartermaster Gen. State of Geo.
    P.S.  Factories and Merchants can render substantial assistance by selling yarns at cost to those who will furnish socks under this appeal.
    Every Editor in Georgia who loves the soldiers, will please insert the above in his paper three or four times, and greatly oblige.                                  I.R.F. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 31, 1862, p. 3, c. 4

Notice to Weavers and Others.
Reeds and Harness or Headles.
George Memno,

Reed or Sley Maker..............................................................................Athens, Ga.
The only regular Reed Maker in the Confederate States, is prepared to furnish Steel or Cane Reeds at short notice.  Factories or others can be supplied with Reeds and Weaver's Harness, by addressing as above.  Also, Loom Pickers can be obtained as above.  Harness Twine of superior quality, made on machinery for that purpose, and varnished or unvarnished.
3m.                                                                                                                      Athens, Dec31. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], January 21, 1863, p. 2, c. 4

Salt.

Down! down! down! is the cry.  Salt can now be had in this market at 30 cents.  The tendency is still downwards. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], January 28, 1863, p. 2, c. 5

Stone Ware.

See the card of Ferguson & Dial in our advertising columns.  The establishment is located about 13 miles from this place, and is doing much to supply the people with a substitute for earthenware.  We have examined samples of the bowls, pitchers, cups, saucers, mugs, bake-pans &c., which they make.  It is true they are not as smooth and handsome as the articles we have been used to, but are decidedly better than none.  This establishment and others of a like character, ought to be, it strikes us, exempt from conscription. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], February 4, 1863, p. 3, c. 5

Pottery.

The subscribers are now manufacturing at their establishment in Jackson county, Ga., all kinds of Stone Ware, which may be had at reasonable prices, either wholesale or retail.
    In addition to Jars, Jugs, and such other ware as we have formerly kept, we are now trying to supply the demand for other useful household articles.  We are making Bowls and Pitchers, Dinner and Soup Plates, Cups and Saucers, Mugs, Coffee and Tea Pots, Bake Pans, Chambers, and various other needful articles.
Jan 28.                                                                                                                    Ferguson & Dial.

 SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], March 4, 1863, p. 2, c. 4

Cards.

Good cards can be had at the Penitentiary in Milledgeville at $6 per pair, if paid in sheep, dog, goat, or horse skins, either tanned or untanned.  Fifty cents will be allowed for enough tanned leather to make a pair of cards, which is 5 inches by 22, and 25 cents for untanned skins.  If enough skins are sent to make more than one and less than two pair of cards, the remainder can be paid in money.

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], March 25, 1863, p. 2, c. 3

Rags!  Rags!

Are our friends in the up country aware of the fact that the paper mills throughout the Confederacy will have to stop unless they can procure a larger supply of rags?  This is even so.  The Pioneer Mill near this place has adopted a new rule.  They sell paper to those alone who will furnish them rags.  We now want to purchase all the clean linen and cotton rags that can be brought to us.  Send them by bag fulls--by wagon loads, or in any other manner you please; but by all means send us rags.  If you want to see the Watchman survive, send us all the rags you can gather up.  Don't be afraid of overstocking the market.  We will insure a speedy sale of all that can be brought here.  Send them on, then, in large quantities and send them quickly! 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 15, 1863, p. 2, c. 3

Advance in Paper.

                Since our last issue, the paper on which the Watchman is printed advanced three dollars per ream!  Our readers must see that we cannot live at this rate.  We shall be compelled to advance too or stop entirely.  It is doubtful whether we can procure paper of the size used at the present at *any price* much longer, as we believe the superintendents of the paper mills are endeavoring to get all the newspapers to reduce their size, so as, if possible, to supply all with paper.  If we shall be compelled to reduce the dimensions of our sheet, we will endeavor to furnish the same amount of reading matter as heretofore, by lessening the space occupied by advertisements. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 22, 1863, p. 1, c. 6

Sassafras Blossom as Substitute for Green or Black Tea.--If the blossom of the sassafras--which will now soon be in full bloom--be gathered and dried in the shade, be used in making tea, instead of the root, it will be found an excellent substitute for tea, which now sells at from twelve to fifteen dollars a pound.  By many who have tried it, it is pronounced to be a most delicious and palatable beverage. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], May 6, 1863, p. 2, c. 5

Price of Paper, Newspapers, &c.

