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Office of Leadership and Service

These resources are extremely helpful if you are beginning to use Service Learning in a course, or simply if you are looking for ways to alter or expand your use of the pedagogy. Many of the books and articles are available online and linked below.

Why Use Service Learning?


Astin, A.W.,Vogelgesang, L.J., Ikeda, E.K., & Yee, J.A. (2000). How service learning affects students. Higher Education Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles.

Bowley, E., & Meeropool, J. (2003). Service-learning in higher education: Trends, research, and resources. Generator 21, 3, 12-16.

Driscoll, A., Holland. B., Gelmon, S., & Kerrigan, S. (1996). An assessment model for service-learning: Comprehensive case studies of impact on faculty, students, community and institution. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 3(1), 66-71.

Eyler, J. (2000). What do we most need to know about the impact of service-learning on student learning? Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 7, 11-17.

Eyler, J., Giles, Jr,. D.E., Stenson, C.M., & Gray, C.J. (2001). At a glance: What we know about the effects of service-learning on college students, faculty, institutions, and communities, 1993-2000: Third edition. Vanderbilt University.

Markus, G.B. (1993). Integrating community service and classroom instruction enhances learning: Results from an experiment. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15(4), 410-419.

Moely, B.E., McFarland, M., Miron, D., Mercer, S., Ilustre, V. (2002). Changes in college students' attitudes and intentions for civic involvement as a function of service-learning experiences. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 8(2), 18-26.

Seifer, S.D. (2002). NSLC fact sheet: The evidence base for service-learning. Scotts Valley, CA: National Service-Learning Clearinghouse.

Vogelgesang, L.J. & Astin, A.W. (2000). Comparing the effects of community service and service-learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 7, 25-34.


Billig, S.H. & Eyler, J. (Eds.). (2003). Deconstructing service-learning: Research exploring context, participation, and impacts. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Billig, S.H. & Furco, A. (Eds.). (1997). Service-learning: Through a multidisciplinary lens. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Billig, S.H. & Waterman, A.S. (2003). Studying service learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bringle, R.G., Philips, M.A., & Hudson, M. (2004). The measure of service learning: Research scales to assess student experiences. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Davidson, G., Billig, S.H., & Springer, N.C. (2006). Advancing knowledge in service learning: Research to transform the field (K.M. Casey, Ed.). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Eyler, J., & Giles Jr., D.E., (1997). The importance of program quality in service-learning. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), Service-learning: Applications from the research (pp. 57-76). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Eyler, J. & Giles, Jr., D.E. (1999). Where's the learning in service-learning? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Furco, A. & Billig, S.H. (2002). Service learning: The essence of the pedagogy. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Gelmon, S.B. & Billig, S.H. (2007). From passion to objectivity: International and cross-disciplinary perspectives on service-learning research. Charlotte: NC: Information Age Publishing.

Jacoby, B. & Associates (Ed.). (2003). Building partnerships for service-learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

O’Grady, C.R. (Ed.). (2000). Integrating service learning and multicultural education in colleges and universities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Root, S., Callahan, J., & Billig, S. (Eds.). (2005). Improving service learning practice: Research on models to enhance impacts. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Tonkin, H. (Ed.). (2004). Service-learning across cultures: Promise and achievement. New York, NY: The International Partnership for Service Learning and Leadership Press.

Ward, K. (2003). Faculty service roles and the scholarship of engagement. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Waterman, A.S. (Ed.). (1997). Service learning: Applications from the research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Welch, M. & Billig, S. (Eds.). (2004). New perspectives in service-learning: Research to advance the field. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Zlotkowski, E., Longo, N., and Williams, J. (Eds.) (2006). Students as colleagues: Expanding the circle of service-learning leadership. Providence, RI: Brown University Campus Compact.

Zlotkowski, E. (1998). Successful service learning programs. Jaffrey, NH: Anker Publishing Company, Inc.

Reflection & Service Learning


Ahmed, Z., Hutter L. & Plaut, J. (2005/2008). Reflection in higher education service learning. Scotts Valley, CA: Learn and Serve America’s National Service-Learning Clearinghouse.

Amulya, J. (2004). Guide to integrating reflection into field-based courses. Center for Reflective Community Practice, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT.

Ash, S.L., Clayton, P.H., & Moses, M.G. (2007). Schematic overview of the DEAL model for critical reflection. Teaching and Learning Through Critical Reflection: An Instructors' Guide. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

Ash, S.L., & Clayton, P.H. (2004). The articulated learning: An approach to guided reflection and assessment. Innovative Higher Education, 29(2).

Ash, S.L., Clayton, P.H., & Atkinson, M.P. (2005) Integrating reflection and assessment to capture and improve student learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 11(2), 49-60.

Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J.A. Reflection in service-learning: Making meaning of experience. Introduction to Service Learning Toolkit, Campus Compact, 113-119.

Campus Compact (2001). Using structured reflection to enhance service-learning.

Eyler, J. (2002). Reflection: Linking service and learning- Linking students and communities. Journal of Social Issues, 58(3), 517-534.

Falk, D. (1995). Preflection: A strategy for enhancing reflection. NSEE Quarterly, 13.

Hatcher, J.A., & Bringle, R.G. (1997). Reflections: Bridging the gap between service and learning. Journal of College Teaching, 45, 153-158.

Hatcher, J.A., Bringle, R.G., & Muthiah, R. (2004). Designing effective reflection: What matters to service-learning? Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 11(1), 38-46.

Patti, C. & Ash, S. (2005). Reflection as a key component in faculty development. On the Horizon, 13(3).

Reed, J. & Koliba, C. Facilitating reflection: A manual for leaders and educators.

RMC Research Corporation (2004). Connecting thinking and action: Ideas for service-learning reflection. Denver CO: RMC.

Welch, M. (1999). ABCs of reflection: A template for students and instructors to implement written reflection in service learning. NSEE Quarterly, 25(2), 23-25.

Wolcott, S.K., & Lynch, C.L. (2000). The reflective judgment model: Implications for service-learning and reflection.


England, A.,& Spence, J. (1999). Reflection: A guide to effective service learning. Linking learning with life. Clemson, SC: National Dropout Prevention Center, 1999.

Eyler, J., & Giles, D.E. (1996). A practitioner's guide to reflection in service-learning. Nashville: Vanderbilt University, 1996.

Hatcher, J.A., & Bringle, R.G. (1996). Reflection activities for the college classroom. Indianapolis, IN: IUPUI.

Knox, A., Wangaard, D.B., & Michaelson, S.R. (2003). Service-learning planning and reflection: A step-by-step guide. Chapel Hill, NC: Character Development Group.

Silcox, H.C. (1995). Reflection: The key to service learning. New York: National Helpers Network.

Community-Based Research

Strand, K., Cutforth, N., Stoecker, R., Marullo, S., Donohue, P. (2003). Community-based research and higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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