                The paper on which the Watchman is printed this week cost us $15.00 per ream; Paper of the same size and far superior in quality, cost us, before the war, $3.50 per ream!  We could then buy corn at from 50 cents to $1.00 per bushel--wheat at $1.00--bacon at 10@12 1/2--sugar at 10@12 1/2--butter at 12 1/2@15--eggs, 5 cents, and every thing else in proportion.  Corn is now worth $3--wheat $11--bacon $1--sugar $1--butter $1.25--eggs 60 cents!  A hat which then cost $3 now costs $40!  Shirting which then cost 15 cents is now worth $2!  Calico was then 15@20--it is now $3@$4!  All other articles are in like proportion.  We then charged $2 for our paper--we now get only $3.  Every thing we use has advanced from 500 to 1000 per cent.--our paper has advanced only 50 per cent!!  Every body knows we cannot live at this rate.  To bring our business upon a level with that of others, we ought to have $12 per year for our paper, and yet some people are grumbling because, in common with the other weeklies we propose to advance our price to $4 per year--just one third of what it ought to be--after the 1st of June next!
    All we have to say to such persons is, to repeat the proposition we made when the price advanced to $3--which was this:  Pay us in any kind of farm products at former prices, and you can have the Watchman at $2, as heretofore.  If not satisfied with this proposition, have your paper discontinued when the time paid for expires.  We are not anxious to furnish it at *four dollars* when we know we ought to have *twelve.* 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 17, 1863, p. 4, c. 2
Save the Rose Leaves.--Rose leaves are extensively used in the manufacture of blue pills, and are in great demand for preparing this valuable medicine.  The gardens of city and country now abound in roses, and we are sure that the ladies will see to it that the leaves are made to subserve this purpose of utility.  Surgeon J. J. Chisholm, of the Medical Purveying Department, in Columbia, S. C., invokes the aid of the ladies in collecting a supply and we trust our lady readers everywhere will heartily respond to the call. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 29, 1863, p. 2, c. 4

To Dye Copperas.

Mrs. Jane Waters, of Hart county, has sent us a sample of thread dyed a copperas color by a new process, which is as follows:   
    Find a spring or stream of chalybeate water, stir it up, then take a tub full and let it stand until it settles.  Pour off the clear water, and wash the thread or cloth in the dregs.  It will not fade.  Mrs. W. says some of her neighbors have tried it and found it will set dye--which we do not doubt, as it is the very thing of which copperas is made. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 12, 1863, p. 4, c. 1

The Industry of the Women of the South.--A letter from Lincoln county, Tenn., says:  On the small farms throughout this section all is life, activity, and industry.  Many a woman who never before held a plow, is now seen in the cornfield.--many a young girl who would have blushed at the thought before of handling a plow line, now naturally and unconsciously cries "gee up" Dobbin, to the silvery tones which the good brute readily responds, as if a pleasure to comply with so gentle a command.  Many a Ruth, as of old, is seen to-day binding and gleaning in the wheat field, but, alas!  no Boaz is there to control or to comfort.  The picture of the rural soldier's home is at this time but a picture of primitive life.  Throughout the country, at every farm house and cottage, the regular sound of the loom, as the shuttle flies to and fro, with the whirl of the spinning wheel, is heard, telling of home industry.  Cotton fabrics, of neat, pretty figures, the production of home manufacture, are now almost wholly worn in Tennessee, instead of calicoes. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 9, 1863, p.  2, c. 1

Another Change of Rates.
Two Dollars for Three Months.

    Until further notice, the terms of this paper will be Two Dollars for three months.
    We are driven to this by the unprecedented rise in the price of paper last week.  On Monday it was 60 cents per pound--on Tuesday it advanced to one dollar!
    Our readers and the public will see that we are now charging less than half as much as we ought to.  Before the war, when we furnished the Watchman at $2, the paper on which it was printed cost 10 cents per pound.  It is now ten times that high.  A corresponding advance in our subscription would raise it to $20.
    We have not expected to make anything during the war.  The paper must, however, pay expenses.  This it will not do at less rates than the above. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 23, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
The Marietta Paper Mill, the largest in the State, has suspended for the want of hands, or is at least on short work, making cartridge paper for the Government.  The newspapers will be dried up generally in the State, unless other sources of supply can be opened. 

October 21, 1863--The Southern Banner, James A. Sledge, proprietor, 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 28, 1863--back to the Southern Watchman. p. 2, c. 3

'Coon Oil.

Will such of our friends as go 'coon hunting--or, rather, those of them who catch 'coons--do us the favor to save all the oil they can?  We will pay $5 or $6 per gallon for it.  As we need it for a very important purpose, we hope none of it will be suffered to run to waste. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 28, 1863, p. 3, c. 2
    A company of women, in Columbus, Ga., and vicinity, claiming to be the wives of soldiers, recently addressed an epistle to Gov. Brown, in which they represented their sufferings for want of food and clothing as being very intense, and threatening that in the event their wants were not relieved, they would organize themselves into a sort of mob of "seizing party," and take provisions and clothing wherever they could find them.  In reply, the Governor addressed the Justices of the Inferior Court of that county, enclosing the threatening epistle of the women, and requesting them to take such action in the premises as the court as might think proper. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 4, 1863, p. 1, c. 2
    Wooden Shoes.--The scarcity of leather make shoes the most expensive article of wearing apparel.  The manufacture of the old fashioned wooden "pattens," or sandals should be commenced.  They are much used by the peasantry of the European countries.  And certainly a wooden shoe is better than no shoe at all, in the winter. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 7, 1863, p. 4, c. 1

Obituary as is an Obituary.

                Mr. Editor:  Jem bangs, we are sorry tu stait, has deseized.  He departed this life last monday.  Jem was generally considered a good feller.  He died at the age of 33 years old.  He went 4th without ary struggle; and such is life.  Tu Day we are as pepper grass—mity smart—tu Morrer we are cut down like a cowcumber of the ground.  Jem kept a nice store, which his wife now wates on.  His vurchews was numerous to behold.  Menny is the thing we bot at his growcery, and we are happy to state to the admirin world, that he never cheeted, espeshurly in the wate of mackrel, which was nice ans smelt sweet, and h is survivin wife is the same wa.  We never knew him to put sand in his sugar, tho' he had a big sand bar in front of his house; nur water in his Lickers, tho' the Tennessee river run past his dore.  Piece to his remanes.

POETRY.

                                                he died in his bed,
                                               
a grate big buk he red,
                                               
a prare he lowly sed,
                                               
then turned over on 2 the bed,
                                               
and durned if he didn't die—ded!
               
He leves a wife, 8 children, a cow, 4 horses, a growcery stoe and other quadrupeds, to morn his loss—but in the spalen did langwidge ov the poit, his loss is there eternal gane. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 11, 1863, p. 3, c. 3

Attention, Ladies!

                Two young gentlemen of high moral character and steady habits, are desirous of opening a correspondence with two or more young ladies, in order to drive away the gloom and monotony attending camp life.
               
One of the gentlemen is a Captain, 20 years of age, blue eyes, light hair, fair complexion, and five feet ten inches high; the other a 1st Lieutenant, 25 years of age, black hair and eyes, fair complexion, and six feet high.  We can—and will, if necessary—furnish satisfactory references.
               
We will require any lady who may grant us, or either of us, the favor we ask, to give a description of her personal appearance, as to age, size, eyes, hair, &c., &c.
               
Address                                                                 Capt. Enfield or
                                                                                               
Lieut. Hope, 52d Ga. Reg't,
                                                                                                               
Stevenson's Division,
                                                                                                                               
Charleston, Tenn. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 11, 1863--[Summary:  "Minding the Gap" poem by Mollie E. Moore, of Texas] 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], November 25, 1863, p. 4, c. 1

How to Dye Wool Gray.

    In the course of some experiments by my wife last year, in regard to dying wool and cotton, it was ascertained that if wool be immersed in a decoction of the sliced fruit of the pomegranate, prepared in an iron vessel, a permanent gray color will be the result, which may be varied from the lightest drab to a deep black.  The lighter shades require no mordant, the black should be set with copperas.  The shade, of course, will vary with the changing proportion of fruit and water.  By this simple process the tedious labor of hand mixture is saved, while perfect uniformity and regularity of color is obtained.
    Cotton thread may also be dyed blue by soaking well in the juice of elderberries, washing in warm suds, and setting with copperas.  Previously to immersion in the warm suds, it is a royal purple.  Though not a fast color, it is as permanent as any of our indigenous dyes.--Mobile Reg. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 9, 1863, p. 4, c. 1
Receipt for Dyeing Brown.--Take red oak bark, sufficient to make four gallons of very strong dye, boil very strong then drain it; add two table spoonsful of blue stone, then dip your thread in the dye, then in strong lye; repeat it four times, then hang out and let it get half dry, and rinse in clear water.
Blue Dye.--Take one quarter of a pound of extract of logwood, put it in four gallons of water, boil one half an hour, add two table spoonsful of blue stone, put in your thread or cloth, boil one half hour more, take it out and let it air fifteen minutes; put back and wash out in warm suds, then rinse in clear water.
Black Dye.--Put a quarter of a pound of extract of logwood in three gallons of water, boil it thirty minutes, add two tablespoonsful of copperas, put in your thread, boil fifteen minutes, take out, wash in strong soap suds, then air and rinse in clear water.
Yellow Dye.--Take of each a lot of sassafras, swamp bay and butterfly root, put in four gallons of water, boil until strong, then strain and put in your thread or cloth, and boil it thirty minutes, take out and air fifteen minutes, put in a tablespoonful of burnt copperas and two of alum, and boil fifteen minutes, then rinse in clear water and let it dry.
    Five pounds of thread can be dyed in any of these.
    To Dye a Blue Color Without Indigo.--Make a strong dye of red oak bark, another of maple bark, and have in a third vessel of weak copperas water, and in a fourth vessel of weak lye.  Wet your cotton thoroughly in each vessel of dye and rinse it out in the order in which they are mentioned, having each fluid as hot as the hand can bear, repeating the process until the color is sufficiently deep.
    By making the thread a deep copperas color at first, and then going through the process, you can have a good black color. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 2, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
                                                                                                               
From the Southern Punch.

Epistle to the Ladies.
by "W. E. M.," of Gen. Lee's Army. 

Ye  Southern maids and ladies fair,
               
Of whatso'er degree,
A moment stop—a moment spare—
               
And listen unto me. 

The summer's gone, the frosts have come,
               
The winter draweth near,
And still they march to fife and drum—
               
Our armies!—do you hear? 

Give heed, then, to the yarn I spin,
               
Who says that it is coarse?
At your fair feet I lay the sin,
               
The thread of my discourse. 

To speak of shoes, it boots not here,
               
Our Q. M's wise and good;
Give cotton calf-skins twice a year,
               
With soles of cottonwood. 

Shoeless we meet the well shod foe,
               
And bootless him despise;
Sockless we watch, with bleeding toe,
               
And him sockdologize! 

Perchance our powder giveth out!
               
We fight them, then, with rocks;
With hungry craws we craw fish not—
               
But, Miss, we miss the socks. 

Few are the miseries that we lack,
               
And comforts seldom come;
What have I in my haversack?
               
And what have you at home? 

Fair ladies, then, if nothing loth,
               
Bring forth your spinning-wheels;
Knit not your brow—but knit to clothe
               
In bliss our blistered heels. 

Do not you take amiss, dear Miss,
               
The burden of my yarn;
Alas!  I know there's many a lass,
               
That doesn't care a darn. 

But you can aid me, if you will,
               
And Heaven will surely bless,
And Foote will vote to foot a bill
               
For succoring our distress. 

For all the socks the maids have made,
               
My thanks, for all the brave,
And honored be your pious trade,
               
The soldier's soul to save. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 30, 1863, p. 1, c. 1

Christmas.

                This time honored festival passed off quietly in our town.  There was a Military and Dress Ball at the Lumpkin House Christmas Eve where, we learn, the young folks enjoyed themselves finely.  We are indebted to the polite Managers for an invitation, and regret we were unable to "look in" a little while. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], January 20, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
    With the new year printing paper has gone up twenty-five cents per lb. higher than it was the latter part of last year.  It then sold for $1.00 per pound--it now costs $1.25! 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], April 20, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
Until further notice, our prices will be as follows:
Three months.....................$3.00
Six months......................... 6.00 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], May 18, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Starvation in the Mountains.

Little do the people at large dream of the sufferings of our population in the mountain counties.  With most of the agricultural labor withdrawn, (for there is little slave labor there) their corn crop greatly damaged by frost last September, and the country since that time eaten up by Confederate cavalry and damaged by Federal raids, is it to be wondered that what the women and children and old men made should now be exhausted?
    By letters from respectable citizens, and from conversations with reliable men from that section, who have visited this place to haul corn to the people, we learn that they are now actually suffering great privation--some of the best citizens having nothing but dry bread and others subsisting upon roots and weeds!  Their means for making a crop this year are very slender--their oxen being impressed for the army and their horses and mules perished for lack of food, as well as their milch cows and hogs!  Our informants do not pretend to say that all the domestic animals have perished or that all the people have been reduced to such straits, but inform us it is true of great numbers.
    What keeps back the corn appropriated for these people?  Wagons are daily going away empty, while the people are starving.  Until recently there has been large supplies of corn here for the upper counties.  What is keeping back the remainder of it? 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 8, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Lawrenceville Factory Burnt.

                We regret to learn that the very extensive cotton factory at Lawrenceville was consumed by fire on Monday of last week.  It was caused, we learn, by friction in the picking room.  It is not only a great loss to the stockholders, but also to the community at large. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
Destruction of Roswell.--We learn from a reliable source that all the factories at Roswell were burned on Thursday.  The enemy seemed to pay no attention to the protection demanded by the foreign citizen owners, and their own promise to protect the property.  Thus has been lost to our Confederacy a valuable property, estimated at the least calculation, at five millions of dollars valuation.  It cannot be replaced until the war is over, and is simply irreparable.--Atlanta Intelligencer. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 6, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
    The Yankees will keep the cotton and Woollen [sic] Mills [at Roswell] in operation.
    Capt. Clark brought down with him, as prisoner, the Yankee Capt. Austin, of the 8th Kansas Infantry, captured by his command near the Paper Mills, between Roswell and Marietta.
    Gen. Phillips' Paper Mill, at Roswell, was burned on Tuesday morning.  The General sent them word that "the mill belonged to a man who had fought them from the beginning of the war, and who would continue to fight them to the bitter end; that he had been taught from childhood to hate them as enemies to him and his, and that he would die hating them; that he did not ask any favor from them; and they might burn to their hearts' content."  These bold words of defiance, as a matter of course, did not have any influence in protecting the property.  It was dismantled completely before the proprietor retreated.  He remained in sight of the place until he saw the flames consume it.--Atlanta Intelligencer. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 4

Arkansas as it is.

Captain Hine, of this city, says the Lafayette Journal, has returned from Arkansas, where he has been for three months.  His description of the condition of things is gloomy.  No preparations have been made for raising a crop this year, and to all the other horrors of war absolute famine is to be added.  Crowds of ragged and woebegone people, whole families, men, women and children, besieged every steamboat for passage, willing to go in any direction to escape the desolation and misery of their own homes.  Many leave their families, cattle and household goods, to be appropriated to the first comer, anxious only to escape with life.  The country is overrun by predatory bands of guerrillas, who plunder, rob and kill, burn, sack and ravage, without reference to age, sex or opinions. . . . Arkansas never was a very inviting country, if half that has been said is true.  Now it has reached the ultima thule of anarchy and misery. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], July 13, 1864, p. 4, c. 2

A Rival of Molly Stark.

Every schoolboy knows the history of the revolutionary heroine, who tore up her flannel petticoat (the ladies will excuse us for spelling such a sacred word aloud) to make cartridges; but Molly Stark has her rival.  A few days ago a number of wounded soldiers arrived at Chester, and, as our noble women there always do, they bestowed upon them every attention, gave them food, rest and rebandaged their wounds.  It appears, however, that the bandages one day were exhausted before all the soldiers were supplied.  Whereupon, one of the ladies, with a combination, ingenuity, patriotism, impulse and generosity common to the gentler sex, stepped aside, loosened something which fell to the ground, lifted her pretty feet out of it, and then tearing it into slips, deliberately proceeded to replenish the supply of bandages required.
    It was one of those touching incidents which human nature can scarce help admiring under any circumstances; and we venture to remark that there was not an arm or limb bound by that tidy bit of embroidered linen, that didn't feel a "heap" better, from mere association if nothing else.--Columbia South Carolinian.

 SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], August 3, 1864, p. 1, c. 1

For the Confederate Union.

To Go, or Not to Go.


To go or not to go, that is the question;
Whether it pays best to suffer pestering
By idle girls and garrulous old women,
Or to take up arms against a host of Yankees,
And by opposing get killed.--To die, to sleep.
(Git cout) and in this sleep to say we "sink
To rest by all our country's wishes blest"
And life forever--(that's a consummation,
Just what I'm after.)  To march, to fight--
To fight!  Perchance to die, aye there's the rub!
Fer while I'm asleep who'd take care of Mary
And the babes--when Billy is in the low ground,
Who'd feed 'em, hey?   There's the respect
I have for *them* that makes life sweet;
For who would bear the bag to mill,
Plough Dobbin, cut the wheat, dig taters,
Kill hogs, and do all sorts of drudgery
If I am fool enough to get a Yankee
Bullet on my brain?  Who'd cry for me?
Would patriotism pay my debts, when dead?
But oh!  the dread of something after death--
That undiscovered fellow who'd court Mary,
And do my huggin'--that's agoney,
And makes me want to stay at home,
'Specially as I ain't mad with nobody.
Shells and bullets make cowards of us all,
And blam'd my skin if snortin' steeds
And pomp and circumstance of War,
Are to be compared with feather bed
And Mary by my side.                                        EXEMPT.              

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 7, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
Terms, One Dollar per month, strictly in advance.


SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], September 28, 1864, p. 3 c. 4

Dried Okra.

A liberal price will be paid for a quantity of dried okra.  Apply at This Office. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 26, 1864, p. 1, c. 2

A Home for Refugees.

                We learn through Gen. Ira R. Foster, of this State, and Mayor Collins of this city, that they have succeeded in procuring comfortable quarters for all those who have been made destitute by the war, at Dawson, Terrell county, in this State.  Every arrangement necessary to the well being of the unfortunate, has been perfected at that point, and it only remains for such as have not already availed themselves of the benevolent arrangement, to come forward and report themselves to Mayor Collins, of this city, who will provide them with transportation to this point. . . .--Macon Telegraph. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], October 26, 1864, p. 2, c. 2

Soldiers' Wayside Home.

A "Wayside Home" for our brave soldiers has been established at this place, at the Old college, and is under the management of Mr. E. D. Stone.
    The object of this institution is to furnish food and lodging to soldiers on their way to or from the army--many of whom are sick or wounded, and nearly all without money to pay their way.  Such an establishment at this point is actually necessary, as it is due to the brave defenders of the soil that they should be made comfortable wherever they go.
    It is proposed to sustain the "Home" here as similar institutions are sustained elsewhere, by voluntary contributions.  To this end, it is expected that every one who is able will contribute something.  To the people of the up country, whose sons, brothers, &c., will be the principal beneficiaries of this establishment, we feel we may confidently appeal for contributions.  No one need wait to send money.  Everything in the shape of food, both animal and vegetable, is needed.  Send bacon, beef, mutton, lard, butter, poultry, eggs, potatoes, dried fruit and everything eatable.  Send candles, tallow, soap and such other necessaries as you may have to spare.  Let those who live near enough, send firewood.  Let all send something.  If you cannot spare any of the articles necessary to keep up such an establishment, send money.
    We publish this week a list of contributions up to Monday morning last.  Contributions will be acknowledged from week to week. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], January 18, 1865, p. 2, c. 1

Our Market.

If there is any thing in this town to sell, in the shape of meat or breadstuffs, we would be pleased to learn where it is.  If our friends in the country ever expect to send any thing here--particularly corn, corn meal, syrup, potatoes, turnips, &c.--now is the time to do it!  There is also a great demand for provender of all kinds--hay, fodder, shucks.  Indeed every thing is in demand--even to fire wood.  Send on quickly, or many persons and animals must perish! 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], January 25, 1865, p. 1, c. 5
   
The Desolation of War.--A correspondent of the Indianapolis Journal paints the following picture of Northern Georgia:
    As you wind through the forest, ravine and open country from Resaca to Dalton, the utter loneliness, the want of human life, strikes one with a feeling of desolation.  The fences are gone, the houses are deserted, the bubbling spring on the road side has no happy child drinking or paddling in its water.  No sheep graze in the fields, no cattle browze [sic] in the woods, not even the crowing of a cock is heard.  The bee hive is deserted by its once busy tenants, and the ruined mill is still.  So startling is the utter silence, that even when the wild bird of the forest carols a note, you look around surprised that amid such loneliness any living being should be happy.  This is the result of war.  And should the rebels succeed, our homes will present a similar picture.
  
To Make Toilet Soap.--Take common country soap, cut it up in a plenty of water; as soon as it boils, throw in a handful of salt, and then strain through a cloth to free it from grit; do this two or three times, until the ley [lye] which settles at the bottom has lost its strength, then melt it without water, and scent it with some of the essential oils, or a cake or two of highly perfumed soap.  A little honey is a great improvement to it.  Pour it into cups or any other shaped mould to cool.  When properly made, this is far better for the skin than most of the soap we buy. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], January 25, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
We allude to these tomatoes for the purpose of giving our readers such directions as will enable them hereafter to keep this delicious vegetable all winter.  This, Mr. W. assures us, may be done very easily.  His plan is simply this:  When he sees that frost is at hand he pulls up his vines and hangs them up in a dry, warm cellar.  The fruit continues ripening all winter, and is just as fresh and good as ever grew in garden.  Don't forget to try this next year.

 SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], February 8, 1865, p. 4, c. 1
    Miss Emma Sansom.--Our readers doubtless remember this patriotic girl or better known as the "heroine of the present war," Miss Emma Sansom, who rode behind the invincible Forrest, and whose name has become so extensively known throughout the Confederate States.  We are informed that she is no longer Miss Emma Sansom, but Mrs. Emma Johnson.  She eloped with a disabled soldier by the name of Chris. Johnson some six or eight weeks ago--disabled by a gun shot.  Said Johnson is a member of the noted 10th Alabama Regiment.
    We wish them a long and happy life.--Ashville Vidette. 

SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], February 15, 1865, p. 3, c. 4
Salt, Thread, Nails, Hand Looms and a few Sugar Mills, to exchange for bacon, corn, wheat, and wood--all of which are now wanting to supply the families of our workmen.
                                                                               
R. Nickerson, Agent.
Feb.15                                                                    Athens Foundry and Machine Works.